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In a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "only 80 percent of the women compared with 91 percent of the men have access to health insurance through their employer. However,...the difference in the percentages of older men and women employees who have access to health...

In a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "only 80 percent of the women compared with 91 percent of the men have access to health insurance through their employer. However,...the difference in the percentages of older men and women employees who have access to health insurance 'from any source' (such as being covered by a spouse’s health insurance plan) is not statistically significant (97 percent for men and 94 percent for women)." (p. 8)


Bond, J. T., Galinsky, E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce (Research Highlight No. 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work / Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2013 analysis of National Health Interview Survey data, "among adults aged 18-44 years, women were nearly twice as likely as men (15.7% versus 8.7%) to often feel very tired or exhausted. In addition, a difference was observed among women and men aged 45-64 years (15.9% versus 12.2%),...

According to a 2013 analysis of National Health Interview Survey data, "among adults aged 18-44 years, women were nearly twice as likely as men (15.7% versus 8.7%) to often feel very tired or exhausted. In addition, a difference was observed among women and men aged 45-64 years (15.9% versus 12.2%), but no differences by sex were observed among persons aged 64-74 years or those aged 75+ years."

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). QuickStats: Percentage of adults who often felt very tired or exhausted in the past 3 months, by sex and age group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2010-2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(14), 275. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6214a5.htm?s_cid=mm6214a5_e

Data come from the National Health Interview Survey, 2010 Quality of Life and 2011 Functioning and Disability supplements. Data were from a subset of the adults randomly selected for the Sample Adult Component of the National Health Interview Survey questionnaire

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the American Time Use Survey, "of the 39.6 million eldercare providers in the civilian noninstitutional population age 15 and over, the majority (56 percent) were women."

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the American Time Use Survey, "of the 39.6 million eldercare providers in the civilian noninstitutional population age 15 and over, the majority (56 percent) were women."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Eldercare in 2011 and 2012. TED: The editor's desk . Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2013/ted_20130920.htm

These data are from the American Time Use Survey. To learn more, see "Unpaid Eldercare in the United States -- 2011-2012 Data from the American Time Use Survey" (HTML) (PDF), news release USDL-13-1886.

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the American Time Use Survey, during the 2011-2012 period, 17.4 percent of women provided eldercare, compared with 14.7 percent of men.

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the American Time Use Survey, during the 2011-2012 period, 17.4 percent of women provided eldercare, compared with 14.7 percent of men.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Eldercare in 2011 and 2012. TED: The editor's desk . Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2013/ted_20130920.htm

These data are from the American Time Use Survey. To learn more, see "Unpaid Eldercare in the United States-2011--2012 Data from the American Time Use Survey" (HTML) (PDF), news release USDL-13-1886.

In 1985, only 15% of men between 60 and 74 had a college degree. That fraction has since more than doubled, reaching 32%. Even more dramatic is the decline in the share of older men who lack a high school diploma. In 1985, more than 40% of men age 60-74 had not finished high school. By 2011, only 13%...

In 1985, only 15% of men between 60 and 74 had a college degree. That fraction has since more than doubled, reaching 32%. Even more dramatic is the decline in the share of older men who lack a high school diploma. In 1985, more than 40% of men age 60-74 had not finished high school. By 2011, only 13% lacked a high school diploma. (fig. 1, p. 2)

Burtless, G. (2013). Can educational attainment explain the rise in labor force participation at older ages? (Issue Brief No. 13-13). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/IB_13-13.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the 1985-2011 Current Population Survey.

According to a 2013 analysis of CPS data, "between 1979 and 2012, women's-to-men's earnings ratios rose for most age groups. Among 25 to 34-year-olds, for example, the ratio increased from 68 percent in 1979 to 90 percent in 2012. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio for 45 to 54-year-olds increased...

According to a 2013 analysis of CPS data, "between 1979 and 2012, women's-to-men's earnings ratios rose for most age groups. Among 25 to 34-year-olds, for example, the ratio increased from 68 percent in 1979 to 90 percent in 2012. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio for 45 to 54-year-olds increased from 57 percent to 75 percent." (p. 2)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Highlights of Women's earnings in 2012. (Report No. 1045). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf

This report presents data highlights and statistical tables of earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

According to a 2013 analysis of CPS data, "median weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64 in 2012, with little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($747), 45- to 54-year-olds ($746), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($766). Among men, workers who were age 45 to 64 had the highest earnings,...

According to a 2013 analysis of CPS data, "median weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64 in 2012, with little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($747), 45- to 54-year-olds ($746), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($766). Among men, workers who were age 45 to 64 had the highest earnings, with 45- to 54-year-olds ($994) making about the same as 55- to 64-year-olds ($1,005). Young women and men age 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($416 and $468, respectively)". (p. 1)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Highlights of Women's earnings in 2012. (Report No. 1045). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf

This report presents data highlights and statistical tables of earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

According to a 2013 analysis of the Current Population Survey, "in 2012 women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings of $691."

According to a 2013 analysis of the Current Population Survey, "in 2012 women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings of $691."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Women's earnings, 1979-2012 : The Editor's desk. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2013/ted_20131104.htm

This analysis is based on data from the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2014 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, in 2013, among women aged 65+, 13.5% were employed, 6.3% were unemployed, and the rest (80.2%) were not in the labor force. In comparison, the rates for men aged 55-64 were 22.1% employed, 6.2% unemployed, and the rest (71.7%...

According to a 2014 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, in 2013, among women aged 65+, 13.5% were employed, 6.3% were unemployed, and the rest (80.2%) were not in the labor force. In comparison, the rates for men aged 55-64 were 22.1% employed, 6.2% unemployed, and the rest (71.7% ) were not in the labor force. (Table 1, p. 7)

Women in the labor force: A databook 2013. (2014). (BLS Reports No. 1049). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook-2013.pdf

This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

According to a 2014 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, in 2013, among women aged 55-64 years of age, 56.1% were employed, 5.6% unemployed, and the rest (38.3%) not in the labor force. In comparison, the labor force participation rates for men aged 55-64 were 69.9% employed, 6.3%...

According to a 2014 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, in 2013, among women aged 55-64 years of age, 56.1% were employed, 5.6% unemployed, and the rest (38.3%) not in the labor force. In comparison, the labor force participation rates for men aged 55-64 were 69.9% employed, 6.3% unemployed, and 23.8% not in the labor force. (Table 1, p. 7)

Women in the labor force: A databook 2013. (2014). (BLS Reports No. 1049). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook-2013.pdf

This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "between 1979 and 2012 women's-to-men's earnings ratios rose for most age groups. Among 25 to 34 year olds, the ratio increased from 68% in 1979 to 90% in 2012. Among 45 to 54 year olds the ratio increased from 57% to 75%," while for those...

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "between 1979 and 2012 women's-to-men's earnings ratios rose for most age groups. Among 25 to 34 year olds, the ratio increased from 68% in 1979 to 90% in 2012. Among 45 to 54 year olds the ratio increased from 57% to 75%," while for those aged 55-65, the ratio increased from 60.6% to 76.2%"

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Highlights of Women’s earnings in 2012. (Report No. 1045). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf

This analysis is based on data from the Current Population Survey.

According to the 2013 Merrill Lynch retirement survey, "nearly three out of five retirees say they retired earlier than they expected -- 58% of women, 56% of men. Health problems are actually the top reason for early retirement, with 34% reporting this, compared to 27% having sufficient financial...

According to the 2013 Merrill Lynch retirement survey, "nearly three out of five retirees say they retired earlier than they expected -- 58% of women, 56% of men. Health problems are actually the top reason for early retirement, with 34% reporting this, compared to 27% having sufficient financial resources to retire. 24% report losing their jobs as the reason for early retirement, while 16% want to spend more time with family, and 10% needing to look after a family member." (FIG 10, p. 8).

Merrill Lynch. (2013). Americans' perspectives on new retirement realities and the longevity bonus. U. S.: Merrill Lynch. Retrieved from http://www.wealthmanagement.ml.com/publish/content/application/pdf/GWMOL/AR111544.pdf

This report is based on a national public opinion poll conducted online by Harris Interactive. The Merrill Lynch survey was completed from December 2012 to January 2013, in partnership with Age Wave, and included more than 6,300 respondents age 45 and older. Findings are based on 3,002 responses from the general population.

According to a 2012 report based on Current Population Survey data, "in 2010, 26.3 percent of older women relied on Social Security for 90 percent or more of their family income, compared to 20.2 percent of older men." (p. 5)

According to a 2012 report based on Current Population Survey data, "in 2010, 26.3 percent of older women relied on Social Security for 90 percent or more of their family income, compared to 20.2 percent of older men." (p. 5)

Caldera, S. (2012). Social security: A key retirement resource for women (Fact Sheet No. 251). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/econ_sec/2012/Social-Security-Key-Retirement-Resource-for-Women-fs-251-AARP-ppi-econ-sec.pdf

This fact sheet uses 2010 beneficiary data from the Social Security Administration to describe women's Social Security benefits and income data from the March 2011 supplement of the Current Population Survey to describe women's reliance on Social Security.

According to a 2012 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "median weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64 in 2011, with little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($734), 45- to 54-year-olds ($744), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($749). Among men, those age 45 to 64 had the...

According to a 2012 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "median weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64 in 2011, with little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($734), 45- to 54-year-olds ($744), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($749). Among men, those age 45 to 64 had the highest earnings, with 45- to 54-year-olds ($979) having made about the same as 55- to 64-year-olds ($997). Young women and men age 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($421 and $455, respectively). (p. 1)

Bureaut of Labor Statistics. (2012). Highlights of women's earnings in 2011. (Report No. 1038). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2011.pdf

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Information on earnings is collected from one-fourth of the CPS sample each month.

According to a 2012 AARP survey of older Americans' concern about their financial well-being during and following the recent recession, "boomer women were one-third more likely than boomer men to express a high degree of financial concern (30.1 percent vs. 22.3 percent)." (p. 2)

According to a 2012 AARP survey of older Americans' concern about their financial well-being during and following the recent recession, "boomer women were one-third more likely than boomer men to express a high degree of financial concern (30.1 percent vs. 22.3 percent)." (p. 2)

Rix, S. (2012). Boomer women feeling more financially insecure than men (Fact Sheet No. 269). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/econ_sec/2012/boomer-women-feeling-financially-insecure-AARP-ppi-econ-sec.pdf

This Fact Sheet reports on the financial concerns of nearly 4,000 boomer men and women included in an AARP Public Policy Institute survey of how the aged 50-plus population fared in the Great Recession.

According to a 2012 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "between 1979 and 2011, the earnings gap between women and men narrowed for most age groups. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio among 25- to 34-year-olds grew from 68 percent in 1979 to 92 percent in 2011, for example, and the ratio for...

According to a 2012 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "between 1979 and 2011, the earnings gap between women and men narrowed for most age groups. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio among 25- to 34-year-olds grew from 68 percent in 1979 to 92 percent in 2011, for example, and the ratio for 45- to 54-year-olds increased from 57 percent to 76 percent."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Women's earnings, 1979-2011: The Editor's desk. Retrieved November 26, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2012/ted_20121123.htm

These data are from the Current Population Survey. Earnings data in this article are median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers.

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "in 2011, 27 percent of employed women usually worked part time” that is, fewer than 35 hours per week. In comparison, "11 percent of employed men usually worked part time". (p. 2)

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "in 2011, 27 percent of employed women usually worked part time” that is, fewer than 35 hours per week. In comparison, "11 percent of employed men usually worked part time". (p. 2)

Women in the labor force: A databook 2012. (2013). (BLS Reports No. 1040). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook-2012.pdf

This report presents historical and current labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS)

According to a 2011 analysis from the Urban Institute, "displaced men age 50 to 61 are 39 percent less likely to become reemployed each month than otherwise identical men age 25 to 34, and men age 62 or older are 51 percent less likely. Displaced women are 18 percent less likely to find a new job at...

According to a 2011 analysis from the Urban Institute, "displaced men age 50 to 61 are 39 percent less likely to become reemployed each month than otherwise identical men age 25 to 34, and men age 62 or older are 51 percent less likely. Displaced women are 18 percent less likely to find a new job at age 50 to 61 than at age 25 to 34 (when personal and job characteristics are held constant), and 50 percent less likely at age 62 or older." (p. vii)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2011). Age differences in job loss, job search, and reemployment. (Program on Retirement Policy Discussion Paper No. 11-01). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412284-Age-Differences.pdf

Data come primarily from the 1996, 2001, and 2004 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and from the March, April, May, and June 2010 Current Population Surveys.

According to a 2011 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "in 2009, 59.2 percent of women were in the labor force: of 122 million women in the United States, 72 million were classified as either employed or unemployed. The percentage of women in the labor force has been relatively stable over...

According to a 2011 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "in 2009, 59.2 percent of women were in the labor force: of 122 million women in the United States, 72 million were classified as either employed or unemployed. The percentage of women in the labor force has been relatively stable over the past several years. Women's labor force participation rate peaked at 60 percent in 1999."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Women in the labor force, 1970-2009. TED: The editor's desk. Retrieved January 10, 2011, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2011/ted_20110105.htm

These data are from the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2011 analysis of Census Bureau data, "the overall gain in labor-force participation among workers age 55 and older was primarily driven by the increases in female labor-force participation rates, as the male labor-force participation rates of that age group were lower in 2010 [46.4%]...

According to a 2011 analysis of Census Bureau data, "the overall gain in labor-force participation among workers age 55 and older was primarily driven by the increases in female labor-force participation rates, as the male labor-force participation rates of that age group were lower in 2010 [46.4%] than they were in 1975 [49.4%]. In contrast, among women aged 55 and older, the rates were 35.1% in 2010, compared to 23.1% in 1975. (fig. 1, p. 9)

Copeland, C. (2011). Labor-force participation rates of the population age 55 and older: What did the recession do to the trends? EBRI Notes, 32(2), 8-16. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_02_Feb-11.HCS_Part-Rts.pdf

This article examines recent U.S. Census Bureau data on labor-force participation among Americans age 55 and older, using annualized data on labor-force participation from the Current Population Survey (CPS), available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics website. and data from the March Supplement to the CPS.

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "the percentages of those assuming the use of FWA would not be supported [by their managers] were quite high: 52% of those not using flex-time, 79% of those not telecommuting, and 71% of those not using compressed work weeks." (p. 29)

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "the percentages of those assuming the use of FWA would not be supported [by their managers] were quite high: 52% of those not using flex-time, 79% of those not telecommuting, and 71% of those not using compressed work weeks." (p. 29)

Harrington, B., Van Deusen, F. R., & Humberd, B. K. (2011). The new dad: Caring, committed and conflicted. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for Work & Family. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

Findings are based on a national survey of 963 working fathers with at least one child age 18 or younger, who work for one of four Fortune 500 companies that agreed to administer the study within their organizations. The four companies are all large and have revenues ranging from $20-50 billion per year.60% of respondents were managers, 37% salaried professionals, and only 3% were paid hourly. All worked full-time.

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "more than three quarters of fathers reported using flex-time on either a formal or informal basis, 57% worked from home at least some part of their time, and 27% utilized compressed workweeks. Over 80% of those who worked from home or used flex-time did...

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "more than three quarters of fathers reported using flex-time on either a formal or informal basis, 57% worked from home at least some part of their time, and 27% utilized compressed workweeks. Over 80% of those who worked from home or used flex-time did so on an informal basis." (p. 28-29)

Harrington, B., Van Deusen, F. R., & Humberd, B. K. (2011). The new dad: Caring, committed and conflicted. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for Work & Family. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

Findings are based on a national survey of 963 working fathers with at least one child age 18 or younger, who work for one of four Fortune 500 companies that agreed to administer the study within their organizations. The four companies are all large and have revenues ranging from $20-50 billion per year.60% of respondents were managers, 37% salaried professionals, and only 3% were paid hourly. All worked full-time.

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "94% of respondents agreed/strongly agreed [with the statement] 'If I were considering taking a new job, I would consider how much that job would interfere with my ability to care for my children', with fathers under 40 even more committed to this than those...

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "94% of respondents agreed/strongly agreed [with the statement] 'If I were considering taking a new job, I would consider how much that job would interfere with my ability to care for my children', with fathers under 40 even more committed to this than those 40 and above. Less than 2% disagreed with this statement overall." (p. 16)

Harrington, B., Van Deusen, F. R., & Humberd, B. K. (2011). The new dad: Caring, committed and conflicted. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for Work & Family. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

Findings are based on a national survey of 963 working fathers with at least one child age 18 or younger, who work for one of four Fortune 500 companies that agreed to administer the study within their organizations. The four companies are all large and have revenues ranging from $20-50 billion per year.60% of respondents were managers, 37% salaried professionals, and only 3% were paid hourly. All worked full-time.

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "only 6% of fathers reported that they negotiated a formal flexible work arrangement after the birth of their children" (p. 15)

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "only 6% of fathers reported that they negotiated a formal flexible work arrangement after the birth of their children" (p. 15)

Harrington, B., Van Deusen, F. R., & Humberd, B. K. (2011). The new dad: Caring, committed and conflicted. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for Work & Family. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

Findings are based on a national survey of 963 working fathers with at least one child age 18 or younger, who work for one of four Fortune 500 companies that agreed to administer the study within their organizations. The four companies are all large and have revenues ranging from $20-50 billion per year.60% of respondents were managers, 37% salaried professionals, and only 3% were paid hourly. All worked full-time.

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "more than three-quarters of our sample took off one week or less and 16% did not take any time off at all following the birth of their most recent child. Over 92% of respondents who took time off reported having a positive experience in that time with their...

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "more than three-quarters of our sample took off one week or less and 16% did not take any time off at all following the birth of their most recent child. Over 92% of respondents who took time off reported having a positive experience in that time with their children. More than 75% of the fathers stated that they would like to have had more time off with their new children." (p. 15)

Harrington, B., Van Deusen, F. R., & Humberd, B. K. (2011). The new dad: Caring, committed and conflicted. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for Work & Family. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

Findings are based on a national survey of 963 working fathers with at least one child age 18 or younger, who work for one of four Fortune 500 companies that agreed to administer the study within their organizations. The four companies are all large and have revenues ranging from $20-50 billion per year.60% of respondents were managers, 37% salaried professionals, and only 3% were paid hourly. All worked full-time.

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "a full 97% of the sample listed job security as ranging between important and extremely important with nearly 50% listing it as extremely important." (p. 11)

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "a full 97% of the sample listed job security as ranging between important and extremely important with nearly 50% listing it as extremely important." (p. 11)

Harrington, B., Van Deusen, F. R., & Humberd, B. K. (2011). The new dad: Caring, committed and conflicted. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for Work & Family. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

Findings are based on a national survey of 963 working fathers with at least one child age 18 or younger, who work for one of four Fortune 500 companies that agreed to administer the study within their organizations. The four companies are all large and have revenues ranging from $20-50 billion per year.60% of respondents were managers, 37% salaried professionals, and only 3% were paid hourly. All worked full-time.

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "53% agreed/strongly agreed they were constantly working against the pressure of time." However, "87% agreed/strongly agreed that they were treated with respect in their workplace, and 81% felt they were really a part of the group that they work with." (p....

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "53% agreed/strongly agreed they were constantly working against the pressure of time." However, "87% agreed/strongly agreed that they were treated with respect in their workplace, and 81% felt they were really a part of the group that they work with." (p. 8)

Harrington, B., Van Deusen, F. R., & Humberd, B. K. (2011). The new dad: Caring, committed and conflicted. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for Work & Family. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

Findings are based on a national survey of 963 working fathers with at least one child age 18 or younger, who work for one of four Fortune 500 companies that agreed to administer the study within their organizations. The four companies are all large and have revenues ranging from $20-50 billion per year.60% of respondents were managers, 37% salaried professionals, and only 3% were paid hourly. All worked full-time.

According to a 2011 global survey by WFD Consulting, 25% of respondants in the developed countries agreed with with the statement "men who are highly committed to their personal/family lives cannot be highly committed to their work," while 26% agreed with the statement as it was applied to women. (table...

According to a 2011 global survey by WFD Consulting, 25% of respondants in the developed countries agreed with with the statement "men who are highly committed to their personal/family lives cannot be highly committed to their work," while 26% agreed with the statement as it was applied to women. (table 4, p. 12)

Linkow, P., Civian, J. T., & Lingle, K. M. (2011). Men and work-life integration: A global study. Waltham, MA: WFD Consulting.

WFD Consulting designed a questionnaire that was fielded by a global market research firm to 2,312 employees in six countries: Brazil, China, India, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Data were gathered in November and December 2010. Respondents worked in large (500-plus employees) for-profit organizations. The sample was balanced by gender and age.

According to a 2011 global survey by WFD Consulting, 23% of men reported that "finding time to spend with family" was a top work-life challenge, compared to 19% of women. Other top challenges included "financial stress" (23% of men and 24% of women) and "finding time for personal hobbies and self-development"...

