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According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, among adults aged 40-44, 27% had a least a college degree in 2000, while 19% of those aged 60-74 had attained this educational level. In 2015, it is projected that 36% of those aged 40-44 will have a college degree, as will 31% of those...

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, among adults aged 40-44, 27% had a least a college degree in 2000, while 19% of those aged 60-74 had attained this educational level. In 2015, it is projected that 36% of those aged 40-44 will have a college degree, as will 31% of those aged 60-74. (Chart 4)

Burtless, G. (2013, June 18). AGEnda--Aging & work blog: Is an aging workforce less productive? Message posted to http://agingandwork.bc.edu/blog/is-an-aging-workforce-less-productive/

This paper uses evidence fromthe monthly Current Population Survey files.

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, among persons who were age 65 in 2012 (i.e., born in 1947), 11% had attained a graduate degree, and 14% a bachelors degree, while 19% had not completed high school. In contrast, among those who were age 65 in 2000 (i.e., born in 1935),...

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, among persons who were age 65 in 2012 (i.e., born in 1947), 11% had attained a graduate degree, and 14% a bachelors degree, while 19% had not completed high school. In contrast, among those who were age 65 in 2000 (i.e., born in 1935), only 6% had graduate degrees, 9% had bachelor's degrees, and 35% had not completed high school. (p. 15)

Hayutin, A., Beals, M., & Borges, E. (2013). The aging US workforce: A chartbook of demographic shifts. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Center on Longevity. Retrieved from http://library.constantcontact.com/download/get/file/1102783429573-323/The+Aging+US+Workforce+-+7.24.13+F?inal.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from a variety of sources, including the Current Population Survey, conducted by the US Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

According to a 2012 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "on the days that they worked, 36 percent of employed persons age 25 and over with a bachelor's degree or higher did some work at home, compared with only 11 percent of those with less than a high school diploma."

According to a 2012 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "on the days that they worked, 36 percent of employed persons age 25 and over with a bachelor's degree or higher did some work at home, compared with only 11 percent of those with less than a high school diploma."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). American Time Use Survey -- 2011 results. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/atus_06222012.htm

The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a continuous survey about how individuals age 15 and over spend their time.

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the American Time Use Survey, "among wage and salary workers age 25 and over, 61 percent of those with a bachelor's degree or higher were able to adjust their work schedules or location instead of taking time off from work, compared with only 38 percent of workers...

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the American Time Use Survey, "among wage and salary workers age 25 and over, 61 percent of those with a bachelor's degree or higher were able to adjust their work schedules or location instead of taking time off from work, compared with only 38 percent of workers with less than a high school diploma."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Access to and use of leave--2011: Data from the American Time Use Survey. (Economic News Release No. USDL-12-1648). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/leave.nr0.htm

According to a 2011 report on the American Time Use Survey, "in 2010, on the days that they worked, 36 percent of employed people age 25 and over with a bachelor's degree or higher did some work at home, compared with only 10 percent of those with less than a high school diploma."

According to a 2011 report on the American Time Use Survey, "in 2010, on the days that they worked, 36 percent of employed people age 25 and over with a bachelor's degree or higher did some work at home, compared with only 10 percent of those with less than a high school diploma."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Work at home and in the workplace, 2010. TED: The editor's desk. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2011/ted_20110624.htm

These data are from the American Time Use Survey, 2010 results, published in 2011 at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/atus.nr0.htm

According to a 2011 analysis of BLS and American Community Survey data, "among those ages 30-34 from 2006 through 2008, 5 percent are in undergraduate programs (including community colleges) and 3 percent are in graduate programs. For adults in their late 50s, less than 1 percent are in such programs."...

According to a 2011 analysis of BLS and American Community Survey data, "among those ages 30-34 from 2006 through 2008, 5 percent are in undergraduate programs (including community colleges) and 3 percent are in graduate programs. For adults in their late 50s, less than 1 percent are in such programs." (p. 34-35, fig. 5.4)

Public Policy Institute of California. (2011). An assessment of labor force projections through 2018: Will workers have the education needed for the available jobs? Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/labor-force-projections-workers-education--gates-foundation.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the 2008 American Community Survey.