According to a 2011 global survey by WFD Consulting, 23% of men reported that "finding time to spend with family" was a top work-life challenge, compared to 19% of women. Other top challenges included "financial stress" (23% of men and 24% of women) and "finding time for personal hobbies and self-development" (23% of men and 19% of women). (table 2, p. 8)

Linkow, P., Civian, J. T., & Lingle, K. M. (2011). Men and work-life integration: A global study. Waltham, MA: WFD Consulting.

WFD Consulting designed a questionnaire that was fielded by a global market research firm to 2,312 employees in six countries: Brazil, China, India, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Data were gathered in November and December 2010. Respondents worked in large (500-plus employees) for-profit organizations. The sample was balanced by gender and age.

According to a 2011 report on the American Time Use Survey, "in 2010, on the days that they worked, 24 percent of employed persons did some or all of their work at home, and 83 percent did some or all of their work at their workplace. Men and women were about equally likely to do some or all of their...

According to a 2011 report on the American Time Use Survey, "in 2010, on the days that they worked, 24 percent of employed persons did some or all of their work at home, and 83 percent did some or all of their work at their workplace. Men and women were about equally likely to do some or all of their work at home in 2010 -- 22.9 percent of employed men compared with 24.5 percent of employed women."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Work at home and in the workplace, 2010. TED: The editor's desk. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2011/ted_20110624.htm

These data are from the American Time Use Survey, 2010 results, published in 2011 at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/atus.nr0.htm

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, "the proportion of women aged 62 or older who are receiving benefits as dependents (that is, on the basis of their husbands' earnings record only) has been declining -- from 57% in 1960 to 26% in 2010. At the same time, the proportion...

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, "the proportion of women aged 62 or older who are receiving benefits as dependents (that is, on the basis of their husbands' earnings record only) has been declining -- from 57% in 1960 to 26% in 2010. At the same time, the proportion of women with dual entitlement (that is, paid on the basis of both their own earnings records and those of their husbands) has been increasing -- from 5% in 1960 to 28% in 2010." (p. 21)

Social Security Administration. (2011). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2011. (SSA Publication No. 13-11785). Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2011/fast_facts11.pdf

Most of the data come from the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, which contains more than 240 detailed tables. The information on the income of the aged is from the data series Income of the Population 55 or Older.

According to a 2011 analysis of Census data, "in total for those at or over age 55, a higher percentage of men are in the labor force (46.4 percent) than women (36.4 percent). While this is a slight reduction for men since 1975 (when almost --49.4 percent -- were in the work force), it is a record high...

According to a 2011 analysis of Census data, "in total for those at or over age 55, a higher percentage of men are in the labor force (46.4 percent) than women (36.4 percent). While this is a slight reduction for men since 1975 (when almost --49.4 percent -- were in the work force), it is a record high for women." (p. 1)

Blakely, S. (2011). Older workers, who's working? (Fast Facts No. 208). Washington, DC: EBRI. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/FFE.208.2Aug11.LbrPart-1.pdf

These and other data come from the nonprofit Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI), based on U.S. Census Bureau reports and published in the February EBRI Notes

According to a 2011 analysis of SIPP panel data from 1991-2004, "compared with their counterparts ages 25 to 34, displaced men ages 50 to 61 are 39 percent less likely to become reemployed each month and displaced women ages 50 to 61 are 18 percent less likely." (p. 1)

According to a 2011 analysis of SIPP panel data from 1991-2004, "compared with their counterparts ages 25 to 34, displaced men ages 50 to 61 are 39 percent less likely to become reemployed each month and displaced women ages 50 to 61 are 18 percent less likely." (p. 1)

Johnson, R., & Mommaerts, C. (2011). Age differences in job displacement, job search, and reemployment. (Working Papers No. 2011-3). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/working_papers/age_differences_in_job_displacement_job_search_and_reemployment.html

This analysis uses longitudinal household data from the 1996, 2001, and 2004 SIPP panels from the U.S. Census Bureau to compare job loss and reemployment for older and younger workers.

According to a 2010 Metlife report, "among female employees ages 50 and older, 17% of caregivers reported fair or poor health compared to 9% of non-caregivers." (p. 5)

According to a 2010 Metlife report, "among female employees ages 50 and older, 17% of caregivers reported fair or poor health compared to 9% of non-caregivers." (p. 5)

MetLife. (2010). MetLife study of working caregivers and employer health care costs: New insights and innovations for reducing health care costs for employers. New York, NY: MetLife. Retrieved from http://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2010/mmi-working-caregivers-employers-health-care-costs.pdf

This report is based on a case-study analysis of anonymous aggregate responses from 17,097 U.S. employees of a major multi-national manufacturing corporation who completed health risk assessment (HRA) questionnaires. Nearly 12% of these employees reported caregiving for an older person.

According to a 2010 analysis of BLS data, "the male labor-force participation rates of those ages 55-59 and 60-64 were lower in 2008 than they were in 1975." The 1975 rate for males aged 55-59 was 84.4%, compared with 78.8% in 2008. For males aged 60-64, the rates were 65.5% in 1975 and 59.9% in 2008,...

According to a 2010 analysis of BLS data, "the male labor-force participation rates of those ages 55-59 and 60-64 were lower in 2008 than they were in 1975." The 1975 rate for males aged 55-59 was 84.4%, compared with 78.8% in 2008. For males aged 60-64, the rates were 65.5% in 1975 and 59.9% in 2008, while for males 65-69, the rates were 31.7% in 1975 and 35.6% in 2008. "In contrast to males, female labor-force participation rates for those ages 55-59 and 60-64 increased sharply from 1975-2008." The 1975 rate for females ages 55-59 was 47.9 percent, compared with 67.7 percent in 2008. The older female age groups also had an upward trend, but not as sharply as those for the females ages 55-64. " (figs. 3 + 4, p. 12)

Copeland, C. (2010). Labor force participation rates: The population age 55 and older, 2008. EBRI Notes, 31(2), 10-16. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_02-Feb10.LF-Prtcp.pdf

This article examines recent U.S. Census Bureau data on labor-force participation among Americans age 55 and older, which includes both the near elderly (ages 55-64) and the elderly (64 and above), using annualized data on labor-force participation from the Current Population Survey (available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site) and data from the March 2008 Current Population Survey (CPS).

According to a 2010 AARP analysis of BLS data, "in February, 4.5 percent of workers aged 55 and older held more than one job. Older women were somewhat more likely than older men to be multiple jobholders in February: 4.9 percent of women vs. 4.1 percent of men." (p. 4)

According to a 2010 AARP analysis of BLS data, "in February, 4.5 percent of workers aged 55 and older held more than one job. Older women were somewhat more likely than older men to be multiple jobholders in February: 4.9 percent of women vs. 4.1 percent of men." (p. 4)

Rix, S. E. (2010). The employment situation, February 2010: Unemployment rate for older workers increases again (Fact Sheet No. 176). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/ppi/econ-sec/fs176-employment.pdf

Statistics in this Fact Sheet are from U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, The Employment Situation--February 2010; tables in BLS's Employment and Earnings, January 2008 and March 2010; and BLSs Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey, available at http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/ outside.jsp?survey=ln.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "about half of unemployed women age 55 to 61 and about two-thirds of those age 62 to 64 spent more than six months out of work in December 2009." (p. 12-13)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "about half of unemployed women age 55 to 61 and about two-thirds of those age 62 to 64 spent more than six months out of work in December 2009." (p. 12-13)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "more than two-fifths of out-of-work men age 62 to 69 in 2009 were unemployed for more than six months, compared with just less than a third of out-of-work men age 35 to 44. In December 2009, nearly half (48.8 percent) of unemployed men age 55 to 61 were out...

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "more than two-fifths of out-of-work men age 62 to 69 in 2009 were unemployed for more than six months, compared with just less than a third of out-of-work men age 35 to 44. In December 2009, nearly half (48.8 percent) of unemployed men age 55 to 61 were out of work for more than six months." (p. 12)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "about 10 percent of female workers age 55 to 64 without high school diplomas were unemployed last year, compared with about 5 percent of their counterparts with college degrees." (p. 10)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "about 10 percent of female workers age 55 to 64 without high school diplomas were unemployed last year, compared with about 5 percent of their counterparts with college degrees." (p. 10)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "between 2007 and 2009, real median weekly earnings increased about 11 percent for men age 65 and older employed full time and 9 percent for their female counterparts. Real earnings growth was flat for men age 55 to 64 and reached 3.5 percent for women age...

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "between 2007 and 2009, real median weekly earnings increased about 11 percent for men age 65 and older employed full time and 9 percent for their female counterparts. Real earnings growth was flat for men age 55 to 64 and reached 3.5 percent for women age 55 to 64." (p. 20)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "real earnings for full-time workers of all ages grew modestly between 2007 and 2009. Expressed in constant 2009 dollars (as measured by the consumer price index), median usual weekly earnings increased 3.3 percent (from $793 to $819) for men and 3.5 percent...

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "real earnings for full-time workers of all ages grew modestly between 2007 and 2009. Expressed in constant 2009 dollars (as measured by the consumer price index), median usual weekly earnings increased 3.3 percent (from $793 to $819) for men and 3.5 percent (from $635 to $657) for women." (p. 19)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "older women's labor force participation increased between 2007 and 2009, growing 5 percent at age 62 to 64, 4 percent at ages 65 to 69, 7 percent at age 70 to 74, and 10 percent at age 75 and older. (p, 14)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "older women's labor force participation increased between 2007 and 2009, growing 5 percent at age 62 to 64, 4 percent at ages 65 to 69, 7 percent at age 70 to 74, and 10 percent at age 75 and older. (p, 14)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "in 2009, median full-time weekly earnings for men age 65 and older were 18 percent lower than median earnings for men age 45 to 54. For women, full-time workers age 65 and older earned 15 percent less than their counterparts age 45 to 54." (p. 21)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "in 2009, median full-time weekly earnings for men age 65 and older were 18 percent lower than median earnings for men age 45 to 54. For women, full-time workers age 65 and older earned 15 percent less than their counterparts age 45 to 54." (p. 21)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "in 2009, men accounted for 88 percent of older workers in construction, 86 percent in mining, and 70 percent in manufacturing...Women made up about three-fourths of older adults working in health and two-thirds of those working in education." (p. 8)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "in 2009, men accounted for 88 percent of older workers in construction, 86 percent in mining, and 70 percent in manufacturing...Women made up about three-fourths of older adults working in health and two-thirds of those working in education." (p. 8)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 report from MetLife and the American Society on Aging, although "more than half (51%) of the comparison group and 45% of the LGBT respondents saying they would like to retire before age 65....only 23% of the general population and 22% of the LGBT population expect to retire before...

According to a 2010 report from MetLife and the American Society on Aging, although "more than half (51%) of the comparison group and 45% of the LGBT respondents saying they would like to retire before age 65....only 23% of the general population and 22% of the LGBT population expect to retire before age 65, and 40% (general population) to 48% (LGBT sample) think they would be at least 70 before they can retire." (p. 6)

MetLife Mature Market Institute and The American Society on Aging. (2010). Still out, still aging: The MetLife study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender baby boomers. Westport, CT: The MetLife Mature Market Institute and The American Society on Aging. Retrieved from http://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2010/mmi-still-out-still-aging.pdf

Harris Interactive collected survey responses from 1,201 individuals aged 45-64 who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender (LGBT) from Harris Interactive's GLBT Panel. The general population sample included responses from 1,206 individuals of the same age from the Harris Poll Online Panel. Surveys were conducted online between December 10-21, 2009.

According to a 2010 report from PHI, "in 2008, 22 percent of direct-care workers were age 55 and older compared to 18 percent of female workers in the civilian workforce...Roughly a fifth of direct-care workers were aged 35-44 compared to 22.4 percent of women in the workforce overall. Older workers...

According to a 2010 report from PHI, "in 2008, 22 percent of direct-care workers were age 55 and older compared to 18 percent of female workers in the civilian workforce...Roughly a fifth of direct-care workers were aged 35-44 compared to 22.4 percent of women in the workforce overall. Older workers are relatively [also] more prevalent among Personal and Home Care Aides, compared to the rest of the direct-care workforce. Approximately 28 percent of Personal and Home Care Aides, or 229,577 workers are age 55 years and older." (p. 2-3)

Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute (PHI). (2010). Older direct-care workers: Key facts and trends, April 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2010, from http://www.directcareclearinghouse.org/download/PHI%20Older%20DCW%20Analysis%20April%202010.pdf

This report is based on PHI analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), 2009 Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement.

Among all women ages 40-44, the proportion that has never given birth, 18% in 2008, has grown by 80% since 1976, when it was 10%. There were 1.9 million childless women ages 40-44 in 2008, compared with nearly 580,000 in 1976.

Among all women ages 40-44, the proportion that has never given birth, 18% in 2008, has grown by 80% since 1976, when it was 10%. There were 1.9 million childless women ages 40-44 in 2008, compared with nearly 580,000 in 1976.

Livingston, G., & Cohn, D. (2010). Childlessness up among all women; down among women with advanced degrees. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/758/rising-share-women-have-no-children-childlessness

This report is based mainly on data from the June fertility supplement of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 report based on data from the Current Population Survey, "of divorced or separated women [ages 65 and over], 26 percent are still in the labor force compared with 14 percent of married women, 19 percent of never married, and 8 percent of widowed older women." (p. 3)

According to a 2010 report based on data from the Current Population Survey, "of divorced or separated women [ages 65 and over], 26 percent are still in the labor force compared with 14 percent of married women, 19 percent of never married, and 8 percent of widowed older women." (p. 3)

Shattuck, A. (2010). Older Americans working more, retiring less (Issue Brief No. 16). Durham, NH: Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire. Retrieved from http://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/IB_Shattuck_Older_Workers.pdf

Data used in this brief are from the Current Population survey, annual social and economic supplements of 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2009.

According to a 2010 report based on data from the Current Population Survey, "in early 2009, more than one-quarter of women and more than one-third of men between ages 65 and 69 were in the labor force. For 70- to 74 year olds, 14 percent of women and 24 percent of men were working in early 2009. These...

According to a 2010 report based on data from the Current Population Survey, "in early 2009, more than one-quarter of women and more than one-third of men between ages 65 and 69 were in the labor force. For 70- to 74 year olds, 14 percent of women and 24 percent of men were working in early 2009. These two age groups have had the largest increases among those age 65 and older. Among men, labor force participation rates in the two groups increased by an estimated 8 and 7 percentage points, respectively, while women's rates in these groups grew by about 8 and 6 percentage points, respectively." (p. 2)

Shattuck, A. (2010). Older Americans working more, retiring less (Issue Brief No. 16). Durham, NH: Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire. Retrieved from http://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/IB_Shattuck_Older_Workers.pdf

Data used in this brief are from the Current Population survey, annual social and economic supplements (CPs aseC) of 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2009.

According to a 2010 report based on data from the Current Population Survey, "17 percent of men and 9 percent of women age 65 and over were in the labor force in 1995, but by 2009, 22 percent of men and 13 percent of women were." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 report based on data from the Current Population Survey, "17 percent of men and 9 percent of women age 65 and over were in the labor force in 1995, but by 2009, 22 percent of men and 13 percent of women were." (p. 1)

Shattuck, A. (2010). Older Americans working more, retiring less (Issue Brief No. 16). Durham, NH: Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire. Retrieved from http://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/IB_Shattuck_Older_Workers.pdf

Data used in this brief are from the Current Population survey, annual social and economic supplements of 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2009.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2009, 7.3 million workers held more than one job, and the multiple jobholding rate--the proportion of total employment made up of multiple jobholders--was 5.2 percent...For both men and women, multiple jobholding rates were...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2009, 7.3 million workers held more than one job, and the multiple jobholding rate--the proportion of total employment made up of multiple jobholders--was 5.2 percent...For both men and women, multiple jobholding rates were lowest for those age 16 to 19 and age 65 and over. (p. 21, 22)

Hipple, S. (2010). Multiple jobholding during the 2000s. Monthly Labor Review, 133(7), 21-32. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2010/07/art3full.pdf

This paper is based on analysis of information on multiple jobholding which is available from the Current Population Survey (CPS).

According to a 2010 analysis from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among persons born in the latter years of the baby boom [1957 to 1964], "the average person was employed during 77 percent of the weeks from age 18 to age 44. Generally, men spent a larger percent of weeks employed than did women (84...

According to a 2010 analysis from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among persons born in the latter years of the baby boom [1957 to 1964], "the average person was employed during 77 percent of the weeks from age 18 to age 44. Generally, men spent a larger percent of weeks employed than did women (84 versus 70 percent). Women spent much more time out of the labor force (25 percent of weeks) than did men (11 percent of weeks)."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Number of jobs held, labor market activity, and earnings growth among the youngest baby boomers: Results from a longitudinal survey summary. Retrieved September 13, 2010, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/nlsoy.nr0.htm

These findings are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a survey of 9,964 men and women who were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979 and ages 43 to 52 when interviewed most recently during the 2008-09 period. These respondents were born in the years 1957 to 1964, the latter years of the baby boom that occurred in the United States from 1946 to 1964.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "37 percent of male workers age 58 and older had jobs that involved any general physical demand, compared to 32.2 percent of female workers age 58 and older." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "37 percent of male workers age 58 and older had jobs that involved any general physical demand, compared to 32.2 percent of female workers age 58 and older." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "women (20%) and men (22%) are equally likely to have provided family care in the past five years and equally likely to provide care at the current time (9% versus 8%)." (p. 2)

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "women (20%) and men (22%) are equally likely to have provided family care in the past five years and equally likely to provide care at the current time (9% versus 8%)." (p. 2)

Aumann, K., Galinsky, E., Sakai, K., Brown, M., & Bond, J. T. (2010). The elder care study: Everyday realities and wishes for change. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/elder_care.pdf

The research findings presented below are drawn from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) conducted by Families and Work Institute. Its total sample (i.e., wage and salaried employees, self-employed individuals and small business owners) includes 1,589 individuals who reported providing special attention or care for a relative or in-law 65 years old or older.

According to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among women aged 55-64 years, 60.0% were in the labor force in 2009, compared to 59.2% of all women aged 16 years and over.   Among women aged 65 years and over, 13.6% were in the labor force.

According to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among women aged 55-64 years, 60.0% were in the labor force in 2009, compared to 59.2% of all women aged 16 years and over.   Among women aged 65 years and over, 13.6% were in the labor force.

Buearu of Labor Statistics. Women in the labor force: A databook (2010 edition). (2010). Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook2010.htm

This report presents historical and current labor force
and earnings data for women and men from the Current
Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a national monthly
survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the
U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "among the entire workforce, women (20%) and men (22%) are equally likely to have provided family care in the past five years and equally likely to provide care at the current time (9% versus 8%). Women are more...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "among the entire workforce, women (20%) and men (22%) are equally likely to have provided family care in the past five years and equally likely to provide care at the current time (9% versus 8%). Women are more likely (44%) than men (38%) to provide family care on a regular basis rather than on an intermittent basis." (p. 2)

Aumann, K., Galinsky, E., Sakai, K., Brown, M., & Bond, J. T. (2010). The elder care study: Everyday realities and wishes for change. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/elder_care.pdf

This study is based on a nationally representative sample of employed caregivers, drawn from the Families and Work Institute’s ongoing National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW).

Accoding to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2009, 27 percent of employed women usually worked part time -- fewer than 35 hours per week. In comparison, 11 percent of employed men usually worked part time. (table 20)

Accoding to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2009, 27 percent of employed women usually worked part time -- fewer than 35 hours per week. In comparison, 11 percent of employed men usually worked part time. (table 20)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Women in the labor force: A databook (2010 edition). Retrieved December 18, 2010, from http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook2010.htm

This report presents historical and current labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS).

According to a 2010 analysis of national vital statistics data, "during 1970--2007, life expectancy at birth in the United States demonstrated a long-term increasing trend for the total population, for both males and females, and for the black and white populations. In 2007, the disparities in life...

According to a 2010 analysis of national vital statistics data, "during 1970--2007, life expectancy at birth in the United States demonstrated a long-term increasing trend for the total population, for both males and females, and for the black and white populations. In 2007, the disparities in life expectancy for males compared with females and for blacks compared with whites were the smallest ever recorded. Life expectancy at birth was highest for white females (80.8 years), followed by black females (76.8), white males (75.9), and black males (70.0)."

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). QuickStats: Life expectancy at birth, by race and sex --- United States, 1970--2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(36), 1185. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5936a9.htm?s_cid=mm5936a9_e

The analysis presented in the report comes from the following source: Xu J, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: final data for 2007. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2010;58(19). Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, employees with more access to traditional flextime* include those who are "more highly educated (86% employees with at least some postsecondary education versus 82% employees with a high school diploma or less);...
According to a 2010 analysis of data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, employees with more access to traditional flextime* include those who are "more highly educated (86% employees with at least some postsecondary education versus 82% employees with a high school diploma or less); managers and professionals (57% versus 37% other employees); men (47% versus 41% women); and workers in service industries (45% versus 38% employees in goods-producing industries."   (p. 17)

*Traditional flextime arrangements allow employees to vary when they start and end their work days within a range of
hours surrounding fixed core operating hours.