According to a 2011 analysis of BLS and American Community Survey data, educational upgrading projections indicate that "among adults ages 40-64 in 2018 (ages 30-54 in 2008), ... almost 1 million will have earned a bachelor's degree between 2008 and 2018, and an additional 1.2 million will have earned...

According to a 2011 analysis of BLS and American Community Survey data, educational upgrading projections indicate that "among adults ages 40-64 in 2018 (ages 30-54 in 2008), ... almost 1 million will have earned a bachelor's degree between 2008 and 2018, and an additional 1.2 million will have earned a master's degree."(fig. 5.1, p. 34)

Public Policy Institute of California. (2011). An assessment of labor force projections through 2018: Will workers have the education needed for the available jobs? Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/labor-force-projections-workers-education--gates-foundation.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the 2008 American Community Survey.

According to the 2011 Profile of Older Americans, "the educational level of the older population is increasing. Between 1970 and 2009, the percentage of older persons who had completed high school rose from 28% to 78.3%. About 21.7% in 2009 had a bachelor's degree or higher. The percentage who had completed...

According to the 2011 Profile of Older Americans, "the educational level of the older population is increasing. Between 1970 and 2009, the percentage of older persons who had completed high school rose from 28% to 78.3%. About 21.7% in 2009 had a bachelor's degree or higher. The percentage who had completed high school varied considerably by race and ethnic origin in 2009: 83.1% of Whites**, 71.9% of Asians and Pacific Islanders, 63.8% of African-Americans, and 45.9% of Hispanics. The increase in educational levels is also evident within these groups. In 1970, only 30% of older Whites and 9% of older African-Americans were high school graduates."

Administration on Aging. (2011). A profile of older Americans- 2010. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/Profile/index.aspx

Principal sources of data for the Profile are the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the National Center on Health Statistics, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Profile incorporates the latest data available but not all items are updated on an annual basis.

According to a 2010 Pew Research Center survey, "more than half of Millennials have at least some college education (54%), compared with 49% of Gen Xers, 36% of Boomers and 24% of the Silent generation when they were ages 18 to 28." (p. 10)

According to a 2010 Pew Research Center survey, "more than half of Millennials have at least some college education (54%), compared with 49% of Gen Xers, 36% of Boomers and 24% of the Silent generation when they were ages 18 to 28." (p. 10)

Pew Research Center. (2010). Millennials: A portrait of generation next: Confident. connected. open to change. Washington, DC: The Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/millennials-confident-connected-open-to-change.pdf

Findings in this study are mainly based on the results of a telephone survey conducted Jan. 14 to 27, 2010, on landlines and cell phones with a nationally representative sample of 2,020 adults. To allow for a detailed analysis of attitudes of the Millennial generation, the survey includes an oversample of respondents ages 18 to 29, for a total of 830 respondents in this age group.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "about 10 percent of female workers age 55 to 64 without high school diplomas were unemployed last year, compared with about 5 percent of their counterparts with college degrees." (p. 10)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "about 10 percent of female workers age 55 to 64 without high school diplomas were unemployed last year, compared with about 5 percent of their counterparts with college degrees." (p. 10)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "about 12 percent of male workers age 55 to 64 who did not complete high school were unemployed in 2009, compared with about 5 percent of college graduates." (p. 9)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "about 12 percent of male workers age 55 to 64 who did not complete high school were unemployed in 2009, compared with about 5 percent of college graduates." (p. 9)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, "two percent of individual account retirement plan assets were owned by families headed by individuals without a high school diploma. The share for families with a head having only a high school diploma increased to 12.2 percent....