Tang, C., & Wadsworth, S. M. (2010). Time and workplace flexibility. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://www.familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/time_work_flex.pdf

The 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) survey was conducted by Harris Interactive, Inc. (formerly Louis Harris and Associates) using a questionnaire developed by the Families and Work Institute.A total of 3,502 interviews were completed with a nationwide cross-section of employed adults between November 12, 2007 and April 20, 2008.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, "employees who are most likely to be able to control their schedule are: women, compared with men (38% versus 35%); employees with at least 4 years of college education (43%), compared with those with either...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, "employees who are most likely to be able to control their schedule are: women, compared with men (38% versus 35%); employees with at least 4 years of college education (43%), compared with those with either some postsecondary (34%) or high school diploma/GED/less education (33%);managers or professionals, opposed to other occupations (44 versus 33%, respectively); and employees in service rather than in goods-producing industries (38 versus 30%, respectively). (p. 14-15)

Tang, C., & Wadsworth, S. M. (2010). Time and workplace flexibility. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://www.familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/time_work_flex.pdf

The 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) survey was conducted by Harris Interactive, Inc. (formerly Louis Harris and Associates) using a questionnaire developed by the Families and Work Institute.A total of 3,502 interviews were completed with a nationwide cross-section of employed adults between November 12, 2007 and April 20, 2008.

A 2008 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that in March 2008, 73% of men and 63% of women aged 55 to 61were employed. Fifty-two percent of 62- to 64-year-old men were employed in March 2008, with 82% working full-time. Among women aged 62 to 64, 41% were employed in March 2008. with 65%...

A 2008 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that in March 2008, 73% of men and 63% of women aged 55 to 61were employed. Fifty-two percent of 62- to 64-year-old men were employed in March 2008, with 82% working full-time. Among women aged 62 to 64, 41% were employed in March 2008. with 65% working full-time. Among men 65 to 69 years old, 33% were employed in March 2008. with 72% working full-time, while 27% of women aged 65 to 69 were working, with 55% working full-time. Among men and women aged 70 and older, rates of employment in March 2008, were 14% and 8% respectively. (p. 91-92)

Purcell, P. J. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Journal of Deferred Compensation, 14(2), 85-103

In this report, data from the Census Bureau, Buearu of Labor Statistics, and Social Security Administration are analyzed.

A 2008 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that among men aged 55 to 64 who received income from a pension or retirement savings plan during 2007, 37.4% were employed either full or part time in March 2008. Among men aged 65 or older who received income from pensions or retirement savings...

A 2008 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that among men aged 55 to 64 who received income from a pension or retirement savings plan during 2007, 37.4% were employed either full or part time in March 2008. Among men aged 65 or older who received income from pensions or retirement savings plans, only 12.2% were employed, in 2007. Among women 55 to 64 years old who received income from a pension or retirement savings plan in 2007, 35.1% were employed in March 2008. compared to 9%, of women. (Table 6, p. 94)

Purcell, P. J. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Journal of Deferred Compensation, 14(2), 85-104

In this report, data from the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and Social Security Administration are analyzed.

A 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data shows that 71% of men and 75% of women who began receiving Social Security retired worker benefits in 2006 applied for benefits before age 65. (p. 95)

A 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data shows that 71% of men and 75% of women who began receiving Social Security retired worker benefits in 2006 applied for benefits before age 65. (p. 95)

Purcell, P. J. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Journal of Deferred Compensation, 14(2), 85-105

In this report, data from the Census Bureau, Buearu of Labor Statistics, and Social Security Administration are analyzed.

A 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data shows that in 2006, 38.1% of men aged 62 to 64 were receiving Social Security retired worker benefits. Among women, the percentage of 62- to 64-year-olds who were receiving Social Security retired worker benefits was 34.3%. Among men aged 65 to...

A 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data shows that in 2006, 38.1% of men aged 62 to 64 were receiving Social Security retired worker benefits. Among women, the percentage of 62- to 64-year-olds who were receiving Social Security retired worker benefits was 34.3%. Among men aged 65 to 69, the proportion who were receiving Social Security retired worker benefits was 91.1% in 2006; among women aged 65-69, the rate was 67.6% in 2006.

Purcell, P. J. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Journal of Deferred Compensation, 14(2), 85-106

In this report, data from the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and Social Security Administration are analyzed.

According to 2008 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the total number of persons who worked part-time in nonagricultural industries is higher for women than men in all age groups.  For example, for ages 25-54, 11,807,000 women were working between 1-34 hours per week, compared to 6,203,000...

According to 2008 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the total number of persons who worked part-time in nonagricultural industries is higher for women than men in all age groups.  For example, for ages 25-54, 11,807,000 women were working between 1-34 hours per week, compared to 6,203,000 men.  For workers aged 55 and over,  4,118,000 women and 2,906,000 men worked part-time. (Table 22)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Persons at work in nonagricultural industries by age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, marital status, and usual full- or
part-time status. Retrieved February 19, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat22.pdf

Data from the 2008 Bureau of Labor Statistics Household Data Annual Averages, Table 22.

According to a 2009 telephone survey of almost 3000 adults, among adults ages 50 to 64 who are employed fulltime, "six-in-ten women working full-time in this age group say they have reconsidered when they will retire, compared with slightly less than half of all men (61% vs. 45%)."

According to a 2009 telephone survey of almost 3000 adults, among adults ages 50 to 64 who are employed fulltime, "six-in-ten women working full-time in this age group say they have reconsidered when they will retire, compared with slightly less than half of all men (61% vs. 45%)."

Morin, R. (2009). Most middle-aged adults are rethinking retirement plans. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1234/the-threshold-generation

The Pew Research findings are based on a telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults conducted from February 23 through March 23, 2011

A 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that "in 2007 there was a 59.5 percent difference in the median incomes among men and women aged 55-64 and a 57.6 percent difference for those over age 65." (Table 6.1)

A 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that "in 2007 there was a 59.5 percent difference in the median incomes among men and women aged 55-64 and a 57.6 percent difference for those over age 65." (Table 6.1)

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (2009). EBRI databook on employee benefits. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://www.ebri.org/publications/books/index.cfm?fa=databook

The EBRI Databook on Employee Benefits includes data from dozens of sources to provide a comprehensive analysis of how the employee benefits system works, who and what its various functions affect, and its relationship with the U.S. economy.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "according to a 2009 Pew survey, "women are somewhat more likely than men to say they expect to do volunteer work when they are older (83% of women vs. 77% of men)...men are more likely than women to predict that ...they will start a new job or second career (45% vs....

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "according to a 2009 Pew survey, "women are somewhat more likely than men to say they expect to do volunteer work when they are older (83% of women vs. 77% of men)...men are more likely than women to predict that ...they will start a new job or second career (45% vs. 32%)." (p. 30)

Taylor, P., Morin, R., Parker, K., & Wang, W. (2009). Growing old in America: Expectations vs. reality. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/getting-old-in-america.pdf

The Pew Social Trends Aging Survey obtained telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults living in the continental United States. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from February 23 to March 23, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "among adults 65 and older, nearly identical proportions of men (75%) and women (76%) are retired and not working. About three-quarters of whites (76%) and an identical proportion of blacks are fully retired, while roughly equal proportions of each group are working....

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "among adults 65 and older, nearly identical proportions of men (75%) and women (76%) are retired and not working. About three-quarters of whites (76%) and an identical proportion of blacks are fully retired, while roughly equal proportions of each group are working. When it comes to having a full-time job, men are slightly more likely than women to be employed (9% vs. 4%). Women, meanwhile, are slightly more likely to say they are not retired but are looking for work (6% vs. 3%). (p. 88)

Taylor, P., Morin, R., Parker, K., & Wang, W. (2009). Growing old in America: Expectations vs. reality. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/getting-old-in-america.pdf

The Pew Social Trends Aging Survey obtained telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults living in the continental United States. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from February 23 to March 23, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, among the respondents "nearing retirement age--ages 50 to 61--a 63% majority think they might have to delay retirement because of the recession.Women in this retirement "threshold generation" have been most affected by the ailing economy. Fully 72% fear they will have...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, among the respondents "nearing retirement age--ages 50 to 61--a 63% majority think they might have to delay retirement because of the recession.Women in this retirement "threshold generation" have been most affected by the ailing economy. Fully 72% fear they will have to postpone their retirement plans, compared with 54% of men in this age group." (p. 20)

Pew Research Center. (2009). Recession turns a graying office grayer. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/americas-changing-workforce.pdf

This report is based on a Pew Research Center analysis of long-term trends in survey data from the U.S. Census Bureau as well as on Pew Research's own survey of a representative national sample of 1,815 people ages 16 and older conducted from July 20 to Aug. 2, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, among workers aged 65 and older, "about 12% of older women and 25% of older men do some kind of work for pay. As a group, working older women are significantly more likely than older men to say they are working because they need a paycheck (25% vs. 12%) and significantly...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, among workers aged 65 and older, "about 12% of older women and 25% of older men do some kind of work for pay. As a group, working older women are significantly more likely than older men to say they are working because they need a paycheck (25% vs. 12%) and significantly less likely to say they are working because they want to (43% vs. 63%)." (p. 22)

Pew Research Center. (2009). Recession turns a graying office grayer. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/americas-changing-workforce.pdf

This report is based on a Pew Research Center analysis of long-term trends in survey data from the U.S. Census Bureau as well as on Pew Research's own survey of a representative national sample of 1,815 people ages 16 and older conducted from July 20 to Aug. 2, 2009.

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, over 95 percent of adults in each of the four categories [male-female, married-unmarried] report doing some type of work, either paid work, volunteer work, or housework. (fig. 1, p. 2)

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, over 95 percent of adults in each of the four categories [male-female, married-unmarried] report doing some type of work, either paid work, volunteer work, or housework. (fig. 1, p. 2)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, married males (of all ages) work more hours for pay (an average of 35 hours per week) than their wives (who work an average of 23 hours per week). Wives spend an average of 18 hours per week...

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, married males (of all ages) work more hours for pay (an average of 35 hours per week) than their wives (who work an average of 23 hours per week). Wives spend an average of 18 hours per week on household tasks, while their husbands spend an average of 8 hours per week on such tasks. (fig. 2, p. 3)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "at the highest levels of income and wealth, hours of paid work drops off compared to households at lower levels of financial resources, mainly because higher levels of financial resources are...

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "at the highest levels of income and wealth, hours of paid work drops off compared to households at lower levels of financial resources, mainly because higher levels of financial resources are attained near the end of a lifetime of work. Therefore, people with high levels of financial resources tend to be older, often retired or semi-retired, or in a financial position to elect to work fewer hours." (fig. 3, p. 4)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "as they approach retirement age (roughly age 65), older adults tend to cut back on paid work and start increasing time for housework as well as volunteer activities. For instance, unmarried...

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "as they approach retirement age (roughly age 65), older adults tend to cut back on paid work and start increasing time for housework as well as volunteer activities. For instance, unmarried men under age 50 spend 45 hours per week working (of which 82 percent is paid work), while those ages 65 and older report 18 hours of work (of which only 45 percent is paid work)." (fig. 4a, p. 6)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "as they approach retirement age (roughly age 65), older adults tend to cut back on paid work and start increasing time for housework as well as volunteer activities." For instance, married men...

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "as they approach retirement age (roughly age 65), older adults tend to cut back on paid work and start increasing time for housework as well as volunteer activities." For instance, married men under age 50 spend 42 hours per week doing paid work; those aged 50-64 do 36 hours per week paid work, while those ages 65 and older report 8 hours of work (fig. 4b, p. 6)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, unmarried women under age 50 spend 32 hours per week on paid work, while unmarried women aged 50-64 30 spend 30 hours on paid work, and those ages 65 and older report 3 hours of paid work. (fig....

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, unmarried women under age 50 spend 32 hours per week on paid work, while unmarried women aged 50-64 30 spend 30 hours on paid work, and those ages 65 and older report 3 hours of paid work. (fig. 4c, p. 6)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, married women under age 50 spend 26 hours per week on paid work, the same rate as those aged 50-64. Married women aged 65 and older report 7 hours of paid work. (fig. 4d, p. 6)

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, married women under age 50 spend 26 hours per week on paid work, the same rate as those aged 50-64. Married women aged 65 and older report 7 hours of paid work. (fig. 4d, p. 6)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, "forty-six percent of Boomers had a stay-at-home mother, and only 56 percent had a mother who worked throughout their childhood years. But the numbers nearly reversed for Gen Y, with 74 percent growing up with a working mother and only 26...

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, "forty-six percent of Boomers had a stay-at-home mother, and only 56 percent had a mother who worked throughout their childhood years. But the numbers nearly reversed for Gen Y, with 74 percent growing up with a working mother and only 26 percent having a mom who stayed at home. Nearly 90 percent of both generations had fathers who worked full-time." (fig. 4.1, p. 18)

Hewlett, S. A., Jackson, M., Sherbin, L., Shiller, P., Sosnovich, E., & Sumberg, K. (2009). Bookend generations: Leveraging talent and finding common ground. New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.

The first U.S. survey was conducted online in June and July 2008 among 3,782 U.S. women and men between the ages of 21 and 62 and currently employed in certain white collar occupations, with at least a bachelor's degree; The second U.S. survey was conducted online in January and February 2009 and re-interviewed a total of 1,046 of the respondents from the first survey.

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, "57 percent of African-American Boomers surveyed had mothers who worked compared with 31 percent, 35 percent and 35 percent for Asian, Hispanic and Caucasian Boomers, respectively (full-time plus part-time)....The figures are reversed for...

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, "57 percent of African-American Boomers surveyed had mothers who worked compared with 31 percent, 35 percent and 35 percent for Asian, Hispanic and Caucasian Boomers, respectively (full-time plus part-time)....The figures are reversed for full time homemakers: only 25 percent of African-American Boomers had stay-at-home moms compared with 48 percent of Caucasians. 9 percent had mothers who were homemakers compared with 27 percent of Caucasians (figs 4.2 & 4.3, p. 10)

Hewlett, S. A., Jackson, M., Sherbin, L., Shiller, P., Sosnovich, E., & Sumberg, K. (2009). Bookend generations: Leveraging talent and finding common ground. New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.

The first U.S. survey was conducted online in June and July 2008 among 3,782 U.S. women and men between the ages of 21 and 62 and currently employed in certain white collar occupations, with at least a bachelor's degree; The second U.S. survey was conducted online in January and February 2009 and re-interviewed a total of 1,046 of the respondents from the first survey.

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, 86% of women and 84% of men report that having a range of new experiences is an important aspect of work. "Seventy-five percent of Boomer men and 89 percent of Boomer women say recognition from a boss is important. Similarly, 74 percent...

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, 86% of women and 84% of men report that having a range of new experiences is an important aspect of work. "Seventy-five percent of Boomer men and 89 percent of Boomer women say recognition from a boss is important. Similarly, 74 percent of Boomer men and 87 percent of women say that a good performance evaluation will inspire them to try harder and engage more fully in their jobs. Although 73 percent of Boomers prize a steady rate of advancement and promotion, only 34 percent say having a powerful position with a prestigious title is an important aspect of their careers". (fig. 11. 1, p. 38)

Hewlett, S. A., Jackson, M., Sherbin, L., Shiller, P., Sosnovich, E., & Sumberg, K. (2009). Bookend generations: Leveraging talent and finding common ground. New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.

The first U.S. survey was conducted online in June and July 2008 among 3,782 U.S. women and men between the ages of 21 and 62 and currently employed in certain white collar occupations, with at least a bachelor's degree; The second U.S. survey was conducted online in January and February 2009 and re-interviewed a total of 1,046 of the respondents from the first survey.

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, "between 1985 and 2008, the labor force participation rate among men aged 65 and older increased from 15.8% to 21.5%. Among women aged 65 and older, the labor force participation rate fell from 11% in 1955 to 7.3% in 1985. Since then,...

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, "between 1985 and 2008, the labor force participation rate among men aged 65 and older increased from 15.8% to 21.5%. Among women aged 65 and older, the labor force participation rate fell from 11% in 1955 to 7.3% in 1985. Since then, the labor force participation rate of women aged 65 and older has steadily risen, reaching 13.3% in 2008. (p. 3)

Purcell, P. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/files/crs-rl30629.pdf

This reports presents an analysis of data from various years of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey and the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin.

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, "between 1990 and 2008, employment remained generally steady among men 55 to 61 years old, and then fell in 2009 as the job market weakened due to the recession. The employment rate of men aged 55 to 61 was 69.4% in March 2009, down...

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, "between 1990 and 2008, employment remained generally steady among men 55 to 61 years old, and then fell in 2009 as the job market weakened due to the recession. The employment rate of men aged 55 to 61 was 69.4% in March 2009, down from 73.0% one year earlier. Employment among women aged 55 to 61 increased from 50.0% in March 1990 to 58.4% in March 2000 and 63.4% in March 2008. By March 2009, employment among women aged 55 to 61 had fallen slightly to 62.0%, which like the steeper decline in employment among men in this age group also was likely due to the recession. (tables 3 &4, p. 5)

Purcell, P. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/files/crs-rl30629.pdf

This reports presents an analysis of data from various years of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey and the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin.

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, "among men 65 to 69 years old, the percentage who were employed rose from 26% in March 1990 to 30% in March 2000 and to 33% in March 2009. Employment among women aged 65 to 69 increased from 17% in March 1990 to 20% in March 2000 and...

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, "among men 65 to 69 years old, the percentage who were employed rose from 26% in March 1990 to 30% in March 2000 and to 33% in March 2009. Employment among women aged 65 to 69 increased from 17% in March 1990 to 20% in March 2000 and to 26.5% in March 2008 before falling slightly to 24.5% in March 2009." (p. 5)

Purcell, P. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/files/crs-rl30629.pdf

This reports presents an analysis of data from various years of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey and the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin.

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, show that among men aged 55 to 64 who received pension income in 2008, 37.2% were employed full or part time in March 2009. Relatively few men aged 65 or older who received income from pensions engaged in paid employment: only 10% to...

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, show that among men aged 55 to 64 who received pension income in 2008, 37.2% were employed full or part time in March 2009. Relatively few men aged 65 or older who received income from pensions engaged in paid employment: only 10% to 13% were employed, on average, at any point during the period [from 1990 to 2008]. Women who received pension income were less likely than men to be employed. Among women 55 to 64 years old who received income from a pension or retirement savings plan in 2008, 32.2% were employed in March 2009. Among women aged 65 or older who received income from a pension or retirement savings plan, only 6% to 9%, on average, were employed at any time during the period from 1990 to 2008." (p. 9-10)

Purcell, P. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/files/crs-rl30629.pdf

This reports presents an analysis of data from various years of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey and the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "In 2007, seven in ten Hispanic men ages 50-69 participated in the labor force (by working or looking for work), nearly identical to the rate for non-Hispanic whites and substantially higher than the rate for non-Hispanic blacks. In 2007, only...

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "In 2007, seven in ten Hispanic men ages 50-69 participated in the labor force (by working or looking for work), nearly identical to the rate for non-Hispanic whites and substantially higher than the rate for non-Hispanic blacks. In 2007, only about one-half of Hispanic women ages 50 to 69 participated in the labor force." (p. 15-16)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "although the poverty rate for all persons aged 65 and older was just 9.7% in 2008, 12% of women aged 65 and older were in poverty in 2008 compared with only 6.7% of men. Because women live longer, the number of poor older women...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "although the poverty rate for all persons aged 65 and older was just 9.7% in 2008, 12% of women aged 65 and older were in poverty in 2008 compared with only 6.7% of men. Because women live longer, the number of poor older women in 2008 (2.5 million) was more than twice the number of poor older men (1.1 million)." (p. 23)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 survey by the National Alliance for Caregiving, "caregivers are predominantly female (66%). They are 48 years of age, on average. A large majority of caregivers provide care for a relative (86%), with over one-third taking care of a parent (36%)." (p. 4)

According to a 2009 survey by the National Alliance for Caregiving, "caregivers are predominantly female (66%). They are 48 years of age, on average. A large majority of caregivers provide care for a relative (86%), with over one-third taking care of a parent (36%)." (p. 4)

National Alliance for Caregiving, AARP, & The MetLife Foundation. (2009). Caregiving in the U.S. 2009. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/il/caregiving_09_fr.pdf

This report is based on quantitative telephone interviews with 1480 family caregivers age 18 or older.

According to a 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in every year from 1940 through 2007, men 25 years old and older are at least somewhat more likely (in absolute terms) than women of the same ages to have completed four years of college or more. The differences between men and women are...