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, "two percent of individual account retirement plan assets were owned by families headed by individuals without a high school diploma. The share for families with a head having only a high school diploma increased to 12.2 percent. Approximately 75 percent of individual account retirement plan assets were owned by families whose head was a college graduate." (p. 3-4)

Copeland, C. (2010). Total individual account retirement plan assets, by demographics, 2007, with market adjustments to March 2010 (EBRI Notes, Vol. 31 No. 5). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_05-May10.IAs.pdf

This article examines the distribution of total assets held in individual account retirement plans (401(k)-type plans, IRAs, and Keogh plans) across various demographic characteristics of American families, based on the latest data from the Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances.

According to the Older Americans 2010 report, "in 1965, 24 percent of the older population had graduated from high school, and only 5 percent had at least a bachelor's degree. By 2008, 77 percent were high school graduates or more, and 21 percent had a bachelor's degree or more." (p. xv)

According to the Older Americans 2010 report, "in 1965, 24 percent of the older population had graduated from high school, and only 5 percent had at least a bachelor's degree. By 2008, 77 percent were high school graduates or more, and 21 percent had a bachelor's degree or more." (p. xv)

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2010). Older Americans 2010: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2010_Documents/Docs/OA_2010.pdf

This report uses data from over a dozen national data sources, including the Current Population Survey, the Health and Retirement Survey, the American Time Use Survey, etc.

According to a 2010 analysis from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among persons born in the latter years of the baby boom [1957 to 1964], "blacks with less than a high school diploma (as of the 2008-09 survey) spent 47 percent of weeks employed from age 18 to age 44. By comparison, black high school...

According to a 2010 analysis from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among persons born in the latter years of the baby boom [1957 to 1964], "blacks with less than a high school diploma (as of the 2008-09 survey) spent 47 percent of weeks employed from age 18 to age 44. By comparison, black high school graduates spent 68 percent of weeks employed. Hispanic or Latino high school dropouts spent 59 percent of weeks employed, compared with 74 percent of weeks for Hispanic or Latino high school graduates. White high school dropouts spent 64 percent of weeks employed, and white high school graduates spent 80 percent of weeks employed. Among those with a bachelor's degree, there was little difference between racial and ethnic groups in labor market attachment; each group spent 80 to 82 percent of weeks employed."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Number of jobs held, labor market activity, and earnings growth among the youngest baby boomers: Results from a longitudinal survey summary. Retrieved September 13, 2010, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/nlsoy.nr0.htm

These findings are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a survey of 9,964 men and women who were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979 and ages 43 to 52 when interviewed most recently during the 2008-09 period. These respondents were born in the years 1957 to 1964, the latter years of the baby boom that occurred in the United States from 1946 to 1964.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "older workers with less than a high school diploma had the highest share of workers (77.2 percent) in difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions]. Those with an advanced degree had the...

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "older workers with less than a high school diploma had the highest share of workers (77.2 percent) in difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions]. Those with an advanced degree had the lowest share of workers (22 percent) in difficult jobs."

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "in the fourth quarter of 2009, the incidence of underemployment ranged from a high of 16.4 percent among high school dropouts, down to 8.4 percent for high school graduates, and on to a low of 2.2 percent for those employed adults with a graduate school degree."...

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "in the fourth quarter of 2009, the incidence of underemployment ranged from a high of 16.4 percent among high school dropouts, down to 8.4 percent for high school graduates, and on to a low of 2.2 percent for those employed adults with a graduate school degree." (p. 8)

Sum, A., & Khatiwada, I. (2010). The Nation's underemployed in the 'Great recession' of 2007-09. Monthly Labor Review, 133(11), 3-15. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2010/11/art1full.pdf

The CPS, a national survey of some 60,000 households, is used to estimate the size of the U.S. civilian labor force and its employed and unemployed populations.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, employees with more access to traditional flextime* include those who are "more highly educated (86% employees with at least some postsecondary education versus 82% employees with a high school diploma or less);...
According to a 2010 analysis of data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, employees with more access to traditional flextime* include those who are "more highly educated (86% employees with at least some postsecondary education versus 82% employees with a high school diploma or less); managers and professionals (57% versus 37% other employees); men (47% versus 41% women); and workers in service industries (45% versus 38% employees in goods-producing industries."   (p. 17)

*Traditional flextime arrangements allow employees to vary when they start and end their work days within a range of
hours surrounding fixed core operating hours.