According to a 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in every year from 1940 through 2007, men 25 years old and older are at least somewhat more likely (in absolute terms) than women of the same ages to have completed four years of college or more. The differences between men and women are smallest in 2007 (1.5 percentage points) and, interestingly, in 1940 (1.7 percentage points) when college graduation rates were very low for everybody except the well-to-do." (p. 5, fig. 6)

Galinsky, E., Aumann, K., & Bond, J. T. (2009). Times are changing: Gender and generation at work and at home. 2008 national study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/Times_Are_Changing.pdf

The report also incorporates findings published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and U.S. Department of Labor, which are drawn from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Specifically, findings are from the March Supplement to the annual CPS representing a random sample of approximately 60,000 U.S. households.

Accoding to a 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in 1975, 47% of mothers with children under 18 participated in the U.S. labor force. By 2007, 32 years later, that proportion had risen to 71%. (fig. 5, p. 5)

Accoding to a 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in 1975, 47% of mothers with children under 18 participated in the U.S. labor force. By 2007, 32 years later, that proportion had risen to 71%. (fig. 5, p. 5)

Galinsky, E., Aumann, K., & Bond, J. T. (2009). Times are changing: Gender and generation at work and at home. 2008 national study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/Times_Are_Changing.pdf

The report also incorporates findings published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and U.S. Department of Labor, which are drawn from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Specifically, findings are from the March Supplement to the annual CPS representing a random sample of approximately 60,000 U.S. households.

Accoding to a 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "the labor force participation of women 18 and older has increased very substantially since 1950, while participation by men has decreased." In 1950, 42% of women age 18+ were in the labor force, compared to 82% of men. In 2007, the rate...

Accoding to a 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "the labor force participation of women 18 and older has increased very substantially since 1950, while participation by men has decreased." In 1950, 42% of women age 18+ were in the labor force, compared to 82% of men. In 2007, the rate for women had increased to 57%, while the rate for men had decreased to 66%. "There was a 40 percentage point difference in labor force participation favoring men 18 and older in 1950, but only a nine percentage point difference in 2007."

Galinsky, E., Aumann, K., & Bond, J. T. (2009). Times are changing: Gender and generation at work and at home. 2008 national study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/Times_Are_Changing.pdf

The report also incorporates findings published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and U.S. Department of Labor, which are drawn from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Specifically, findings are from the March Supplement to the annual CPS representing a random sample of approximately 60,000 U.S. households.

According to a 2008 analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey data, the labor force participation rates for both women and men ages 55 and older have increased.  Comparing the labor force participation rates for the years 1994-2007, there has been a 1.3% increase for men...

According to a 2008 analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey data, the labor force participation rates for both women and men ages 55 and older have increased.  Comparing the labor force participation rates for the years 1994-2007, there has been a 1.3% increase for men ages 55-59, 12.1% for ages 60-64, 28.0% for 65-69, 34.2% for ages 70-74, and 11.6% for ages 75 and older.  For women, the increases are 12.5% for ages 55-59, 26.7% for ages 60-64, 43.6% for ages 65-69, 60.9% for ages 70-75, and 37.1% for ages 75 and older. (Table 5, p. 47)

Gendell, M. (2008). Older workers: Increasing their labor force participation and hours of work. Monthly Labor Review, 131(1), 41-54. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/01/art3full.pdf

This report is based on the author's analysis of data collected annually by the Social Security Administration and on data from the Current Population Survey and Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Based on a 2008 analysis of CPS data, there is a "higher prevalence of underemployment* among older-aged workers in non-metropolitan areas" compared to those in metropolitan areas. For example, in 2003-05 "among those aged 60 to 64 years, 17.5% of those in nonmetro areas were underemployed versus 13.0%...

Based on a 2008 analysis of CPS data, there is a "higher prevalence of underemployment* among older-aged workers in non-metropolitan areas" compared to those in metropolitan areas. For example, in 2003-05 "among those aged 60 to 64 years, 17.5% of those in nonmetro areas were underemployed versus 13.0% of those in metro areas." For ages 55-59, 15.4% of workers in nonmetro areas were underemployed, compared to 11.6% of metro workers. "Within each age group it was nonmetro women who registered the highest rates of underemployment." (Table 2, p. S18)

*Underemployment is defined as either "unemployed, discouraged, involuntary part-time, or earnings less than 125% of the poverty threshold."

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2008). Employment hardship among older workers: Does residential and gender inequality extend into older age? The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 63(1), S15-24.

This study is based on data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers. (p. S15)

Based on a 2008 analysis of CPS data, the results "showed that the predominance of working poverty as a form of underemployment was especially pronounced among nonmetropolitan area women, particularly among those of older age." In 2003-05, for non-metropolitan women aged 55-59, the percentage earning...

Based on a 2008 analysis of CPS data, the results "showed that the predominance of working poverty as a form of underemployment was especially pronounced among nonmetropolitan area women, particularly among those of older age." In 2003-05, for non-metropolitan women aged 55-59, the percentage earning less than 125% of the poverty threshold was 10.4%, compared to 5.8% of metropolitan women. For women aged 60-64, the rates were 12.0 % and 8.2% for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan, respectively. (Table 5, S20)

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2008). Employment hardship among older workers: Does residential and gender inequality extend into older age? The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 63(1), S15-24.

This study is based on data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers. (p. S15)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), the poverty rate was three times higher for African-American women (42 percent) than for white women (14 percent). (p. ii)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), the poverty rate was three times higher for African-American women (42 percent) than for white women (14 percent). (p. ii)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), nearly one-third of them were either in poverty (18 percent) or in near-poverty (15 percent). (p. 7)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), nearly one-third of them were either in poverty (18 percent) or in near-poverty (15 percent). (p. 7)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, "the poverty rate for African-American women in 1967, when they were in midlife (aged 30-44), was more than four times greater than the rate for white women (44 percent versus 10 percent). In 2001 when most were in their...

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, "the poverty rate for African-American women in 1967, when they were in midlife (aged 30-44), was more than four times greater than the rate for white women (44 percent versus 10 percent). In 2001 when most were in their retirement years, it was still nearly three times greater for African-American women than the rate for white women (42 percent versus 14 percent). (p. 8)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), "among whites, unmarried women were nearly three times more likely than married women to live in poverty or near poverty (44 percent vs. 15 percent)....

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), "among whites, unmarried women were nearly three times more likely than married women to live in poverty or near poverty (44 percent vs. 15 percent). Among African-Americans, unmarried women 47.7% were poor and 21.0 percent were near poor; for married women 25.4% and 21.2 percent were poor and near poor, respectively. (Table 3, p. 8)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, "a larger proportion of African-American than white women (41 percent vs. 31 percent) were employed in both years spanning the 15-year period" from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) to the pre-retirement years (ages 45-59 in...

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, "a larger proportion of African-American than white women (41 percent vs. 31 percent) were employed in both years spanning the 15-year period" from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) to the pre-retirement years (ages 45-59 in 1982).  (p. 9)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, 53% of African-American women reported good health during the years from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001), compared to 67% fpr white women.  "A higher percentage...

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, 53% of African-American women reported good health during the years from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001), compared to 67% fpr white women.  "A higher percentage of African-American than white women also reported changes in their health status, from good to poor (26 percent vs. 17 percent) during the years of study." (p. 9)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

Analysis of data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that "among older workers, the odds of being very satisfied with life are 63.6% higher for females than for males; 45.3% lower for white non-Hispanics than for people of other ethnic/racial backgrounds, and 8.5% higher with...

Analysis of data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that "among older workers, the odds of being very satisfied with life are 63.6% higher for females than for males; 45.3% lower for white non-Hispanics than for people of other ethnic/racial backgrounds, and 8.5% higher with every additional year in age." (p. 6)

Johnson, J. K. M., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Besen, E., Smyer, M., & Matz-Costa, C. (2008). Quality of employment and life-satisfaction: A relationship that matters for older workers (Issue Brief No. 13). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB13_LifeSatisfaction.pdf

Drawing on data from various sources, this issue brief offers insights about how employment experiences affect the life satisfaction of older workers.

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data from 1992-2004, the prevalence of self-employed full-time career (FTC) workers has increased for both men and women. In 1992, 21% of male FTC workers were self-employed, and this number increased steadily to 35% in 2004. In 1992, 10%...

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data from 1992-2004, the prevalence of self-employed full-time career (FTC) workers has increased for both men and women. In 1992, 21% of male FTC workers were self-employed, and this number increased steadily to 35% in 2004. In 1992, 10% of female FTC workers were self employed, and this number also rose steadily to 18% in 2004. (Fig. 1, p. 2)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data from 1992-2004, workers aged 63-73 were more likely to be male or female self-employed full-time career (FTC) workers than male or female wage-and-salary workers. More than 60% of self-employed FTC men and women were still working while...

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data from 1992-2004, workers aged 63-73 were more likely to be male or female self-employed full-time career (FTC) workers than male or female wage-and-salary workers. More than 60% of self-employed FTC men and women were still working while aged 63-73, while less than 50% of wage-and-salary male and female workers were still working at the same age. (Fig. 2, p. 3)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data from 1992-2004, approximately 25% of full-time career (FTC) male and female workers transitioned from self-employment to wage-and-salary jobs in that 12 year span, while approximately 10% of male and female workers did the opposite. However,...

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data from 1992-2004, approximately 25% of full-time career (FTC) male and female workers transitioned from self-employment to wage-and-salary jobs in that 12 year span, while approximately 10% of male and female workers did the opposite. However, since wage-and-salary workers outnumber self-employed workers 4-to-1, the net result was a large increase in the number of self-employed workers. (Fig. 3, p. 3)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 11% of male full-time career (FTC) workers in wage-and-salary positions in 1992 were still in that position in 2004. 10% of those workers transitioned to self-employment, 32% moved to a different wage-and-salary job, and...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 11% of male full-time career (FTC) workers in wage-and-salary positions in 1992 were still in that position in 2004. 10% of those workers transitioned to self-employment, 32% moved to a different wage-and-salary job, and 47% left the labor force directly from that FTC job. (Fig. 4, p. 4)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 17% of female full-time career (FTC) workers in wage-and-salary positions in 1992 were still in that position in 2004. 27% of those workers transitioned to self-employment, 32% moved to a different wage-and-salary job,...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 17% of female full-time career (FTC) workers in wage-and-salary positions in 1992 were still in that position in 2004. 27% of those workers transitioned to self-employment, 32% moved to a different wage-and-salary job, and 24% left the labor force directly from that FTC job. (Fig. 4, p. 4)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 23% of male full-time career (FTC) workers in self-employment positions in 1992 were still in that position in 2004. 23% of those workers transitioned to a self-employment bridge job, 32% moved to a wage-and-salary job,...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 23% of male full-time career (FTC) workers in self-employment positions in 1992 were still in that position in 2004. 23% of those workers transitioned to a self-employment bridge job, 32% moved to a wage-and-salary job, and 22% left the labor force directly from that FTC job. (Fig. 4, p. 4)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 17% of female full-time career (FTC) workers in self-employment positions in 1992 were still in that position in 2004. 27% of those workers transitioned to a self-employment bridge job, 32% moved to a wage-and-salary job,...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 17% of female full-time career (FTC) workers in self-employment positions in 1992 were still in that position in 2004. 27% of those workers transitioned to a self-employment bridge job, 32% moved to a wage-and-salary job, and 24% left the labor force directly from that FTC job. (Fig. 4, p. 4)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, male and female wage-and-salary workers are less likely to become self-employed if they describe their health as "fair/poor" as opposed to "good" or "excellent." (Fig. 5, p. 5)

Based on a 2008 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, male and female wage-and-salary workers are less likely to become self-employed if they describe their health as "fair/poor" as opposed to "good" or "excellent." (Fig. 5, p. 5)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, "transitions into self employment were relatively common among college-educated men, where 22% who had left a FTC wage-and-salary job transitioned to self employment. Conversely, among wage-and-salary men with less than...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, "transitions into self employment were relatively common among college-educated men, where 22% who had left a FTC wage-and-salary job transitioned to self employment. Conversely, among wage-and-salary men with less than a college degree, only 10% moved to self employment when they left their FTC job.15% of female wage-and-salary workers with a college degree transitioned to self-employment, while only 9% of non-college-educated women did the same." (Fig. 6, p. 6)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, less than 10% of male wage-and-salary workers making less than $10/hour switched to self-employment, while 18% of workers making $20-$50/hour did so. The trend was the same for female workers, although the difference was not as...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, less than 10% of male wage-and-salary workers making less than $10/hour switched to self-employment, while 18% of workers making $20-$50/hour did so. The trend was the same for female workers, although the difference was not as large. (Fig. 7, p. 6)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, approximately 19% of male wage-and-salary workers in white-collar, highly-skilled positions transitioned to self-employment, while 5% of workers in blue-collar, not highly-skilled positions did the same. 16% of workers...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, approximately 19% of male wage-and-salary workers in white-collar, highly-skilled positions transitioned to self-employment, while 5% of workers in blue-collar, not highly-skilled positions did the same. 16% of workers in white collar, not highly-skilled positions transitioned to self-employment, as did 10% of blue collar, high-skilled workers. (Fig. 8, p. 7)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, "wage-and-salary women in blue-collar, non-highly-skilled jobs were more likely than those in white-collar, highly-skilled jobs to switch into self-employment" (7). These workers in blue-collar, non-highly skilled positions...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, "wage-and-salary women in blue-collar, non-highly-skilled jobs were more likely than those in white-collar, highly-skilled jobs to switch into self-employment" (7). These workers in blue-collar, non-highly skilled positions "were younger, more likely to have a college degree, more likely to be married, and more likely to have children at home". (Fig. 8, p. 7)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 18% of men and 14% of women in full-time career positions who received inheritances (particularly, large ones) decided to transition to self-employment. The number of men and women without inheritances who transitions to...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, 18% of men and 14% of women in full-time career positions who received inheritances (particularly, large ones) decided to transition to self-employment. The number of men and women without inheritances who transitions to self-employment were 12% and 10%, respectively. (Fig. 9, p. 8)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

According to a 2008 analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics and Current Population Survey data, in 2007, the labor force participation rate for men aged 55-59 was 77.8%, compared to 66.6% for women.  For ages 60-64, the rates were 59.2% for men and 47.9% for women.  For 65-69 year olds, the...

According to a 2008 analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics and Current Population Survey data, in 2007, the labor force participation rate for men aged 55-59 was 77.8%, compared to 66.6% for women.  For ages 60-64, the rates were 59.2% for men and 47.9% for women.  For 65-69 year olds, the rates were 34.3% and 25.7% respectively, and for 70-74 years olds, 21.2% for men and 14.0% for women. (Table 5, p. 47)

Gendell, M. (2008). Older workers: Increasing their labor force participation and hours of work. Monthly Labor Review, 131(1), 41-54. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/01/art3full.pdf

This report is based on the author's analysis of data collected annually by the Social Security Administration and on data from the Current Population Survey and Bureau of Labor Statistics.

According to a 2006 report on sources of income for older persons, "older men were twice as likely (42.6 percent) as older women (21.7 percent) to have income from pensions and retirement savings, and the men's median retirement income of $12,334 was almost two times that of women ($6,804)...About...

According to a 2006 report on sources of income for older persons, "older men were twice as likely (42.6 percent) as older women (21.7 percent) to have income from pensions and retirement savings, and the men's median retirement income of $12,334 was almost two times that of women ($6,804)...About 24 percent of older men had income from earnings, with a median of $24,000 while 14.7 percent of older women had earnings income, with a median of $15,000." (p. 3)

Wu, K. B. (2008). Sources of income for older persons, 2006. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs143_income.pdf

This report includes information about income sources for individuals age 65 and older in 2006 obtained from the March 2007 Current Population Survey (CPS)

According to a 2008 BLS report, "between 1977 and 2007, employment of workers 65 and over increased 101 percent, compared to a much smaller increase of 59 percent for total employment (16 and over). The number of employed men 65 and over rose 75 percent, but employment of women 65 and older increased...

According to a 2008 BLS report, "between 1977 and 2007, employment of workers 65 and over increased 101 percent, compared to a much smaller increase of 59 percent for total employment (16 and over). The number of employed men 65 and over rose 75 percent, but employment of women 65 and older increased by nearly twice as much, climbing 147 percent. While the number of employed people age 75 and over is relatively small (0.8 percent of the employed in 2007), this group had the most dramatic gain, increasing 172 percent between 1977 and 2007."


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Spotlight on statistics: Older workers. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://stats.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/older_workers/pdf/older_workers_bls_spotlight.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and BLS Employment Projections.

According to a 2008 BLS report, "in 1977, about one-third of employed women 65 and older were married, but by 2007, married women accounted for nearly one-half of these workers. Women workers who were widowed, divorced or separated represented 56 percent of employed women 65 and older in 1977; by 2007...

According to a 2008 BLS report, "in 1977, about one-third of employed women 65 and older were married, but by 2007, married women accounted for nearly one-half of these workers. Women workers who were widowed, divorced or separated represented 56 percent of employed women 65 and older in 1977; by 2007 their share had fallen to 48 percent. During the same time period, the fraction of older women workers who were never married shrank from about 11 percent to about 6 percent."


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Spotlight on statistics: Older workers. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://stats.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/older_workers/pdf/older_workers_bls_spotlight.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and BLS Employment Projections.

According to a 2008 BLS report, "earnings of workers 65 and older have long been below those of all workers. In 1979, median weekly earnings for full-time workers age 65 and older were $198 compared to $240 for all full-time employees age 16 and up. In 2007, earnings of older workers were $605 per week,...

According to a 2008 BLS report, "earnings of workers 65 and older have long been below those of all workers. In 1979, median weekly earnings for full-time workers age 65 and older were $198 compared to $240 for all full-time employees age 16 and up. In 2007, earnings of older workers were $605 per week, still below the median of $695 for all workers. (All of these earnings amounts are in current dollars.) Over the long term, however, earnings of older workers have risen at a slightly faster pace than the total workforce. In 1979, median earnings of older full-time employees were 83 percent of those ages 16 and up; but, by 2007, that ratio had climbed to 87 percent."


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Spotlight on statistics: Older workers. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://stats.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/older_workers/pdf/older_workers_bls_spotlight.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and BLS Employment Projections.

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, "among men aged 55 to 61, 73% were employed in March 2008, compared with 72% in March 1990. Employment among women aged 55 to 61 rose to 63% in March 2008 from 50% in March 1990." (p. 5)

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, "among men aged 55 to 61, 73% were employed in March 2008, compared with 72% in March 1990. Employment among women aged 55 to 61 rose to 63% in March 2008 from 50% in March 1990." (p. 5)

Purcell, P. (2008). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends - September 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This paper presents an analysis of data from the Census Bureau's March 2008 Current Population Survey on employment and receipt of pension income among persons age 55 and older, and data from the Social Security Administration on the proportion of workers who claim retired-worker benefits before the full retirement age.

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, 52% of 62- to 64-year-old men were employed in March 2008, compared with 42% in March 1990. The proportion of 62-64-year-old men who worked full-time rose from 77% to 82% in this same time period. Among women aged 62 to 64, employment increased from 28% in March...

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, 52% of 62- to 64-year-old men were employed in March 2008, compared with 42% in March 1990. The proportion of 62-64-year-old men who worked full-time rose from 77% to 82% in this same time period. Among women aged 62 to 64, employment increased from 28% in March 1990 to 41% in March 2008. The percentage of 62- to 64-year-old working women who were employed full-time increased from 61% to 65%. (p. 5)

Purcell, P. (2008). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends - September 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This paper presents an analysis of data from the Census Bureau's March 2008 Current Population Survey on employment and receipt of pension income among persons age 55 and older, and data from the Social Security Administration on the proportion of workers who claim retired-worker benefits before the full retirement age.

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, 17% of men aged 55 to 64 were receiving pension income in 2007; this represents a decline from 19% who received such income in 2000. Over the same period, the proportion of men aged 65 or older receiving pension income also fell, declining from 43% in 2000...

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, 17% of men aged 55 to 64 were receiving pension income in 2007; this represents a decline from 19% who received such income in 2000. Over the same period, the proportion of men aged 65 or older receiving pension income also fell, declining from 43% in 2000 to 41.6% in 2007. The proportion of women aged 55 to 64 with pension income fell slightly from 12% in 2000 to 11% in 2007. Among women 65 or older, 28% received income from pensions and retirement savings plans in 2007, compared to 29% in 2000. (p. 8)




Purcell, P. (2008). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends - September 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This paper presents an analysis of data from the Census Bureau's March 2008 Current Population Survey on employment and receipt of pension income among persons age 55 and older, and data from the Social Security Administration on the proportion of workers who claim retired-worker benefits before the full retirement age.

According to a 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data, "in 2006, 38.1% of men aged 62 to 64 were receiving Social Security retired worker benefits. This was 8.7 percentage points lower than in 1995, Among women, the percentage of 62- to 64-year-olds who were receiving Social Security retired...

According to a 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data, "in 2006, 38.1% of men aged 62 to 64 were receiving Social Security retired worker benefits. This was 8.7 percentage points lower than in 1995, Among women, the percentage of 62- to 64-year-olds who were receiving Social Security retired worker benefits was generally stable over the period from 1990 to 2000 at about 36%, but by 2006, the percentage had fallen to 34.3%." (Table 8, p. 12)

Purcell, P. (2008). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends - September 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This paper presents an analysis of data from the Census Bureau's March 2008 Current Population Survey on employment and receipt of pension income among persons age 55 and older, and data from the Social Security Administration on the proportion of workers who claim retired-worker benefits before the full retirement age.

According to a 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data, "37% of men and 35% of women aged 55 to 64 who received income from a pension in 2007 were employed in March 2008." (Table 6, p. 13)

According to a 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data, "37% of men and 35% of women aged 55 to 64 who received income from a pension in 2007 were employed in March 2008." (Table 6, p. 13)

Purcell, P. (2008). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends - September 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This paper presents an analysis of data from the Census Bureau's March 2008 Current Population Survey on employment and receipt of pension income among persons age 55 and older, and data from the Social Security Administration on the proportion of workers who claim retired-worker benefits before the full retirement age.

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, men 65 to 69 were about six percentage points less likely to be retired in 2004 than in 1992. " (p. 4)

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, men 65 to 69 were about six percentage points less likely to be retired in 2004 than in 1992. " (p. 4)


Gustman, A. L., & Steinmeier, T. (2008). How changes in social security affect recent retirement trends (Working Paper No. 14105). Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://papers.nber.org/papers/w14105

This paper uses Health and Retirement Study data to document the changes in retirement status among cohorts. For those 65 to 67, there is a clear trend toward later retirement. (p. 18)

According to a 2008 analysis of HRS data, "between 1998 and 2004, the fraction of 65 to 67 year old men who were completely retired (working less than 99 hours per year) declined by 3.1 percentage points." The fraction of men aged 65-67 who reported that they are not retired (working 1250 hours per...

According to a 2008 analysis of HRS data, "between 1998 and 2004, the fraction of 65 to 67 year old men who were completely retired (working less than 99 hours per year) declined by 3.1 percentage points." The fraction of men aged 65-67 who reported that they are not retired (working 1250 hours per year or more) increased by 3.0 percentage points during the same period.(Table 2, p. 4)


Gustman, A. L., & Steinmeier, T. (2008). How changes in social security affect recent retirement trends (Working Paper No. 14105). Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://papers.nber.org/papers/w14105

This paper uses Health and Retirement Study data to document the changes in retirement status among cohorts. For those 65 to 67, there is a clear trend toward later retirement. (p. 18)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "seven out of every ten workers cite enjoyment as a major factor explaining why they work.  When asked to name the single most important reason for working, enjoyment of work was one of the top three single most important reasons." (p. 24)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "seven out of every ten workers cite enjoyment as a major factor explaining why they work.  When asked to name the single most important reason for working, enjoyment of work was one of the top three single most important reasons." (p. 24)


Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "planning to work for pay during retirement is more likely among men (73%) than women (63%) and among older workers with household annual incomes of less than $80,000 (75%) than those with incomes of $80,000 or more. (p. 86)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "planning to work for pay during retirement is more likely among men (73%) than women (63%) and among older workers with household annual incomes of less than $80,000 (75%) than those with incomes of $80,000 or more. (p. 86)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

In a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, enjoyment of working or enjoyment of the job was reported as a major reason for working by 69% of the male and 71% of female respondents (Table 2, p. 26)

In a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, enjoyment of working or enjoyment of the job was reported as a major reason for working by 69% of the male and 71% of female respondents (Table 2, p. 26)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

In a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, 31% of men and 36% of women ranked the ability to work from home as an essential part of their ideal job. (Table 9, p. 54)

In a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, 31% of men and 36% of women ranked the ability to work from home as an essential part of their ideal job. (Table 9, p. 54)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, 75% of women and 78% of men considered "need the money" as a major reason for working.  The need to maintain health insurance coverage was cited by 63% of men and 58% of women.   The need to support family members was a major reason for working for...

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, 75% of women and 78% of men considered "need the money" as a major reason for working.  The need to maintain health insurance coverage was cited by 63% of men and 58% of women.   The need to support family members was a major reason for working for 53% of men and 38% of women. (Table 1, p. 22)


Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work.  1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007.  Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

A 2008 survey of U.S. adults shows that older Americans are more likely than younger ones to have lived in four or more states. Looking at the combined impact of age and gender, 25% of men and 15% of women ages 50 and older say they have lived in four or more states. (p. 13)

A 2008 survey of U.S. adults shows that older Americans are more likely than younger ones to have lived in four or more states. Looking at the combined impact of age and gender, 25% of men and 15% of women ages 50 and older say they have lived in four or more states. (p. 13)

Cohn, D., & Morin, R. (2008). American mobility: Who moves? who stays put? where's home?. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/Movers-and-Stayers.pdf

Results for this survey are based on telephone interviews conducted with a nationally representative sample of 2,260 adults living in the continental United States.

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, among reasons for working relating to future financial needs, 65% of men and 63% of women mentioned saving more for retirement as a reason for working.  Qualifying for social security and fulfilling pension requirements were mentioned by around 40% of both...

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, among reasons for working relating to future financial needs, 65% of men and 63% of women mentioned saving more for retirement as a reason for working.  Qualifying for social security and fulfilling pension requirements were mentioned by around 40% of both men and women. (Table 3, p. 29)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics. 

In a 2008 survey of older adults, women were slightly more likely than men to report social and psychological reasons for working.  For example, 71% of women and 69% of men mentioned "enjoy the job/enjoy working" as a reason for working.  Over half of women mentioned feeling useful (55%) and...

In a 2008 survey of older adults, women were slightly more likely than men to report social and psychological reasons for working.  For example, 71% of women and 69% of men mentioned "enjoy the job/enjoy working" as a reason for working.  Over half of women mentioned feeling useful (55%) and being able to interact with people (51%), compared to 49% and 41% of men, respectively. (Table 2, p. 26)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics. 

In a 2008 analysis of CPS data, "across all age groups women faced higher rates of underemployment" [defined as either unemployed, discouraged, involuntary part-time, or earnings less than 125% of the poverty threshold]. Among workers aged 20-29 in 2003-2005, underemployment rates were 24.7% for women,...

In a 2008 analysis of CPS data, "across all age groups women faced higher rates of underemployment" [defined as either unemployed, discouraged, involuntary part-time, or earnings less than 125% of the poverty threshold]. Among workers aged 20-29 in 2003-2005, underemployment rates were 24.7% for women, compared to 23.6% for men.  For workers aged 60-64, 16.9% of women report underemployment, compared to 12.1% of men. (Table 2, p. S18)
 

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2008). Employment hardship among older workers: Does residential and gender inequality extend into older age? The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 63(1), S15-24.

This study is based on data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers. (p. S15) 

According to 2008 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, number of unemployed persons was highest for among those aged 25-34, with 1,119,000 men and 830,000 women reporting being unemployed during some time period of that year. In contrast, for persons aged 55-64, the number of unemployed were 425,000...

According to 2008 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, number of unemployed persons was highest for among those aged 25-34, with 1,119,000 men and 830,000 women reporting being unemployed during some time period of that year. In contrast, for persons aged 55-64, the number of unemployed were 425,000 for men and 377,000 for women.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. (2008). Unemployed persons by age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, marital status, and duration of unemployment. Retrieved February 19, 2009, from ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/lf/aat31.txt

Data from the 2008 Bureau of Labor Statistics Household Data Annual Averages, Table 31.

A 2008 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that "in 2007, 42.6 percent of men age 65 and over received annuity and/or pension income, with a mean amount of $18,293 per year. In comparison, only 27.9 percent of women age 65 and over received annuity and/or pension income that year, with mean pension...

A 2008 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that "in 2007, 42.6 percent of men age 65 and over received annuity and/or pension income, with a mean amount of $18,293 per year. In comparison, only 27.9 percent of women age 65 and over received annuity and/or pension income that year, with mean pension income of $11,895. Hence, a woman age 65 and over in 2007 was almost two-thirds (65.5 percent) as likely to receive an annuity and/or pension payment as her male counterpart. If she did receive one, her mean benefit was likely to be about 65 percent of that received by a man in the same age group." (p. 3)

McDonnell, K. (2008). Retirement annuity and employment-based pension income among individuals age 50 and over: 2007 (EBRI Notes Vol. 29 No. 11). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_11-2008.pdf

This article provides an analysis of data from the March 2008 Census Bureau's Current Population survey on retirement annuity and pension income for the population age 50 and over.

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "about 13 percent of women aged 55-64 in 2004 had less than a high school education compared with 32 percent in 1984. In 2004, one-half (50 percent) of women aged 55-64 had at least some college education compared with only slightly...

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "about 13 percent of women aged 55-64 in 2004 had less than a high school education compared with 32 percent in 1984. In 2004, one-half (50 percent) of women aged 55-64 had at least some college education compared with only slightly more than a fifth (22 percent) in 1984. The percentage of women aged 55-64 with a college degree more than doubled over the past 20 years from 10 percent in 1984 to 24 percent in 2004. (p. 3)

Iams, H. M., Phillips, J. R. W., Robinson, K., Deang, L., & Dushi, I. (2008). Cohort changes in the retirement resources of older women. Social Security Bulletin, 68(4), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v68n4/v68n4p1.pdf

The method of analysis is a cross-cohort comparison of well-being measures of three cohorts of women aged 55-64 in 1984, 1994, and 2004, just before they become eligible for Medicare and full Social Security benefits. Sources include the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), Social Security benefit data from published statistical tables, and data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "between 1984 and 2004, the proportion of women aged 55-64 who were married decreased slightly from 70 percent to 67 percent. The proportion of women aged 55-64 who were divorced doubled over the past two decades from 9 percent...

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "between 1984 and 2004, the proportion of women aged 55-64 who were married decreased slightly from 70 percent to 67 percent. The proportion of women aged 55-64 who were divorced doubled over the past two decades from 9 percent to 18 percent, whereas the proportion widowed declined from 17 percent to 10 percent." (p. 3)

Iams, H. M., Phillips, J. R. W., Robinson, K., Deang, L., & Dushi, I. (2008). Cohort changes in the retirement resources of older women. Social Security Bulletin, 68(4), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v68n4/v68n4p1.pdf

The method of analysis is a cross-cohort comparison of well-being measures of three cohorts of women aged 55-64 in 1984, 1994, and 2004, just before they become eligible for Medicare and full Social Security benefits. Sources include the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), Social Security benefit data from published statistical tables, and data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "women aged 55-64 became somewhat more diverse with respect to race and Hispanic origin over the past two decades. The percentage of non-Hispanic white women decreased from about 84 percent in 1984 to about 77 percent in 2004,...

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "women aged 55-64 became somewhat more diverse with respect to race and Hispanic origin over the past two decades. The percentage of non-Hispanic white women decreased from about 84 percent in 1984 to about 77 percent in 2004, and the percentage of Hispanics increased from 4 percent in 1984 to 8 percent in 2004 (Chart 3). The percentage of non-Hispanic black women remained relatively stable from 9 percent to 10 percent." (p. 3)

Iams, H. M., Phillips, J. R. W., Robinson, K., Deang, L., & Dushi, I. (2008). Cohort changes in the retirement resources of older women. Social Security Bulletin, 68(4), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v68n4/v68n4p1.pdf

The method of analysis is a cross-cohort comparison of well-being measures of three cohorts of women aged 55-64 in 1984, 1994, and 2004, just before they become eligible for Medicare and full Social Security benefits. Sources include the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), Social Security benefit data from published statistical tables, and data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "the labor force participation rates for women both at ages 55-61 and 62-64 have seen dramatic increases. Between 1984 and 2004, labor force participation rates increased from 47 percent to 62 percent for women aged 55-61 and...

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "the labor force participation rates for women both at ages 55-61 and 62-64 have seen dramatic increases. Between 1984 and 2004, labor force participation rates increased from 47 percent to 62 percent for women aged 55-61 and from 29 percent to 39 percent for women aged 62-64. (p. 3)

Iams, H. M., Phillips, J. R. W., Robinson, K., Deang, L., & Dushi, I. (2008). Cohort changes in the retirement resources of older women. Social Security Bulletin, 68(4), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v68n4/v68n4p1.pdf

The method of analysis is a cross-cohort comparison of well-being measures of three cohorts of women aged 55-64 in 1984, 1994, and 2004, just before they become eligible for Medicare and full Social Security benefits. Sources include the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), Social Security benefit data from published statistical tables, and data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "in 2004, 63 percent of women aged 55-64 had participated in a pension plan during their working life compared with 52 percent of their counterparts in 1994. In contrast, the percentage of men who ever participated in a pension...

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "in 2004, 63 percent of women aged 55-64 had participated in a pension plan during their working life compared with 52 percent of their counterparts in 1994. In contrast, the percentage of men who ever participated in a pension plan remained stable at about 75 percent, with a pension in both years. (p. 6)

Iams, H. M., Phillips, J. R. W., Robinson, K., Deang, L., & Dushi, I. (2008). Cohort changes in the retirement resources of older women. Social Security Bulletin, 68(4), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v68n4/v68n4p1.pdf

The method of analysis is a cross-cohort comparison of well-being measures of three cohorts of women aged 55-64 in 1984, 1994, and 2004, just before they become eligible for Medicare and full Social Security benefits. Sources include the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), Social Security benefit data from published statistical tables, and data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "in 2004, 42 percent of men aged 55-64 had employer-based retiree health insurance compared with 35 percent of women. While the percentage of men with this type of health insurance has remained relatively stable, the corresponding...

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "in 2004, 42 percent of men aged 55-64 had employer-based retiree health insurance compared with 35 percent of women. While the percentage of men with this type of health insurance has remained relatively stable, the corresponding percentage for women increased substantially from 20 percent in 1994 to 35 percent in 2004. (p. 9)

Iams, H. M., Phillips, J. R. W., Robinson, K., Deang, L., & Dushi, I. (2008). Cohort changes in the retirement resources of older women. Social Security Bulletin, 68(4), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v68n4/v68n4p1.pdf

The method of analysis is a cross-cohort comparison of well-being measures of three cohorts of women aged 55-64 in 1984, 1994, and 2004, just before they become eligible for Medicare and full Social Security benefits. Sources include the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), Social Security benefit data from published statistical tables, and data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2008 AARP survey, "women are more likely than men to have considered delaying their retirement (40% versus 29%)" due to recent changes in the economy. (p. iii)

According to a 2008 AARP survey, "women are more likely than men to have considered delaying their retirement (40% versus 29%)" due to recent changes in the economy. (p. iii)

Thayer, C. (2008). Retirement security or insecurity? the experience of workers aged 45 and older. Washington, DC: AARP Knowledge Management. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/retirement_survey_08.pdf

This study was conducted for AARP via telephone by International Communications Research. Interviews were conducted from September 3-21, 2008 among a nationally representative sample of 1628 people ages 45 and older, with an over-sampling of Hispanic respondents.

In a 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, James and Spiro found that, among men ages 63 to 73, the disabled had average depression levels (abbreviated CES-D) of 2.4, compared to 1.4 for the retired, 1.5 for those working part-time, and 1.0 for those working full time.  Among women...

In a 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, James and Spiro found that, among men ages 63 to 73, the disabled had average depression levels (abbreviated CES-D) of 2.4, compared to 1.4 for the retired, 1.5 for those working part-time, and 1.0 for those working full time.  Among women ages 63 to 73, the disabled had average depression levels (abbreviated CES-D) of 3.1, compared to 2.0 for the retired, 1.3 for those working part-time, and 1.5 for those working full time. (James & Spiro, 2007: 161).


James, J. B., & & Spiro, A. (2007). The impact of work on the psychological health and well-being of older Americans. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics 26: The Crown of Life: Dynamics of the Early Post-Retirement Period, 26, 153-174.

The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) surveys more than 22,000 Americans over the age of 50 every two years. Supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA U01AG009740), the study paints an emerging portrait of an aging America's physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning.

According to a 2006 analysis of the Health and Retirement Study, which surveyed Americans who were aged 51-61 in 1992, "90 percent of the men and 75 percent of the women worked for pay since age 50.  About three quarters (73%) of the men and just under half (46%) of the women had a full-time career...

According to a 2006 analysis of the Health and Retirement Study, which surveyed Americans who were aged 51-61 in 1992, "90 percent of the men and 75 percent of the women worked for pay since age 50.  About three quarters (73%) of the men and just under half (46%) of the women had a full-time career job at age 50 or older."


Cahill, K. E., Giandrea, M. D., & Quinn, J. F. (2007). Down shifting: The role of bridge jobs after career employment. (Issue Brief No. 6). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 30, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB06_DownShifting_003.pdf


"This Issue Brief focuses on how people leave their career employment and the role that one particular type of flexible work arrange, bridge jobs, plays in the retirement transitions of older Americans."

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study it was found that "Men [58%] and women [62%] who rated their health as excellent or very good were more likely than those who rated their health as fair or poor [Men: 44%, Women: 43%] to take on bridge jobs." (p.4-5)

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study it was found that "Men [58%] and women [62%] who rated their health as excellent or very good were more likely than those who rated their health as fair or poor [Men: 44%, Women: 43%] to take on bridge jobs." (p.4-5)

Cahill, K. E., Giandrea, M. D., & Quinn, J. F. (2007). Down shifting: The role of bridge jobs after career employment. (Issue Brief No. 6). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 30, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB06_DownShifting_003.pdf

"This Issue Brief focuses on how people leave their career employment and the role that one particular type of flexible work arrange, bridge jobs, plays in the retirement transitions of older Americans." (p.1)

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, focusing on the War Baby cohort (born 1942-1947), it was found that 37 percent of women with medium-low wage rates ($6-$10 per hour) were working in bridge jobs in 2004, compared to 31percent women earning low wages (less than $6 per hour),...

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, focusing on the War Baby cohort (born 1942-1947), it was found that 37 percent of women with medium-low wage rates ($6-$10 per hour) were working in bridge jobs in 2004, compared to 31percent women earning low wages (less than $6 per hour), 32 percent of women earning medium-high wages ($10-$20 per hour), and 28 percent of women earning high wages ($20 or more per hour). (Table 8)

Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2007). An update on bridge jobs: The HRS war babies (Working Paper No. 407). Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved October 30, 2007 from http://www.bls.gov/ore/abstract/ec/ec070060.htm

"This paper explores the retirement patterns of a younger cohort of individuals from the HRS [Health and Retirement Study] known as the "War Babies" These survey respondents were born between 1942 and 1947 and were 57 to 62 years of age at the time of their fourth bi-annual HRS interview in 2004." (p.2)

According to a 2007analysis of U.S. Census data by the Congressional Research Service, "In 2006, 91% of men and 76% of women aged 25 to 54 participated in the labor force. In contrast, just 70% of men and 58% of women aged 55 to 64 were either working or looking for work in 2006." (p. 2)

According to a 2007analysis of U.S. Census data by the Congressional Research Service, "In 2006, 91% of men and 76% of women aged 25 to 54 participated in the labor force. In contrast, just 70% of men and 58% of women aged 55 to 64 were either working or looking for work in 2006." (p. 2)

Purcell, P. (2007). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved September 11, 2007 from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This Congressional Research Service Report was prepared for members and committees of Congress using 2007 data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2007 analysis of U.S. Census data by the Congressional Research Service, "in March 2007, 49% of men aged 62 to 64 were employed. Of men aged 65 to 69, 33%, were employed, compared with 27% in 1995 and 26% in 1990. Among women 62 to 64 years old, 42% were working in March 2007, compared...

According to a 2007 analysis of U.S. Census data by the Congressional Research Service, "in March 2007, 49% of men aged 62 to 64 were employed. Of men aged 65 to 69, 33%, were employed, compared with 27% in 1995 and 26% in 1990. Among women 62 to 64 years old, 42% were working in March 2007, compared with 32% in 1995 and 28% in 1990, whereas among women 65 to 69 years old, 26% were working, compared with 17% in 1995 and 1990." (p. 2)

Purcell, P. (2007). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved September 11, 2007 from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This Congressional Research Service Report was prepared for members and committees of Congress using 2007 data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2007 study of employee benefits trends, "Women are more concerned about outliving their retirement money -- 62% versus 45% for males." Similarly, 57% of women report concerns about having to work full-time or part-time to live comfortably during retirement. (p. 23)

According to a 2007 study of employee benefits trends, "Women are more concerned about outliving their retirement money -- 62% versus 45% for males." Similarly, 57% of women report concerns about having to work full-time or part-time to live comfortably during retirement. (p. 23)

Metlife. (2007). Study of employee benefits trends: Findings from the national survey of employers and employees. New York, NY: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from http://www.whymetlife.com/trends/

This study summarizes the results of a national survey of 1,514 benefits decision-makers and 1,202 full-time employees concerning employee benefits, marketplace trends and their overall financial situations.