Tang, C., & Wadsworth, S. M. (2010). Time and workplace flexibility. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://www.familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/time_work_flex.pdf

The 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) survey was conducted by Harris Interactive, Inc. (formerly Louis Harris and Associates) using a questionnaire developed by the Families and Work Institute.A total of 3,502 interviews were completed with a nationwide cross-section of employed adults between November 12, 2007 and April 20, 2008.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, "employees who are most likely to be able to control their schedule are: women, compared with men (38% versus 35%); employees with at least 4 years of college education (43%), compared with those with either...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, "employees who are most likely to be able to control their schedule are: women, compared with men (38% versus 35%); employees with at least 4 years of college education (43%), compared with those with either some postsecondary (34%) or high school diploma/GED/less education (33%);managers or professionals, opposed to other occupations (44 versus 33%, respectively); and employees in service rather than in goods-producing industries (38 versus 30%, respectively). (p. 14-15)

Tang, C., & Wadsworth, S. M. (2010). Time and workplace flexibility. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://www.familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/time_work_flex.pdf

The 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) survey was conducted by Harris Interactive, Inc. (formerly Louis Harris and Associates) using a questionnaire developed by the Families and Work Institute.A total of 3,502 interviews were completed with a nationwide cross-section of employed adults between November 12, 2007 and April 20, 2008.

According to a 2010 analysis of Census and American Community Survey data, "in 1970, 36% 0f U.S.-born men and and 35% of women ages 30-44 had not graduated high school, while 18% of men and 9% of women had attained a college degree. By 2007, only 7% of men and 6% of women had not graduated from high...

According to a 2010 analysis of Census and American Community Survey data, "in 1970, 36% 0f U.S.-born men and and 35% of women ages 30-44 had not graduated high school, while 18% of men and 9% of women had attained a college degree. By 2007, only 7% of men and 6% of women had not graduated from high school, and attainment of a college degree had increased to 30% of men and 33% of women." (p. 21)

Taylor, P., Fry, R., Cohn, D., Wang, W., Velasco, G., & Dockterman, D. (2010). Women, men and the new economics of marriage. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/new-economics-of-marriage.pdf

This report includes analysis of data from the Decennial Censuses and 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) Integrated Public Use Micro Samples (IPUMS)

A 2009 analysis of CPS data shows that "38 percent of men age 55-64 in 1983 had not graduated from high school. By 2006, that figure had declined to 13 percent, and those who had completed at least four years of college had increased from 18 percent to 33 percent." (p. 2)

A 2009 analysis of CPS data shows that "38 percent of men age 55-64 in 1983 had not graduated from high school. By 2006, that figure had declined to 13 percent, and those who had completed at least four years of college had increased from 18 percent to 33 percent." (p. 2)

Munnell, A. H., Muldoon, D., & Sass, S. A. (2009). Recessions and older workers (Issue Brief No. 9-2). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/images/stories/Briefs/ib_9-2.pdf

In this report, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey is used to analyze trends in the employment of older men from 1983 through 2006.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, 10.8 percent of workers age 65 or older who had not completed high school were unemployed in July 2009, compared with 5.8 percent of their counterparts who completed four or more years of college.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, 10.8 percent of workers age 65 or older who had not completed high school were unemployed in July 2009, compared with 5.8 percent of their counterparts who completed four or more years of college.

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2009). Unemployment statistics on older Americans: Updated 9/09. Retrieved September 10, 2009, from http://www.urban.org/publications/411904.html

This report presents analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Current Population Survey. Tables are updated monthly.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "In 2007, 41 percent of Hispanics ages 50 to 69 lacked a high school diploma, compared with only 18 percent of non-Hispanic blacks and 8 percent of non-Hispanic whites in the same age group. Only 12 percent of Latinos ages 50 to 69 earned at least a...