According to a 2007 study of employee benefits trend, "being able to afford health care in retirement, the top concern for all employees, is far more important to females (73%) than males (52%)." (p. 23)

According to a 2007 study of employee benefits trend, "being able to afford health care in retirement, the top concern for all employees, is far more important to females (73%) than males (52%)." (p. 23)

Metlife. (2007). Study of employee benefits trends: Findings from the national survey of employers and employees. New York, NY: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from http://www.whymetlife.com/trends/

This study summarizes the results of a national survey of 1,514 benefits decision-makers and 1,202 full-time employees concerning employee benefits, marketplace trends and their overall financial situations.

According to a 2007 AARP survey, "35% of workers 60 years of age or older reported working part-time, while significantly fewer younger workers reported similar arrangements (18% of 55-59 year olds and 11% of 50-54 year olds reported part-time). Significantly more females (26%) reported a part-time...

According to a 2007 AARP survey, "35% of workers 60 years of age or older reported working part-time, while significantly fewer younger workers reported similar arrangements (18% of 55-59 year olds and 11% of 50-54 year olds reported part-time). Significantly more females (26%) reported a part-time work schedule than their male counterparts (8%)." (p. 1)

Nelson, D. V. (2007). AARP bulletin poll on workers 50+: Executive summary. Washington DC: AARP Knowledge Management. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/employment/workers_poll.html

This telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 510 age 50+ "workers" (employed full-time, part-time or temporarily unemployed) was conducted for AARP and the AARP Bulletin by International Communications Research (ICR) using its national omnibus survey between August 1st and 8th, 2007.

According to 2006 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the labor force participation rate for men aged 25-54 was 90.6%. For men aged 55-64, the rate was 69.6%.  For men aged 65 and up, the rate was 20.3%.  For women, the labor force participation rates were 75.5% for ages 25-54, 58.2%...

According to 2006 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the labor force participation rate for men aged 25-54 was 90.6%. For men aged 55-64, the rate was 69.6%.  For men aged 65 and up, the rate was 20.3%.  For women, the labor force participation rates were 75.5% for ages 25-54, 58.2% for ages 55-64, and 11.7% for ages 65 and up.

Purcell, P. (2007). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This Congressional Research Service Report was prepared for Members and Committees of Congress using 2007 data from the U.S. Census Bureau

A 2007 analysis of Census Bureau Data shows that "female labor-force participation rates for those ages 55-59 and 60-64 increased sharply from 1975-2006. The 1975 rate for females ages 55-59 was 47.9 percent, compared with 66.7 percent in 2006. The older female age groups also had an upward trend, but...

A 2007 analysis of Census Bureau Data shows that "female labor-force participation rates for those ages 55-59 and 60-64 increased sharply from 1975-2006. The 1975 rate for females ages 55-59 was 47.9 percent, compared with 66.7 percent in 2006. The older female age groups also had an upward trend, but not as sharply as those for the females ages 55-64." (fig. 4, p. 5)

Copeland, C. (2007). Labor-force participation: The population age 55 and older. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/EBRI_Notes_06-2007.pdf

This article examines recent U.S. Census Bureau data on labor-force participation among Americans age 55 and older. The first section uses annualized data on labor-force participation from the Current Population Survey (1975-2006) and data from the March 2007 Current Population Survey.

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Work Schedules and Work at Home Survey, the percentages of employed women and men aged 25-54 reported that they had flexible schedules were 29.8% and 29.3%, respectively. For workers aged 55 and older, 28.8% of women and 32.8% of men had flexible schedules. (Table...

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Work Schedules and Work at Home Survey, the percentages of employed women and men aged 25-54 reported that they had flexible schedules were 29.8% and 29.3%, respectively. For workers aged 55 and older, 28.8% of women and 32.8% of men had flexible schedules. (Table 3, p. 8)

McMenamin, T. M. (2007). A time to work: Recent trends in shift work and flexible schedules. Monthly Labor Review, 130(12), 3-15. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2007/12/art1full.pdf

This report is an examination of data from the Work Schedules and Work at Home survey, a special supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted in May 2004, which obtained information on individuals' work schedules or shifts and on whether they did any job-related work at home.

According to a 2007 analysis of HRS data, 66 percent of the self-employed age 51 and above are male compared with 49 percent of wage and salary workers.  (p. 12)

According to a 2007 analysis of HRS data, 66 percent of the self-employed age 51 and above are male compared with 49 percent of wage and salary workers.  (p. 12)

Zissimopoulos, J., & Karoly, L. A. (2007). Work and well-being among the self-employed at older ages (Research Report No. 2007-04). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/2007_04_work.pdf

This study is based on analysis data available from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The HRS offers biennial longitudinal data from 1992 to 2004 for respondents born from 1931 to 1941 and their spouses. This project uses final release data from 1992 to 2002. (p. vii)

According to a 2006 survey, " women (43%) are more likely than men (30%) to work because they need the income to live on. And single (64%) and divorced (61%) employees are almost twice as likely as those who are married (36%) to continue to work because they need the income to live on." (p.12)

According to a 2006 survey, " women (43%) are more likely than men (30%) to work because they need the income to live on. And single (64%) and divorced (61%) employees are almost twice as likely as those who are married (36%) to continue to work because they need the income to live on." (p.12)

DeLong, D. (2006). Living longer, working longer: The changing landscape of the aging workforce- a MetLife Study.  New York, NY: MetLife Mature Market Institute.   Retrieved August 10, 2006, from http://www.metlife.com/WPSAssets/93703586101144176243V1FLivingLonger.pdf

"This study consisted of an interactive online survey conducted by Zogby with a panel of 2,719 respondents. To qualify for the study, participants had to be between the ages of 55-70. Slight weights were added to region, race and gender to more accurately reflect the population of U.S. adults. A primary focus of the 50-question survey was to better understand the experiences and behaviors of the aging workforce, so the survey included many questions asked only of people who were still working or seeking work, either full- or part-time.”

According to a 2006 survey of older workers, "Overall, respondents expect to live to a median age of '81-85.' This estimate is in keeping with today's average life expectancy, which for 55-70 year olds ranges from 79-83 years for men and from 83-86 years for women." (p.18)

According to a 2006 survey of older workers, "Overall, respondents expect to live to a median age of '81-85.' This estimate is in keeping with today's average life expectancy, which for 55-70 year olds ranges from 79-83 years for men and from 83-86 years for women." (p.18)

MetLife Mature Market Institute. (2006, April). Living longer, working longer: The changing landscape of the aging workforce- a MetLife Study.  New York, NY: MetLife Mature Market Institute, DeLong, D., & Zogby International.  Retrieved August 10, 2006, from http://www.metlife.com/WPSAssets/93703586101144176243V1FLivingLonger.pdf

"This study describes the decisions that older workers are actually making about work and retirement. It reports on their experiences more than their expectations of the journey into retirement, assuming that life stage is not defined by some date, but is rather an ongoing process… It consisted of an interactive online survey conducted by Zogby with a panel of 2,719 respondents. To qualify for the study, participants had to be between the ages of 55-70. Slight weights were added to region, race and gender to more accurately reflect the population of U.S. adults. A primary focus of the 50-question survey was to better understand the experiences and behaviors of the aging workforce, so the survey included many questions asked only of people who were still working or seeking work, either full- or part-time.”

In 2005, 49.0% of the population was male and 51.0% of the population was female. In 2005, 49.0% of individuals aged 45-54 were male and 51.0% were female. In 2005, 47.6% of individuals aged 55-64 were male and 52.4% were female. In 2005, 46.0% of individuals aged 65-74 were male and 54.0% were female....

In 2005, 49.0% of the population was male and 51.0% of the population was female. In 2005, 49.0% of individuals aged 45-54 were male and 51.0% were female. In 2005, 47.6% of individuals aged 55-64 were male and 52.4% were female. In 2005, 46.0% of individuals aged 65-74 were male and 54.0% were female. In 2005, 41.7% of individuals aged 75-84 were male and 58.3% were female. In 2005, 33.2% of individuals aged 85-94 were male and 66.8% were female.

Havens, J. (2006). [Analysis of the U.S. Census Current Population Survey for March 2005]. Unpublished raw data. Center on Wealth and Philanthropy for the Center on Aging & Work / Workplace Flexibility. Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA

"The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey has been conducted for more than 50 years. The CPS is the primary source of information on the labor force characteristics of the U.S. population. The sample is scientifically selected to represent the civilian noninstitutional population. Respondents are interviewed to obtain information about the employment status of each member of the household 15 years of age and older. However, published data focus on those ages 16 and over. The sample provides estimates for the nation as a whole and serves as part of model-based estimates for individual states and other geographic areas. Estimates obtained from the CPS include employment, unemployment, earnings, hours of work, and other indicators...They are available by a variety of demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, marital status, and educational attainment...occupation, industry, and class of worker."

A 2006 study by Chesley and Moen found that "more women (13.4%)  than men (9.6%) [of middle-class, dual-earner couples] provide care consistently…, whereas more men (67.2%) than women (61.8%) have no caregiving responsibilties." (p.1258)

A 2006 study by Chesley and Moen found that "more women (13.4%)  than men (9.6%) [of middle-class, dual-earner couples] provide care consistently…, whereas more men (67.2%) than women (61.8%) have no caregiving responsibilties." (p.1258)

Chesley, N. & Moen, P. (2006, May). When workers care: Dual-earner couples' caregiving strategies, benefit use, and psychological well-being. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(9), 1248-1269.

This study uses data from the Ecology of Careers Study, using only dual-earner, middle class couples (N=884 couples).  "These couples are relatively affluent and well educated, and most respondents (95%) are White." (p.1256-1257)

In 2005, according to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the percentages of individuals filing discrimination charges based on race, sex, and disability were 35.5%, 30.6%, and 19.7%, respectively, compared with 22.0% as a result of age.

In 2005, according to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the percentages of individuals filing discrimination charges based on race, sex, and disability were 35.5%, 30.6%, and 19.7%, respectively, compared with 22.0% as a result of age.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2006). Charge Statistics FY 1992 Through FY 2005. Retrieved October 26, 2006 from http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/charges.html

"The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older from employment discrimination based on age. The ADEA's protections apply to both employees and job applicants. Under the ADEA, it is unlawful to discriminate against a person because of his/her age with respect to any term, condition, or privilege of employment, including hiring, firing, promotion, layoff, compensation, benefits, job assignments, and training. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects individuals against employment discrimination on the bases of race and color, as well as national origin, sex, and religion. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibits private employers, state and local governments, employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment.”

According to a 2006 report, "The drop in male [pension] participation rates [from 55% in 1979 to 45% in 2004] was caused by declines in union membership and employment at large manufacturing firms, and by the rapid growth in 401(k) plans that made employee participation in pensions voluntary. Among...

According to a 2006 report, "The drop in male [pension] participation rates [from 55% in 1979 to 45% in 2004] was caused by declines in union membership and employment at large manufacturing firms, and by the rapid growth in 401(k) plans that made employee participation in pensions voluntary. Among women, the growth in pension participation [from 36% in 1979 to 42% in 2004] was largely the result of improved earnings and an increase in full-time work and -- to a lesser extent -- increased union membership and employment at large firms." (p.2, Tables 2A and 2B)

Munnell, A. H., & Perun, P. (2006). An update on private pensions (Issue Brief No. 50). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/images/stories/Briefs/ib_50.pdf?phpMyAdmin=43ac483c4de9t51d9eb41

Using primarily the 1980 through 2005 Current Population Survey data, ”this brief…explores who is covered by a pension plan and who is not, how much retirees receive in pension income, and how pension coverage and receipt have changed over time. The key finding is that total pension coverage has continued to shift to 401(k) plans. These developments, coupled with declining levels of earnings replacement under Social Security, mean that future retirees will have to work longer if they want to maintain their pre-retirement standard of living in retirement." (p.1)

In 2004, 51% of full time male workers and 51.9% of full time female workers had pension coverage. (p.3, Fig.3)

In 2004, 51% of full time male workers and 51.9% of full time female workers had pension coverage. (p.3, Fig.3)

Munnell, A. H., & Perun, P. (2006). An update on private pensions (Issue Brief No. 50). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/images/stories/Briefs/ib_50.pdf?phpMyAdmin=43ac483c4de9t51d9eb41

Using primarily the 1980 through 2005 Current Population Survey data, ”this brief…explores who is covered by a pension plan and who is not, how much retirees receive in pension income, and how pension coverage and receipt have changed over time. The key finding is that total pension coverage has continued to shift to 401(k) plans. These developments, coupled with declining levels of earnings replacement under Social Security, mean that future retirees will have to work longer if they want to maintain their pre-retirement standard of living in retirement." (p.1)

According to a 2005 Census Bureau report, in 2003, 56.5%, 31.6%, 8% and 3.9% of persons (both men and women) age 65 and above were married, widowed, divorced, and never married, respectively. In 2003, 74.4%, 14.3%, 7% and 4.3% of men age 65 and above were married, widowed, divorced and never married,...

According to a 2005 Census Bureau report, in 2003, 56.5%, 31.6%, 8% and 3.9% of persons (both men and women) age 65 and above were married, widowed, divorced, and never married, respectively.

In 2003, 74.4%, 14.3%, 7% and 4.3% of men age 65 and above were married, widowed, divorced and never married, respectively.

In 2003, 43.3%, 44.3%, 8.7% and 3.7% of women age 65 and above were married, widowed, divorced and never married, respectively.

 

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 31, p. 35). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

 

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

In 2003, 17.8% of men and 10.2% of women age 65 and above were employed.

In 2003, 17.8% of men and 10.2% of women age 65 and above were employed.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 31, p. 35). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

In 2003, 7.7% of men and 12.4% of women age 65 and above lived in poverty.

In 2003, 7.7% of men and 12.4% of women age 65 and above lived in poverty.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 31, p. 35). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

In 2003, 68.7% and 18.6% of men age 55 to 64 and 65 and above, respectively, participated in the labor force. By 2012, these numbers are projected to be 69.9% and 20.8%, respectively.

In 2003, 68.7% and 18.6% of men age 55 to 64 and 65 and above, respectively, participated in the labor force. By 2012, these numbers are projected to be 69.9% and 20.8%, respectively.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Labor force, employment, and earnings. (Section 12, Table 570, p. 371). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)."

In 2001, 28.8% of male and 23.5% of female full-time wage and salary workers age 55 and above reported that they had flexible schedules at their primary jobs.

In 2001, 28.8% of male and 23.5% of female full-time wage and salary workers age 55 and above reported that they had flexible schedules at their primary jobs.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Labor force, employment, and earnings. (Section 12, Table 588, p. 381). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)."

In 2002, female wage and salary workers age 55 to 64 and 65 and above had worked for their employers for a median of 9.6 and 9.5 years, respectively. Approximately 23.4% age 55 to 64 and 25.4% age 65 and above had worked for their employers for 20 years or more. In 2002, male wage and salary workers...

In 2002, female wage and salary workers age 55 to 64 and 65 and above had worked for their employers for a median of 9.6 and 9.5 years, respectively. Approximately 23.4% age 55 to 64 and 25.4% age 65 and above had worked for their employers for 20 years or more.

In 2002, male wage and salary workers age 55 to 64 and 65 and above had worked for their employers for a median of 10.2 and 8.1 years, respectively. Approximately 31.4% age 55 to 64 and 25.8% age 65 and above had worked for their employers for 20 years or more.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Labor force, employment, and earnings. (Section 12, Table 592, p. 383). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)."

In 1980, the unemployment rate of women age 65 and above was 3.1%. In 2003, it was 3.6%. In 1980, the unemployment rate of men age 65 and above was 3.1%. In 2003, it was 4%.

In 1980, the unemployment rate of women age 65 and above was 3.1%. In 2003, it was 3.6%.

In 1980, the unemployment rate of men age 65 and above was 3.1%. In 2003, it was 4%.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Labor force, employment, and earnings. (Section 12, Table 603, p. 393). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)."

In 2002, 55% and 24.9% of all male workers age 45 to 64 and age 65 and above had pension plan coverage. At the same time, 51.7% and 26.2% of all female workers age 45 to 64 and age 65 and above had pension plan coverage.

In 2002, 55% and 24.9% of all male workers age 45 to 64 and age 65 and above had pension plan coverage. At the same time, 51.7% and 26.2% of all female workers age 45 to 64 and age 65 and above had pension plan coverage.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Social insurance and human services. (Section 11, Table 535, p. 353). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents data related to governmental expenditures for social insurance and human services; governmental programs for old-age, survivors, disability, and health insurance (OASDHI); governmental employee retirement; private pension plans; government unemployment and temporary disability insurance; federal supplemental security income payments and aid to the needy; child and other welfare services; and federal food programs." "The principal source for these data is the Social Security Administration's Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin which presents current data on many of the programs."

In 2002, 38.3% of Hispanic male workers aged 45 to 64 had pension plan coverage, compared with 52.9% of Black male workers and 55.6% of White male workers in the same age range. For workers aged 65 and over, 17.6% of Hispanic male workers, 24.2% of Black male workers, and 24.4% of White male workers...

In 2002, 38.3% of Hispanic male workers aged 45 to 64 had pension plan coverage, compared with 52.9% of Black male workers and 55.6% of White male workers in the same age range. For workers aged 65 and over, 17.6% of Hispanic male workers, 24.2% of Black male workers, and 24.4% of White male workers had pension plan coverage.

In 2002, 35.1% of Hispanic female workers aged 45 to 64 had pension plan coverage, compared with 51.9% of Black female workers and 52.0% of White female workers in the same age range. For workers aged 65 and over, 25.2% of Hispanic female workers, 27.9% of Black female workers, and 25.6% of White female workers had pension plan coverage.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Social insurance and human services. (2004-05 Section 11, Table 535, p. 353). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents data related to governmental expenditures for social insurance and human services; governmental programs for old-age, survivors, disability, and health insurance (OASDHI); governmental employee retirement; private pension plans; government unemployment and temporary disability insurance; federal supplemental security income payments and aid to the needy; child and other welfare services; and federal food programs." "The principal source for these data is the Social Security Administration's Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin which presents current data on many of the programs."

According to a 2005 survey, among women and men of all ages, women ages 50 to 64 are the group most likely to be caring for sick and disabled family members.  Nearly one in five (18%) of these women report being a caregiver--a rate two and a half times higher than reported by women 19 to 29." (p.2)

According to a 2005 survey, among women and men of all ages, women ages 50 to 64 are the group most likely to be caring for sick and disabled family members.  Nearly one in five (18%) of these women report being a caregiver--a rate two and a half times higher than reported by women 19 to 29." (p.2)

Ho, A., Sara, R. K., Karen, D., & Michelle, M. D.  (2005, August). A look at working-age caregivers' roles, health concerns, and need for support. (Issue Brief). New York: The Commonwealth Fund.

“Based on data from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, nearly one of 10 working-age adults ages 19 to 64 is caring for a sick or disabled family member, for a total of 16 million caregivers in 2003...This study finds that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to be working, more likely to miss days of work when they are employed, and more likely to lack health insurance coverage.”

According to a 2005 analysis of CPS data, the use of flexible schedules varies by gender, with higher percentages of men reporting use than women in every age group. 31.2% of men 45 to 54 years old use flexible schedules in contrast to 26.8% of women; 28.8% of men 55-64 use in comparison to 23.5% of...

According to a 2005 analysis of CPS data, the use of flexible schedules varies by gender, with higher percentages of men reporting use than women in every age group. 31.2% of men 45 to 54 years old use flexible schedules in contrast to 26.8% of women; 28.8% of men 55-64 use in comparison to 23.5% of the women; and 36.7% of the men 65 years and older in comparison to the 22.0% of the women.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Labor force, employment, and earnings. (Section 12, Table 588, p. 381). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)."

According to a 2005 report from the U.S. Census Bureau, the labor force participation rate among single women age 65 and above decreased from 19.7% in 1970 to 9.7% in 1998, but increased again to 15.2% in 2003. The labor force participation rate among married females age 65 and above was lower...

According to a 2005 report from the U.S. Census Bureau, the labor force participation rate among single women age 65 and above decreased from 19.7% in 1970 to 9.7% in 1998, but increased again to 15.2% in 2003. The labor force participation rate among married females age 65 and above was lower than that of single females age 65 and above but increased over time.  In 1970, the labor force participation rate among married females age 65 and above was 7.3% and in 2003 it was 11.3%. 

The labor force participation rate among single men age 65 and above gradually decreased over time from 25.2% in 1970 to 19.4% in 2003. The labor force participation rate among married males age 65 and above also gradually decreased over time. However, the labor force participation rate among married males has been consistently higher than among single males in this age group.  In 1970, 29.9% of married males age 65 and above participated in the labor force.  In 2003, 19.9% participated in the labor force.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Labor force, employment, and earnings. (Section 12, Table 577, p. 376). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

“This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).”

According to a 2005 Census Bureau report, in 1990, 14.2% of men and 48.6% of women age 65 and above were widowed. In 2003, 14.3% of men and 44.3% of women age 65 and above were widowed.

According to a 2005 Census Bureau report, in 1990, 14.2% of men and 48.6% of women age 65 and above were widowed. In 2003, 14.3% of men and 44.3% of women age 65 and above were widowed.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 31, p. 35). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

A 2005 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “80 percent of males and 51 percent of females” (51.2% as listed on Table 1, p.22) “had...

A 2005 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “80 percent of males and 51 percent of females” (51.2% as listed on Table 1, p.22) “had worked since age 49 and had an identifiable FTC* job in their work history.” (p. 8-9)

 

* FTC means full-time career. The authors define a full-time career (FTC) job as “one that consists of at least 1,600 hours per year (“full time”) and that lasts ten or more years (“career”).” (p. 8)

Cahill, E. K., Giandrea, D. M., & Quinn, F. J. (2005, September 29). Are traditional retirements a thing of the past? New evidence on retirement patterns and bridge jobs. Working paper. Retrieved July 18, 2006, from http://ideas.repec.org/p/boc/bocoec/626.html

"This paper investigates whether permanent, one-time retirements are coming to an end just as the trend towards earlier and earlier retirements did nearly 20 years ago. We explore how common bridge jobs are among today’s retirees, and how uncommon traditional retirements have become. Design & Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we explore the work histories and retirement patterns of a cohort of retirees aged 51 to 61 in 1992 over a ten-year time period in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal context. Bridge job determinants are examined using bivariate comparisons and a multinomial logistic regression model of the bridge job decision.”

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “in 1992, 66 percent of the men” (65.9% as listed on Table 3, p.24) “were still on...

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “in 1992, 66 percent of the men” (65.9% as listed on Table 3, p.24) “were still on their FTC* jobs, while 15 percent" (14.5% as listed on Table 3, p.24) “were employed on bridge jobs and 19 percent were not in the labor force. Among women, 73 percent" (72.7% as listed on Table 3, p.24) “were still on FTC* jobs, while the remaining respondents were divided almost equally between bridge job employment and absence from the labor force. Ten years later, only 14 percent" (14.4% as listed on Table 3, p.24) “of the (now much older) male sample was still on a FTC* job and 56 percent" (55.6% as listed on Table 3, p.24) “had exited the labor force. One-quarter of the male sample was on a bridge job in 2002." (25.3% as listed on Table 3, p.24). "The story is similar for females.” (p. 9-10)

* FTC means full-time career. The authors, define full-time career (FTC) job as “one that consists of at least 1,600 hours per year (“full time”) and that lasts ten or more years (“career”).” (p. 8)

The authors explain and define bridge jobs as some individuals /retirees “take on short-duration or part-time jobs after leaving full-time career (FTC) employment. These jobs bridge the gap between FTC employment and complete labor force withdrawal, and are aptly called “bridge jobs.” (p. 4)

Cahill, E. K., Giandrea, D. M., & Quinn, F. J. (2005, September 29). Are traditional retirements a thing of the past? New evidence on retirement patterns and bridge jobs. Working paper. Retrieved July 18, 2006, from http://ideas.repec.org/p/boc/bocoec/626.html

“Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we explore the work histories and retirement patterns of a cohort of retirees aged 51 to 61 in 1992 over a ten-year time period in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal context. Bridge job determinants are examined using bivariate comparisons and a multinomial logistic regression model of the bridge job decision.”

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “the percentage of men either working at a bridge job or who had last worked at a bridge job...

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “the percentage of men either working at a bridge job or who had last worked at a bridge job before leaving the labor force increased from 33 percent in 1996" (33.1% as listed on Table 4, p.25) "to 50 percent in 2002." (49.8% as listed on Table 4, p.25). “Women experienced a similar increase in the number who were holding or had held a bridge job, from 28" (27.5% as listed on Table 4, p.25) "to 45 percent" (45.3% as listed on Table 4, p.25). ”…in both cases in 2002, about half of the sample had already utilized a bridge job before exiting from the labor force.” (p.10)

 

The authors explain and define bridge jobs as some individuals /retirees “take on short-duration or part-time jobs after leaving full-time career (FTC) employment. These jobs bridge the gap between FTC employment and complete labor force withdrawal, and are aptly called “bridge jobs.” (p. 4)

Cahill, E. K., Giandrea, D. M., & Quinn, F. J. (2005, September 29). Are traditional retirements a thing of the past? New evidence on retirement patterns and bridge jobs. Working paper. Retrieved July 18, 2006, from http://ideas.repec.org/p/boc/bocoec/626.html

“This paper investigates whether permanent, one-time retirements are coming to an end just as the trend towards earlier and earlier retirements did nearly 20 years ago. We explore how common bridge jobs are among today’s retirees, and how uncommon traditional retirements have become. Design & Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we explore the work histories and retirement patterns of a cohort of retirees aged 51 to 61 in 1992 over a ten-year time period in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal context. Bridge job determinants are examined using bivariate comparisons and a multinomial logistic regression model of the bridge job decision.”

In a 2005 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “between 1996 and 2002, the percentage still on a FTC* job dropped from 42" (42.4% as...

In a 2005 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “between 1996 and 2002, the percentage still on a FTC* job dropped from 42" (42.4% as listed on Table 4, p.25) "to 14 percent" (14.4% as listed on Table 4, p.25) "among men and from 51" (51.4% as listed on Table 4, p.25) "to 17 percent" (17.4% as listed on Table 4, p.25) "among women." (p.11)

 


* FTC means full-time career. The authors, define full-time career (FTC) job as “one that consists of at least 1,600 hours per year (“full time”) and that lasts ten or more years (“career”).” (p. 8)

Cahill, E. K., Giandrea, D. M., & Quinn, F. J. (2005, September 29). Are traditional retirements a thing of the past? New evidence on retirement patterns and bridge jobs. Working paper. Retrieved July 18, 2006, from http://ideas.repec.org/p/boc/bocoec/626.html

“This paper investigates whether permanent, one-time retirements are coming to an end just as the trend towards earlier and earlier retirements did nearly 20 years ago. We explore how common bridge jobs are among today’s retirees, and how uncommon traditional retirements have become. Design & Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we explore the work histories and retirement patterns of a cohort of retirees aged 51 to 61 in 1992 over a ten-year time period in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal context. Bridge job determinants are examined using bivariate comparisons and a multinomial logistic regression model of the bridge job decision.”

In a 2005 study using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “while only 41 percent of males who left a career job with a defined benefit pension...


In a 2005 study using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “while only 41 percent of males who left a career job with a defined benefit pension take a bridge job*, nearly 60 percent of their counterparts with no pension and 54 percent with a defined contribution pension do so. Among women, those with defined benefit pension plans only are the most likely to have left the labor force, and the least likely to utilize a bridge job on the way out.” (p. 14)





 

*The authors explain and define bridge jobs as some individuals /retirees “take on short-duration or part-time jobs after leaving full-time career (FTC) employment. These jobs bridge the gap between FTC employment and complete labor force withdrawal, and are aptly called “bridge jobs.” (p. 4)

Cahill, E. K., Giandrea, D. M., & Quinn, F. J. (2005, September 29). Are traditional retirements a thing of the past? New evidence on retirement patterns and bridge jobs. Working paper. Retrieved July 18, 2006, from http://ideas.repec.org/p/boc/bocoec/626.html

“This paper investigates whether permanent, one-time retirements are coming to an end just as the trend towards earlier and earlier retirements did nearly 20 years ago. We explore how common bridge jobs are among today’s retirees, and how uncommon traditional retirements have become. Design & Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we explore the work histories and retirement patterns of a cohort of retirees aged 51 to 61 in 1992 over a ten-year time period in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal context. Bridge job determinants are examined using bivariate comparisons and a multinomial logistic regression model of the bridge job decision.”

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “in 2002, of those who moved from a career job, 44 percent" (44.1% as listed on Table 5, p.26)...

In a 2007 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the experiences of retirees who were aged 51 to 61 in 1992 and therefore who were 61 to 71 in 2002, Cahill and his colleagues found, “in 2002, of those who moved from a career job, 44 percent" (44.1% as listed on Table 5, p.26) “of males aged 65 or older had moved to a bridge job, compared to 59 percent" (58.7% as listed on Table 5, p.26) "of those aged 62 to 64 and 63 percent of men under age 62." “The difference is even more pronounced among women, where it ranges from 78 percent" (77.9% as listed on Table 5, p.26) "for females under age 60, about 60 percent" (58.7% as listed on Table 5, p.26) "for those aged 60 to 64, and only 41 percent" (40.6% as listed on Table 5, p.26) "among women aged 65 years and older." (p. 12-13)

 

The authors explain and define bridge jobs as some individuals /retirees “take on short-duration or part-time jobs after leaving full-time career (FTC) employment. These jobs bridge the gap between FTC employment and complete labor force withdrawal, and are aptly called “bridge jobs.” (p. 4)

Cahill, E. K., Giandrea, D. M., & Quinn, F. J. (2005, September 29). Are traditional retirements a thing of the past? New evidence on retirement patterns and bridge jobs. Working paper. Retrieved July 18, 2006, from http://ideas.repec.org/p/boc/bocoec/626.html

“This paper investigates whether permanent, one-time retirements are coming to an end just as the trend towards earlier and earlier retirements did nearly 20 years ago. We explore how common bridge jobs are among today’s retirees, and how uncommon traditional retirements have become. Design & Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we explore the work histories and retirement patterns of a cohort of retirees aged 51 to 61 in 1992 over a ten-year time period in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal context. Bridge job determinants are examined using bivariate comparisons and a multinomial logistic regression model of the bridge job decision.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “among workers (50 or more years old) wage and salaried employees are much more likely to be women (54 percent) than are self-employed independents (27 percent) and small business owners (37 percent).” (Table...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “among workers (50 or more years old) wage and salaried employees are much more likely to be women (54 percent) than are self-employed independents (27 percent) and small business owners (37 percent).” (Table 1, p.4)  Men (50 or more years old), are more likely to report being self-employed independents (73 percent), compared to being wage and salaried employees (46 percent) and small business owners (63 percent). Among women, the proportions are 54% wage and salaried, 27% self-employed independents, and 37% small-business owners. (Table 1, p.4)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. (2005). Context matters: Insights about older workers from the national study of the changing workforce. Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved July 31, 2006 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH01_InsightOlderWorker.pdf



“This report is the first in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute that present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This first issue compares the personal characteristics, employment experiences, and attitudes of workers, 50 or more years old, who are wage and salaried employees, independent self-employed workers, and small business owners…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to analysis of the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, 38 percent of men and 28 percent of women over the age of 50 had four year college degrees or more (fig.1).  In comparison, 32 percent of women under 50 years of age had four-year college degrees or more versus only 23...

According to analysis of the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, 38 percent of men and 28 percent of women over the age of 50 had four year college degrees or more (fig.1).  In comparison, 32 percent of women under 50 years of age had four-year college degrees or more versus only 23 percent of men. (p.2)




Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf



“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "older men (80 percent) are more likely than older women (62 percent) to be married or living with a partner, providing them with a potential source of social support.” (Figure 2, p.2) 

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "older men (80 percent) are more likely than older women (62 percent) to be married or living with a partner, providing them with a potential source of social support.” (Figure 2, p.2) 


Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 report, "older female employees tend to live in households with lower family incomes than their male counterparts. In 2002, the average (mean) annual income of older men is $80,839 compared with $64,444 for women. There is a similar disparity in median annual family income: $66,300...

According to a 2005 report, "older female employees tend to live in households with lower family incomes than their male counterparts. In 2002, the average (mean) annual income of older men is $80,839 compared with $64,444 for women. There is a similar disparity in median annual family income: $66,300 for older men versus $51,134 for older women.” (p.3)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “…wage and salaried employees, 50 or more years old, are more likely to be women (54 percent) than men (46 percent), while self-employed independents and small business owners 50 or older are much more likely...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “…wage and salaried employees, 50 or more years old, are more likely to be women (54 percent) than men (46 percent), while self-employed independents and small business owners 50 or older are much more likely to be men (73 percent and 63 percent) than women (27 percent and 37 percent).” (Table1, p.4)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “women (30 percent) are somewhat more likely than men (25 percent) to work at local worksites with fewer than 25 employees and less likely (26 percent) than men (34 percent) to be employed at workplaces with 250...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “women (30 percent) are somewhat more likely than men (25 percent) to work at local worksites with fewer than 25 employees and less likely (26 percent) than men (34 percent) to be employed at workplaces with 250 or more employees.” (p.5)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

A 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce indicates that “…women, 50 or more years old, are as likely as older male employees to hold managerial or professional positions (36 percent of men and 37 percent of women).” (p.5)

A 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce indicates that “…women, 50 or more years old, are as likely as older male employees to hold managerial or professional positions (36 percent of men and 37 percent of women).” (p.5)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "men report that they have been in the labor force for more years than women (mean for men = 37.7 years; mean for women = 32.3 years). Furthermore, men have longer tenure with their current employers (mean 14.2 years)...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "men report that they have been in the labor force for more years than women (mean for men = 37.7 years; mean for women = 32.3 years). Furthermore, men have longer tenure with their current employers (mean 14.2 years) when compared with women (10.9 years). Even so, older women on average have considerable labor force experience and job tenure.” (p.5)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “men age 50 or older (45 percent) are more likely than women (35 percent) to indicate that they have a defined-benefits pension plan (or guaranteed-benefits pension plan) through work.” (p.8)

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “men age 50 or older (45 percent) are more likely than women (35 percent) to indicate that they have a defined-benefits pension plan (or guaranteed-benefits pension plan) through work.” (p.8)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "among older employees, men are more likely (33 percent) than women (28 percent) to report having high job autonomy. Older women are more likely than men to report that they have a high level of involvement in management...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "among older employees, men are more likely (33 percent) than women (28 percent) to report having high job autonomy. Older women are more likely than men to report that they have a high level of involvement in management decision-making (36 percent vs. 30 percent) and high trust in what managers say (41 percent vs. 34 percent).” (Table 6, p. 10)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "despite the relative privileges at the workplace reported by older male employees, 37 percent of older women state that they have “high” commitment to their employers in contrast to 27 percent of the men.”...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "despite the relative privileges at the workplace reported by older male employees, 37 percent of older women state that they have “high” commitment to their employers in contrast to 27 percent of the men.” (Table 11, p.14)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "older women earn 55 cents for every dollar that men earn from all hours worked at all jobs. Comparing the hourly rates of pay at main jobs (with salaries converted to hourly rates), older women earn 69 cents for...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "older women earn 55 cents for every dollar that men earn from all hours worked at all jobs. Comparing the hourly rates of pay at main jobs (with salaries converted to hourly rates), older women earn 69 cents for every dollar older men earn-still a substantial difference.” (p.15)   Comparing employees 50 years of age or older, men have higher mean ($49,020) and median ($69,141) salaries than women ($29,412 mean; $37,870 median). (p. 7, fig. 5)






Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "about one of every eight male employees 50 or more years old (13 percent) exhibit self-reported symptoms of poor mental health compared to one of every five women (20 percent) in this age group-a significant difference,...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "about one of every eight male employees 50 or more years old (13 percent) exhibit self-reported symptoms of poor mental health compared to one of every five women (20 percent) in this age group-a significant difference, suggesting that older men have better mental health on average than older women.” (Table 10, p.14)

Bond, J. T., Galinsky, E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce (Research Highlight No. 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work / Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "while 79 percent of married/partnered women, 50 years and older, live in dual-earner households (where their spouse/partner is employed for pay), only 66 percent of the men, 50 or more years old, live in such dual-earner...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "while 79 percent of married/partnered women, 50 years and older, live in dual-earner households (where their spouse/partner is employed for pay), only 66 percent of the men, 50 or more years old, live in such dual-earner couples.” (p.3)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 report, "over half - 53 percent - of primary caregivers are adult daughters, compared to 43 percent of non-caregivers." (p.3)

According to a 2005 report, "over half - 53 percent - of primary caregivers are adult daughters, compared to 43 percent of non-caregivers." (p.3)

Center on an Aging Society. (2005, May). Adult children. The likelihood of providing care for an older parent. (Data Profile No. 2). Washington, DC: Center on an Aging Society. Retrieved August 21, 2005, from http://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/caregiver2/caregiver2.html

"This Profile provides an overview of adult children who are primary caregivers to an older parent that needs assistance performing one or more basic everyday activities…Furthermore, this Profile examines adult children that have living parents but are not primary caregivers as well as adults without any living parents. Adult children, non-caregivers and adults without living parents could be caregivers in another capacity, such as a secondary caregiver or a caregiver to a spouse or sibling."

According to the 2005 Work-Filled Retirement survey, "men are more likely than women to believe they will rely on personal savings (25% vs 20%) or on employer-sponsored pensions or 401(k)s (46% vs 38%), while women are more likely to think they will base their retirement support on Social Security (18%...

According to the 2005 Work-Filled Retirement survey, "men are more likely than women to believe they will rely on personal savings (25% vs 20%) or on employer-sponsored pensions or 401(k)s (46% vs 38%), while women are more likely to think they will base their retirement support on Social Security (18% vs 10%) or on other sources (22% vs 18%, including an eight-to-one margin within the 'income from a spouse' category." (p.22)

Reynolds, S., Ridley, N., & Van Horn, C. (2005). A work-filled retirement: Workers’ changing views on employment and leisure (Work Trends Survey No. 8.1). New Brunswick, NJ: John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/uploadedFiles/Publications/WT16.pdf

“In this report, American workers across the nation describe their expectations of retirement and their views of how older workers are treated in the workplace…A total of 1,232 adults were interviewed for this survey. Respondents who worked full or part time, or who were unemployed and looking for work, received a complete interview. A total of 432 respondents who did not meet these criteria received a short interview that included demographic questions. The results of this report are based on a total of 800 complete interviews with members of the workforce, including 82 people who have retired from their primary job but remain in the workforce. The final results were weighted to match U.S. Census Bureau estimates for age, educational attainment, gender, and race.”

According to a 2005 AARP survey of adults aged 50 and older, more men respondents (21%) had heard of phased retirement than women respondents (17%). (p.9)

According to a 2005 AARP survey of adults aged 50 and older, more men respondents (21%) had heard of phased retirement than women respondents (17%). (p.9)

AARP. (2005, March). Attitudes of individuals 50 and older toward phased retirement. Research report. Washington, DC: Brown, K.S. Retrieved June 1, 2006, from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/retirement/Articles/attitudes_of_individuals_50_and_older_toward_phase.html

"This survey of individuals ages 50 and older was designed to gauge reactions to the concept of phased retirement as outlined and to determine the extent to which phased retirement would encourage workers near traditional retirement age to remain in the workforce longer than they would have otherwise...Conducted from January 6th through January 15th 2005, the survey was fielded to panel members who were ages 50 or older...A total of 2,167 individuals participated in the survey. Of all respondents, approximately one-third were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to retire by age 65, about one-quarter were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to continue working beyond age 65, approximately one in ten were workers ages 66 or older, and the remaining one-quarter were individuals ages 50 or older who are currently retired."

According to a 2005 Census Bureau report, "in 1950, 59.9 percentage points separated the labor force participation rates of men and women [aged 55 to 64] (86.9 percent and 27.0 percent, respectively). That gap narrowed 12.1 points in 2003 (68.7 percent for men and 56.6 percent for women), but men's...

According to a 2005 Census Bureau report, "in 1950, 59.9 percentage points separated the labor force participation rates of men and women [aged 55 to 64] (86.9 percent and 27.0 percent, respectively). That gap narrowed 12.1 points in 2003 (68.7 percent for men and 56.6 percent for women), but men's rates were still higher." (p.88)

He, W., Sengupta, M., Velkoff, V., & DeBarros, K. (2005, December). Current population reports: Special studies: 65+ in the United States: 2005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Website: http://www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p23-209.pdf

"This report analyzes data for the population 65 and older, disaggregated into narrower age groups where possible."

According to the 2005 National Study of Employers, “although small employers are equally likely (or “unlikely” if you will) to offer any replacement pay to men during paternity leave, they are significantly less likely (36%) than large employers (66%) to offer any replacement pay to women during...

According to the 2005 National Study of Employers, “although small employers are equally likely (or “unlikely” if you will) to offer any replacement pay to men during paternity leave, they are significantly less likely (36%) than large employers (66%) to offer any replacement pay to women during disability leave, and a small percent (7%) offer pay beyond the period of disability.” (p. 12)

Families and Work Institute. (2005, September). 2005 National Study of Employers. New York, NY: Bond, T. J., Galinsky, E., Kim, S. S., & Brownfield, E. Retrieved August 02, 2006, from http://familiesandwork.org/press/2005nserelease.html#nse

“Families and Work Institute’s 2005 National Study of Employers (NSE) is one of the most comprehensive and far-reaching study of the practices, policies, programs and benefits provided by U.S. employers to address the changing needs of today’s workforce and workplace…will provide ongoing measurements of employer work life benefits, policies, and practices. In 2005, it was redesigned to include a nationally representative sample of employers with 50 or more employers…The 2005 NSE sample included 1,092 employers with 50 or more employees-66 percent are for-profit companies and 34 percent are nonprofit organizations; 44 percent operate at only one location, while 56 percent have operations at more than one location.”