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "In 2007, 41 percent of Hispanics ages 50 to 69 lacked a high school diploma, compared with only 18 percent of non-Hispanic blacks and 8 percent of non-Hispanic whites in the same age group. Only 12 percent of Latinos ages 50 to 69 earned at least a Bachelor's degree. By contrast, [in the same age group] 17 percent of non-Hispanic blacks and 31 percent of non-Hispanic whites completed college." (p. 8)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "the median income of older Americans increases substantially with their educational level. Those with only a high-school diploma had a median income of $16,733 in 2008, whereas college graduates had a median income of $34,031......

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "the median income of older Americans increases substantially with their educational level. Those with only a high-school diploma had a median income of $16,733 in 2008, whereas college graduates had a median income of $34,031... Elderly households in which the householder had only a high-school diploma had a median income of $27,684 in 2008, while elderly households headed by a college graduate had a median income of $57,957." (p. 11)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in every year from 1940 through 2007, men 25 years old and older are at least somewhat more likely (in absolute terms) than women of the same ages to have completed four years of college or more. The differences between men and women are...

According to a 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in every year from 1940 through 2007, men 25 years old and older are at least somewhat more likely (in absolute terms) than women of the same ages to have completed four years of college or more. The differences between men and women are smallest in 2007 (1.5 percentage points) and, interestingly, in 1940 (1.7 percentage points) when college graduation rates were very low for everybody except the well-to-do." (p. 5, fig. 6)

Galinsky, E., Aumann, K., & Bond, J. T. (2009). Times are changing: Gender and generation at work and at home. 2008 national study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/Times_Are_Changing.pdf

The report also incorporates findings published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and U.S. Department of Labor, which are drawn from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Specifically, findings are from the March Supplement to the annual CPS representing a random sample of approximately 60,000 U.S. households.

Analysis of data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that "among older workers, the odds of being very satisfied with life are 63.6% higher for females than for males; 45.3% lower for white non-Hispanics than for people of other ethnic/racial backgrounds, and 8.5% higher with...

Analysis of data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that "among older workers, the odds of being very satisfied with life are 63.6% higher for females than for males; 45.3% lower for white non-Hispanics than for people of other ethnic/racial backgrounds, and 8.5% higher with every additional year in age." (p. 6)

Johnson, J. K. M., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Besen, E., Smyer, M., & Matz-Costa, C. (2008). Quality of employment and life-satisfaction: A relationship that matters for older workers (Issue Brief No. 13). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB13_LifeSatisfaction.pdf

Drawing on data from various sources, this issue brief offers insights about how employment experiences affect the life satisfaction of older workers.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, "transitions into self employment were relatively common among college-educated men, where 22% who had left a FTC wage-and-salary job transitioned to self employment. Conversely, among wage-and-salary men with less than...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data gathered from the Health and Retirement Study, "transitions into self employment were relatively common among college-educated men, where 22% who had left a FTC wage-and-salary job transitioned to self employment. Conversely, among wage-and-salary men with less than a college degree, only 10% moved to self employment when they left their FTC job.15% of female wage-and-salary workers with a college degree transitioned to self-employment, while only 9% of non-college-educated women did the same." (Fig. 6, p. 6)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

A 2008 analysis of data from U.S. Statistical Abstracts shows that, "in 1960, fewer than one in ten young adults were enrolled in college. By 2005, one in four adults age 22-24 was enrolled in school, and substantial portions of those in their late 20s remained in school." (fig. 4, p. 4)

A 2008 analysis of data from U.S. Statistical Abstracts shows that, "in 1960, fewer than one in ten young adults were enrolled in college. By 2005, one in four adults age 22-24 was enrolled in school, and substantial portions of those in their late 20s remained in school." (fig. 4, p. 4)


Sweet, S., & Joggerst, M. (2008). The interlocking careers of older workers and their adult children (Issue Brief No. 14). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB14_InterlockingCareers.pdf

"Many findings discussed in this Issue Brief are the result of analysis of data from the Statistical Abstracts of the United States, the Cornell Couples and Careers Study (interviews with middle class dual earner couples in 1998-2001), and other sources relevant to family expenses." (p. 1)

According to a 2008 Metlife survey, "most of those in encore careers come from professional and white-collar jobs (88%), have at least a college education (67%), and tend to live in cities and their surrounding suburbs (72%). In contrast, of those in encore careers, three in 10 never graduated from...

According to a 2008 Metlife survey, "most of those in encore careers come from professional and white-collar jobs (88%), have at least a college education (67%), and tend to live in cities and their surrounding suburbs (72%). In contrast, of those in encore careers, three in 10 never graduated from college, three in 10 live in small towns and rural areas, and nearly two in 10 (18%) worked in a blue-collar job before making the switch to an encore career." (p. 5)

Metlife Foundation, & Civic Ventures. (2008). Encore career survey. San Francisco: Civic Ventures. Retrieved from http://www.civicventures.org/publications/surveys/encore_career_survey/Encore_Survey.pdf

This survey, conducted from February to APril 2008, investigates men and women in midlife in pursuit of purpose-driven work in the second half of life or "encore career." The quantitative research began with a telephone survey of 1,063 adults age 44 to 70, which was followed by an online survey of 1,008 adults currently in encore careers and 1,514 adults interested in encore careers.

According to a 2008 BLS report, "in 1997, 21 percent of employed older workers had less than a high school education compared to only 10 percent of those ages 25-64. By 2007, older workers with less than a high school education accounted for just 13 percent of that group's employment, compared with...

According to a 2008 BLS report, "in 1997, 21 percent of employed older workers had less than a high school education compared to only 10 percent of those ages 25-64. By 2007, older workers with less than a high school education accounted for just 13 percent of that group's employment, compared with 9 percent for younger workers."


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Spotlight on statistics: Older workers. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://stats.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/older_workers/pdf/older_workers_bls_spotlight.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and BLS Employment Projections.

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 65 or more was $59,500 if the family head had no high-school diploma, compared to $184,000 for those with a high school diploma, and $412,100 for those...

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 65 or more was $59,500 if the family head had no high-school diploma, compared to $184,000 for those with a high school diploma, and $412,100 for those with some or more college education. (Table 10-2008)

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics. (2008). Older Americans 2008: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2008_Documents/OA_2008.pdf

This report describes the overall status of the U.S. population age 65 and over, using data from over a dozen national data sources to construct broad indicators of well-being for the older population and to monitor changes in these indicators over time.

A 2008 analysis of BLS data shows that workers in the 100 fastest-growing occupations are much better educated than workers in other occupations, with 43 percent of their workers college graduates, compared with 26 percent of workers in other occupations. (p. 30)

A 2008 analysis of BLS data shows that workers in the 100 fastest-growing occupations are much better educated than workers in other occupations, with 43 percent of their workers college graduates, compared with 26 percent of workers in other occupations. (p. 30)

Mermin, Gordon B. T., Richard W. Johnson, and Eric J. Toder. (2008). Will Employers Want Aging Boomers? Retirement Project Discussion Paper 08-04. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411705_aging_boomers.pdf

This report examines the current employer demand for older workers and explores how demand may be changing over time, based on analysis of a variety of national employment and earnings statistics, including Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006), the Employment and Training Administration's Occupational Information Network, and Current Population Survey

A 2008 analysis of CPS data shows that "between 1971 and 2007, the share of adults ages 55 to 74 with a four-year college degree has increased from 9 to 27 percent (table 10).... The share of adults ages 55 to 74 who have a college degree is projected to rise to 31 percent by 2027." (p. 33)

A 2008 analysis of CPS data shows that "between 1971 and 2007, the share of adults ages 55 to 74 with a four-year college degree has increased from 9 to 27 percent (table 10).... The share of adults ages 55 to 74 who have a college degree is projected to rise to 31 percent by 2027." (p. 33)

Mermin, G. B. T.,  Johnson, R. W., and Toder, E. J. (2008). Will Employers Want Aging Boomers? Retirement Project Discussion Paper 08-04. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411705_aging_boomers.pdf.