A 2006 analysis of data from the National Survey of the Changing Workforce indicates that "men age 50 or older (45 percent) are more likely than women (35 percent) to indicate that they have a defined-benefits pension plan (or guaranteed-benefits pension plan) through work. However, older men and women...

A 2006 analysis of data from the National Survey of the Changing Workforce indicates that "men age 50 or older (45 percent) are more likely than women (35 percent) to indicate that they have a defined-benefits pension plan (or guaranteed-benefits pension plan) through work. However, older men and women are just as likely to have defined-contribution retirement plans (401(k), 403(b), etc.) at work."

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, the majority of both male (65%)and female (62%) employees 50 or more years old would prefer to work fewer hours than they do currently.  In contrast only 12% of women and 7% of men said they would prefer to...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, the majority of both male (65%)and female (62%) employees 50 or more years old would prefer to work fewer hours than they do currently.  In contrast only 12% of women and 7% of men said they would prefer to work more hours.  28% of men and 26% of women said they would prefer to work the same hours. (p. 6, fig. 4).


Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, over 50% of men and women (52%) reported having access to a moderate level of flexible work options, while only approximately a quarter (20% men, 22% women) reported having access to a limited/no level of flexible...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, over 50% of men and women (52%) reported having access to a moderate level of flexible work options, while only approximately a quarter (20% men, 22% women) reported having access to a limited/no level of flexible work options.  Only 28% of men and 26% of women reported having access to a high level of flexible work options. (p. 9, fig. 6)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, both men and women 50 years and older report similar levels* of job pressure.  17% of men and 19% of women report experiencing high pressure, 47% of men and 51% of women report experiencing moderate pressure,...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, both men and women 50 years and older report similar levels* of job pressure.  17% of men and 19% of women report experiencing high pressure, 47% of men and 51% of women report experiencing moderate pressure, and 36% of men and 30% of women report experiencing low pressure.  (p. 10, fig. 7)
*differences between men and women not statistically significant


Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, among employees 50 years or older, men were more likely to be very satisfied (46%) with family life than women (32%).  Women were more likely than men to be somewhat satisfied (41% vs 39%), somewhat dissatisfied...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, among employees 50 years or older, men were more likely to be very satisfied (46%) with family life than women (32%).  Women were more likely than men to be somewhat satisfied (41% vs 39%), somewhat dissatisfied (21% vs 15%), or very dissatisfied (6% vs 1%).  Among older employees who are married or living with a partner, 58 percent of the men are “very satisfied” with that relationship, compared with only 49 percent of women who are “very satisfied.”


Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf

“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2004 report from the National Alliance for Caregiving and AARP, “male caregivers are more likely to be working full or part-time than female caregivers (66% v 55%). (p.8)

According to a 2004 report from the National Alliance for Caregiving and AARP, “male caregivers are more likely to be working full or part-time than female caregivers (66% v 55%). (p.8)

National Alliance for Caregiving and AARP. (2004, April) Caregiving in the U.S. Research Report. Washington, DC: National Alliance for Caregiving and AARP. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/publicopinions/aresearch-import-853.html

“The purpose of this study-a joint project of the National Alliance for Caregiving and AARP and funded by MetLife Foundation-is to update and expand knowledge about the activities caregivers say they perform, the perceived impact of caregiving on their daily lives, and the unmet needs of this population. Its findings are based on a national telephone survey of 1,247 caregivers age 18 or older, including approximately 200 African-American, 200 Hispanic, and 200 Asian-American caregivers. Interviewing was conducted from September 5 through December 22, 2003.”

According to a 2004 Watson Wyatt survey, "phasing after age 65--typically considered normal retirement age--is not uncommon, with 17 percent of phasers being age 65 or older. Women--who are more likely to phase than men--make up 60 percent of all phasers, even though they represent less than half of...

According to a 2004 Watson Wyatt survey, "phasing after age 65--typically considered normal retirement age--is not uncommon, with 17 percent of phasers being age 65 or older. Women--who are more likely to phase than men--make up 60 percent of all phasers, even though they represent less than half of older workers." (p.5)

Mulvey, J. (2004). Phased retirement: Aligning employer programs with worker preferences - 2004 survey report. Washington, DC: Watson Wyatt Worldwide.

"This report explores how and why workers phase and how phasing affects when workers fully retire. This information can help employers shape phased retirement programs that will enable them to more effectively manage their workforce and ensure an adequate supply of talent and experience in the years to come. To better understand the phasing process, Watson Wyatt Worldwide commissioned a telephone survey in 2003 of 1,000 individuals between the ages of 50 and 70."

According to a 2004 analysis by Mulvey, "... the existence of a phased retirement program increases the average retirement age among women by 21 months.  For men, phasing increased average retirement age by about 5 months."(p.16)

According to a 2004 analysis by Mulvey, "... the existence of a phased retirement program increases the average retirement age among women by 21 months.  For men, phasing increased average retirement age by about 5 months."(p.16)

Mulvey, J., & Nyce, S. (2004). Strategies to retain older workers. (Pension Research Council Working Paper No. 2004-13). Philadelphia, PA: The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://rider.wharton.upenn.edu/~prc/PRC/WP/WP2004-13.pdf

"In this chapter we begin we begin by outlining the economic and demographic realities facing employers and spell out how these change the "retirement promise." To understand the process, we qualify the effect of several factors on older workers' retirement patterns, including early retirement incentives in DB plans, retiree medical coverage, and various work/life benefits including phased retirement and eldercare program."

In a 2004 study, among 16,000 workers participating in a survey at a large company, caregivers reported an average of 7.7 hours absent from work during the 2-week study period. Among older workers (aged 55-64), female older workers reported 7.7 hours away from work for caregiving and male older workers...

In a 2004 study, among 16,000 workers participating in a survey at a large company, caregivers reported an average of 7.7 hours absent from work during the 2-week study period. Among older workers (aged 55-64), female older workers reported 7.7 hours away from work for caregiving and male older workers reported 4.0 hours during the two week period. (Fig. 1, p. 1052)

Burton, W. N., Chen, C. Y., Conti, D. J., Pransky, G., & Edington, D. W. (2004). Caregiving for ill dependents and its association with employee health risks and productivity. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 46(10), 1048-1056.

This study examined the loss of productivity and health risk status associated with employees who provide care for an ill dependent. A total of 16,651 employees aged 16-64 (average38.9) of a major financial services company completed a confidential Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) that included an eight-item version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire and a self-report of time missed from work during the previous 2-week period to care for an ill dependent.

According to analysis of 2003 CPS data "self-employment is more common among men than women" (p. 16) in all age groups. Among "unincorporated* self-employed" workers aged 65 and older, 22.8% are males and 14.3% are females. Similarly, 14.1% of men and 9% of women ages 55-64 are unincorporated self-employed....

According to analysis of 2003 CPS data "self-employment is more common among men than women" (p. 16) in all age groups. Among "unincorporated* self-employed" workers aged 65 and older, 22.8% are males and 14.3% are females. Similarly, 14.1% of men and 9% of women ages 55-64 are unincorporated self-employed. In younger age groups, the rates are 10.5% of men and 6.8% of women ages 45-54, 8.7% of men and 6.7% of women ages 35-44, 5.9% of men and 4.6% of women ages 25-34, and about 2% of men and 1% of women ages 16-24. (Table 4, p. 18)

*Workers are "unincorporated self-employed" if they do not work in their own incorporated business. Incorporated self-employed workers are counted as salaried employees of their own businesses.

Hipple, S. (2004). Self-employment in the United States: An update. Monthly Labor Review, 127(7), 13-23

This report uses data on current employment and unemployment from the Current Population Survey (CPS). This article discusses the CPS measurement of self-employment, addresses historical trends in self-employment, and provides an overview of characteristics of the self-employed.

According to a 2003 analysis of Current Population Survey data,  about four of every ten men and about three of every ten women between the ages of 55 and 64 who received income from private pensions (one indicator of being retired) were also employed. (Table 6, p.40)

According to a 2003 analysis of Current Population Survey data,  about four of every ten men and about three of every ten women between the ages of 55 and 64 who received income from private pensions (one indicator of being retired) were also employed. (Table 6, p.40)

Purcell, P. (2003). Older workers: recent trends in employment and retirement. Journal of Deferred Compensation, 8(3), 30-53.

"This article begins by describing the change in the age distribution of the U.S. population that will occur between 2000 and 2020 and summarizing the historical data on the labor force participation of older workers. This discussion is followed by an analysis of data from the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey on employment and receipt of pension income in recent years among persons aged 55 and older."

According to a 2003 analysis of the 2001-02 American Productivity Audit, lost productive time due to headache was highest in males and females in younger age groups; for example approximately 6.5% of women aged  25-29 lost 2 hours or more of productive time due to headache, compared to less than...

According to a 2003 analysis of the 2001-02 American Productivity Audit, lost productive time due to headache was highest in males and females in younger age groups; for example approximately 6.5% of women aged  25-29 lost 2 hours or more of productive time due to headache, compared to less than 3% for women aged 45 and over. The proportion of the workforce with 2 hrs/week or more of headache-related lost productive time was approximately 2 times higher in females than males. (p. 2449-50)

Stewart, W. F., Ricci, J. A., Chee, E., Morganstein, D., & Lipton, R. (2003). Lost productive time and cost due to common pain conditions in the US workforce. JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(18), 2443-2455

This study is based on data reporting "lost productive time during a 2 week period from a cross-sectional study using survey data from the American Productivity Audit of a random sample of 28902 working adults in the US between August 1, 2001 and July 30, 2002."

According to a 2003 analysis of the 2001-02 American Productivity Audit, lost productive time due to back pain is higher in younger men; almost 3% of men in the 18-39 age range report 2 or more hours of lost productive time due to back pain, compared to approximately 2% or less in men 45 and older. ...

According to a 2003 analysis of the 2001-02 American Productivity Audit, lost productive time due to back pain is higher in younger men; almost 3% of men in the 18-39 age range report 2 or more hours of lost productive time due to back pain, compared to approximately 2% or less in men 45 and older.  Less than 1.5% of women in all age groups report 2 hours or more of lost productive time due to back pain.(p. 2449-50)

Stewart, W. F., Ricci, J. A., Chee, E., Morganstein, D., & Lipton, R. (2003). Lost productive time and cost due to common pain conditions in the US workforce. JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(18), 2443-2457

This study is based on data reporting "lost productive time during a 2 week period from a cross-sectional study using survey data from the American Productivity Audit of a random sample of 28902 working adults in the US between August 1, 2001 and July 30, 2002."

According to a 2002 analysis a Conference Board survey, among exempt (salaried) employees who indicated an interest in reducing their hours and working part-time, more wanted to work either as contractors or consultants (even if that resulted in a loss of benefits) rather than as a part-time employee...

According to a 2002 analysis a Conference Board survey, among exempt (salaried) employees who indicated an interest in reducing their hours and working part-time, more wanted to work either as contractors or consultants (even if that resulted in a loss of benefits) rather than as a part-time employee of the company. Male older workers (37 percent) were three times as likely as the women (12 percent) to indicate an interest in working as a consultant. (pp. 36, 38-39)

Parkinson, D. (2002).  Voices of experience: Mature workers in the future workforce. New York, NY: The Conference Board.


 

 

"Anticipating the impact of demographic trends on businesses, The Conference Board has been engaged in research examining the aging population, health care for retired employees, and the opportunities and constraints of employing older workers.  The Board convened the Engaging Mature Workers Working Group in September 2000 to address the challenge of maintaining a productive workforce in an aging society.  HR executives representing corporate staffing, benefits administration, and diversity management functions at 15 leading companies are lending their expertise to developing business strategies that maximize the talents of mature workers."

According to a 2002 report from The Conference Board, men older workers (37 percent) were three times as likely as the women (12 percent) to indicate an interest in working as a consultant. (pp. 38-39)

According to a 2002 report from The Conference Board, men older workers (37 percent) were three times as likely as the women (12 percent) to indicate an interest in working as a consultant. (pp. 38-39)

Parkinson, D. (2002).  Voices of experience: Mature workers in the future workforce. New York, NY: The Conference Board.


 

"Anticipating the impact of demographic trends on businesses, The Conference Board has been engaged in research examining the aging population, health care for retired employees, and the opportunities and constraints of employing older workers.  The Board convened the Engaging Mature Workers Working Group in September 2000 to address the challenge of maintaining a productive workforce in an aging society.  HR executives representing corporate staffing, benefits administration, and diversity management functions at 15 leading companies are lending their expertise to developing business strategies that maximize the talents of mature workers."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the labor force participation rate of men age 50 and older decreased by 7.0%, from 55.2% in 1980 to 51.62% in 2000.  The labor force participation rate of women age 50 and older increased by 27.4% from 29.60% in 1980 to 37.72% in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, the labor force participation rate of men age 50 and older decreased by 7.0%, from 55.2% in 1980 to 51.62% in 2000.  The labor force participation rate of women age 50 and older increased by 27.4% from 29.60% in 1980 to 37.72% in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Employment). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

In 2000, 17.5% of men and 9.4% of women age 65 and older participated in the labor force.

In 2000, 17.5% of men and 9.4% of women age 65 and older participated in the labor force.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Employment). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, in 1999, 65.4% of female workers between age 50 and 64 worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $27,040. In 1999, 29.2% of female workers age 65 and older worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $20,000.   In 1999, 80.5% of male...

According to a 2002 AARP report, in 1999, 65.4% of female workers between age 50 and 64 worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $27,040.

In 1999, 29.2% of female workers age 65 and older worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $20,000.

 

In 1999, 80.5% of male workers between age 50 and 64 worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $43,000.

In 1999, 40.1% of male workers age 65 and older worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $34,000.

 

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Employment). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

In 1999, female full-time, year-round workers between age 50 and 64 earned 63% of the income earned by male full-time, year-round workers in the same age group. In 1999, female full-time, year-round workers age 65 and above earned 59% of the income earned by male full-time, year-round workers in the...

In 1999, female full-time, year-round workers between age 50 and 64 earned 63% of the income earned by male full-time, year-round workers in the same age group.

In 1999, female full-time, year-round workers age 65 and above earned 59% of the income earned by male full-time, year-round workers in the same age group.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Employment). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the percentage of uninsured persons age 50 to 64 increased by 31.7% from 10.61% in 1988 to 13.98% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured males age 50 to 64 increased by 30.8% from 9.54% in 1988 to 12.49% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured females age 50 to 64 increased...

According to a 2002 AARP report, the percentage of uninsured persons age 50 to 64 increased by 31.7% from 10.61% in 1988 to 13.98% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured males age 50 to 64 increased by 30.8% from 9.54% in 1988 to 12.49% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured females age 50 to 64 increased by 32.6% from 11.58% in 1988 to 15.36% in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Health insurance and medicaid). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the percentage of uninsured poor persons age 50 to 64 decreased by 0.6% from 71.49% in 1988 to 71.08% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured poor males age 50 to 64 increased by 1.6% from 73.39% in 1988 to 74.60% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured poor females age 50...

According to a 2002 AARP report, the percentage of uninsured poor persons age 50 to 64 decreased by 0.6% from 71.49% in 1988 to 71.08% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured poor males age 50 to 64 increased by 1.6% from 73.39% in 1988 to 74.60% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured poor females age 50 to 64 decreased by 2.4% from 70.29% in 1988 to 68.60% in 2000.


AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Health insurance and medicaid). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the poverty rate for female persons age 50 and older decreased by 24.3% from 13.9% in 1980 to 10.5% in 2000.  The poverty rate for male persons age 50 and older decreased by 19.1% from 8.7% in 1980 to 7% in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, the poverty rate for female persons age 50 and older decreased by 24.3% from 13.9% in 1980 to 10.5% in 2000.  The poverty rate for male persons age 50 and older decreased by 19.1% from 8.7% in 1980 to 7% in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Poverty). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

"In the 2001 Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), when asked if they had saved for retirement, 69% of working women said yes, compared with 74 percent of working men." (Chart 5, p.4)

"In the 2001 Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), when asked if they had saved for retirement, 69% of working women said yes, compared with 74 percent of working men." (Chart 5, p.4)

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (2001, November). Facts from EBRI: Women in retirement. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Website: http://www.ebri.org/publications/facts/

"The Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS) has tracked Americans' financial preparations for retirement and their attitudes regarding retirement since 1991. The RCS is a random, nationally representative survey of Americans over age 25; both current workers (individuals who are not defined as retirees, regardless of employment status) and current retirees (individuals who are retired or who are 65 or older and not employed full-time) are surveyed, which allows comparisons across generations in terms of attitudes and financial preparations." (Salisbury, D., Turyn, T., & Helman, R. (2001, June). EBRI 2001 Retirement surveys: Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), Minority RCS, and Small Employer Retirement Survey (SERS) (p.1). Washington, DC: EBRI

According to a 2001 report from EBRI, "the majority of working women (70 percent in 2000) are concentrated in two industries: services, 49.0 percent, and wholesale/retail trade, 20.9 percent. By comparison, men are not heavily concentrated in one or two industries. In 2000, 26 percent of working men...

According to a 2001 report from EBRI, "the majority of working women (70 percent in 2000) are concentrated in two industries: services, 49.0 percent, and wholesale/retail trade, 20.9 percent. By comparison, men are not heavily concentrated in one or two industries. In 2000, 26 percent of working men were in services industries, 20 percent were in wholesale/retail trade, and 19 percent were in manufacturing. Women tend to work in sectors that do not sponsor retirement plans as readily as the manufacturing sector does.

According to the most recent data available, the retirement plan sponsorship rate in the services industries was 52.8%; in the retail trade it was 43.9%; and in the manufacturing trade it was 72.9 percent." (p.2)

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (2001, November). Facts from EBRI: Women in retirement. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Website: http://www.ebri.org/publications/facts/

"The Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS) has tracked Americans financial preparations for retirement and their attitudes regarding retirement since 1991. The RCS is a random, nationally representative survey of Americans over age 25; both current workers (individuals who are not defined as retirees, regardless of employment status) and current retirees (individuals who are retired or who are 65 or older and not employed full-time) are surveyed, which allows comparisons across generations in terms of attitudes and financial preparations." (Salisbury, D., Turyn, T., & Helman, R. (2001, June). EBRI 2001 Retirement surveys: Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), Minority RCS, and Small Employer Retirement Survey (SERS) (p.1). Washington, DC: EBRI.

In a 2001 survey of employees in large US companies, 51% of employees work off-site on a regular basis. Of those, 67% are men and 33% are women. Among those who classify themselves as "regular" teleworkers (those who work from home one or more full days per week), 57% are men and 43% women. Of those...

In a 2001 survey of employees in large US companies, 51% of employees work off-site on a regular basis. Of those, 67% are men and 33% are women. Among those who classify themselves as "regular" teleworkers (those who work from home one or more full days per week), 57% are men and 43% women. Of those who report that they are "ad hoc" teleworkers (those who work from home at least one day per month), 64% are men and 36% women. (p. 79)

Richman, A. L., Noble, K., & Johnson, A. (2001). When the workplace is many places: The extent and nature of offsite work today. Watertown, MA: WFD Consulting.

A sample of 2057 adults were surveyed online. The Harris Poll Online database was used to select employees of for-profit companies of 500 or more employees.

According to a 2000 report, among employess currently in the workforce, "85% of men and 65% of women usually work 35 or more hours a week for 50 or more weeks per year...About three-quarters also say that it would not be possible.... to reduce their regular work hours at their current job." (p. 291)

According to a 2000 report, among employess currently in the workforce, "85% of men and 65% of women usually work 35 or more hours a week for 50 or more weeks per year...About three-quarters also say that it would not be possible.... to reduce their regular work hours at their current job." (p. 291)

Henretta, C. J. (2000). The future of age integration in employment. The Gerontologist, 40(3), 286-292.

This essay discusses the direction and implications of current and possible future trends in workplace age integration. If current trends were to continue over the next 20 years, there would not be much expected change in labor force participation patterns of older workers. Yet, there is good reason to expect that some of the trends supporting early retirement may shift in the near future in ways that favor greater labor force participation at older ages. Trends in demographic change, revisions in Social Security retirement rules, and employment changes are first covered. Following, there is discussion about the ways that these changes may lead to a redefinition of the social significance of age and encourage employers to implement job redesign that will provide more attractive opportunities for older workers.

In a 1999 analysis of HRS data, "For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women." (p.320)

In a 1999 analysis of HRS data, "For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women." (p.320)

Johnson, R.W., Samaoorthi, U., & Crystal, S. (1999). Gender differences in pension wealth: Estimates using provider data. The Gerontologist, 39(3), 320-330.

First wave data of the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) was used along with pension provider information. This sample is nationally representative of men and women ages 51 to 61, along with information from their spouses. (p.321-322)

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