This report examines the current employer demand for older workers and explores how demand may be changing over time, based on analysis of a variety of national employment and earnings statistics, including Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006), the Employment and Training Administration's Occupational Information Network, and Current Population Survey

A 2008 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that, "in 2007, 28.7 percent of men age 50 and older with a graduate-level education received an annuity and/or pension income, compared with 19.8 percent of men without a high school diploma -- a differential of 8.9 percentage points." (p. 2)

A 2008 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that, "in 2007, 28.7 percent of men age 50 and older with a graduate-level education received an annuity and/or pension income, compared with 19.8 percent of men without a high school diploma -- a differential of 8.9 percentage points." (p. 2)

McDonnell, K. (2008). Retirement annuity and employment-based pension income among individuals age 50 and over: 2007 (EBRI Notes Vol. 29 No. 11). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_11-2008.pdf

This article provides an analysis of data from the March 2008 Census Bureau's Current Population survey on retirement annuity and pension income for the population age 50 and over.

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "about 13 percent of women aged 55-64 in 2004 had less than a high school education compared with 32 percent in 1984. In 2004, one-half (50 percent) of women aged 55-64 had at least some college education compared with only slightly...

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "about 13 percent of women aged 55-64 in 2004 had less than a high school education compared with 32 percent in 1984. In 2004, one-half (50 percent) of women aged 55-64 had at least some college education compared with only slightly more than a fifth (22 percent) in 1984. The percentage of women aged 55-64 with a college degree more than doubled over the past 20 years from 10 percent in 1984 to 24 percent in 2004. (p. 3)

Iams, H. M., Phillips, J. R. W., Robinson, K., Deang, L., & Dushi, I. (2008). Cohort changes in the retirement resources of older women. Social Security Bulletin, 68(4), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v68n4/v68n4p1.pdf

The method of analysis is a cross-cohort comparison of well-being measures of three cohorts of women aged 55-64 in 1984, 1994, and 2004, just before they become eligible for Medicare and full Social Security benefits. Sources include the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), Social Security benefit data from published statistical tables, and data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2007 analysis of HRS data, among workers aged 50 and older, "while 26 percent of wage and salary workers have a bachelor's degree or higher, that share reaches 32 percent among the self-employed." (p. 12)

According to a 2007 analysis of HRS data, among workers aged 50 and older, "while 26 percent of wage and salary workers have a bachelor's degree or higher, that share reaches 32 percent among the self-employed." (p. 12)

Zissimopoulos, J., & Karoly, L. A. (2007). Work and well-being among the self-employed at older ages (Research Report No. 2007-04). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/2007_04_work.pdf

This study is based on analysis data available from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The HRS offers biennial longitudinal data from 1992 to 2004 for respondents born from 1931 to 1941 and their spouses. This project uses final release data from 1992 to 2002. (p. vii)

A 2006 analysis of data from the General Social Survey shows that in 2002, 18.9% of workers aged 55-65 were overqualified for their jobs by 3 or more years; that is, they had 3 or more years of education than required. For workers aged 45-54, 20.1% were overqualified. For workers aged 35-44 and 25-34,...

A 2006 analysis of data from the General Social Survey shows that in 2002, 18.9% of workers aged 55-65 were overqualified for their jobs by 3 or more years; that is, they had 3 or more years of education than required. For workers aged 45-54, 20.1% were overqualified. For workers aged 35-44 and 25-34, the percentage overqualified were 19.0 and 20.8 respectively.

Vaisey, S. (2006). Education and its discontents: Overqualification in America, 1972-2002. Social Forces, 85(2), 835-864.

The data come from the 1972-2002 General Social Survey (GSS). The GSS is a repeated cross-sectional study conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) that interviews approximately 1,500 non-institutionalized adults in the United States about every year.

In 2003, for 15.4% of persons age 65 and above had completed less than a 9th grade education, 36.2% had graduated from high school and 17.4% had bachelors or advanced degrees.

In 2003, for 15.4% of persons age 65 and above had completed less than a 9th grade education, 36.2% had graduated from high school and 17.4% had bachelors or advanced degrees.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 31, p. 35). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

A 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce indicates that “small business owners (50 years or older) are more likely to have college degrees than workers in either of the other two groups. Indeed, 54 percent of small business owners, 50 or more years old, have four-year...

A 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce indicates that “small business owners (50 years or older) are more likely to have college degrees than workers in either of the other two groups. Indeed, 54 percent of small business owners, 50 or more years old, have four-year college degrees or more, while only 32 percent of wage and salaried employees and 39 percent of self-employed independents do.” (Table 1, p.4)

Center on Aging & Work / Workplace Flexibility. (2005, November).Context matters: Insights about older workers from the National study of the changing workforce. (Research Highlights No. 01).Chestnut Hill, MA: Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, A. M. Retrieved July 31, 2006, from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/template_highlights

“This report is the first in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute that present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This first issue compares the personal characteristics, employment experiences, and attitudes of workers, 50 or more years old, who are wage and salaried employees, independent self-employed workers, and small business owners…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to analysis of the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, 38 percent of men and 28 percent of women over the age of 50 had four year college degrees or more (fig.1).  In comparison, 32 percent of women under 50 years of age had four-year college degrees or more versus only 23...

According to analysis of the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, 38 percent of men and 28 percent of women over the age of 50 had four year college degrees or more (fig.1).  In comparison, 32 percent of women under 50 years of age had four-year college degrees or more versus only 23 percent of men. (p.2)




Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf



“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to the 2005 Work-Filled Retirement survey, "workers with college degrees (74%) outpace both those with either some college education (59%) and those with no more than a high school degree (61%) in their confidence they will be able to retire when they want. Those earning more than $40,000...

According to the 2005 Work-Filled Retirement survey, "workers with college degrees (74%) outpace both those with either some college education (59%) and those with no more than a high school degree (61%) in their confidence they will be able to retire when they want. Those earning more than $40,000 per year (71%) are also more confident than those earning below this line (44%)." There is no significant difference between men and women on this issue. (p.9, Figure 1.6)

Reynolds, S., Ridley, N., & Van Horn, C. (2005). A work-filled retirement: Workers’ changing views on employment and leisure (Work Trends Survey No. 8.1). New Brunswick, NJ: John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/uploadedFiles/Publications/WT16.pdf

“In this report, American workers across the nation describe their expectations of retirement and their views of how older workers are treated in the workplace…A total of 1,232 adults were interviewed for this survey. Respondents who worked full or part time, or who were unemployed and looking for work, received a complete interview. A total of 432 respondents who did not meet these criteria received a short interview that included demographic questions. The results of this report are based on a total of 800 complete interviews with members of the workforce, including 82 people who have retired from their primary job but remain in the workforce. The final results were weighted to match U.S. Census Bureau estimates for age, educational attainment, gender, and race.”

In 2000, 66.7% of persons age 50-61, 56.3% of persons age 62-74, and 53.2% of persons age 75 and above, were high school graduates and had incomes in bottom 25%.

In 2000, 66.7% of persons age 50-61, 56.3% of persons age 62-74, and 53.2% of persons age 75 and above, were high school graduates and had incomes in bottom 25%.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

In 2000, 96.2% of persons age 50-61, 90.9% of persons age 62-74, and 87.2% of persons age 75 and above, were high school graduates and had incomes in top 25%.

In 2000, 96.2% of persons age 50-61, 90.9% of persons age 62-74, and 87.2% of persons age 75 and above, were high school graduates and had incomes in top 25%.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

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