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According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement study, "the percentage of people age 56-61 arriving on the verge of retirement with debt rose from 64% in 1992, to 71% by 2008. Additionally, the value of debt rose sharply over time. While the median amount of debt in 1992 was about...

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement study, "the percentage of people age 56-61 arriving on the verge of retirement with debt rose from 64% in 1992, to 71% by 2008. Additionally, the value of debt rose sharply over time. While the median amount of debt in 1992 was about $6,200, median debt more than tripled by 2002 and quadrupled by 2008 (respectively $19,100 and $28,300, all in $2012)." (p. 3-4)

Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, O. S. (2103). Older adult debt and financial frailty. (Working Paper No. 201 3- 291). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Retirement Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.mrrc.isr.umich.edu/publications/Papers/pdf/wp291.pdf

data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the National Financial Capability Study (NFCS).

According to a 2014 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, among lower-income individuals (under 300% of poverty line), 22% reported that they participated in a pension plan at their current job between 1992-2010, compared to 59% of higher-income individuals (over 300% of poverty line).

According to a 2014 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, among lower-income individuals (under 300% of poverty line), 22% reported that they participated in a pension plan at their current job between 1992-2010, compared to 59% of higher-income individuals (over 300% of poverty line).

Wu, A. Y., Rutledge, M. S., & Penglase, J. (2014). Why don't lower-income individuals have pensions?  (Issue Brief No. 14-8). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/briefs/why-don%E2%80%99t-lower-income-individuals-have-pensions/

The data are from the 1992-2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a longitudinal survey covering households with members over age 50. The main sample consists of respondents age 50-58 who answered the pension questions and whose household income is less than 300 percent of the poverty line.

According to a 2014 survey of adults ages 49-67, "Boomers with a HH [household] income of $50K or more are more likely than those with a HH income of less than 50K to rate their physical health excellent or very good (61-65% vs. 19-32%). Boomers with college graduate or higher level of education are...

According to a 2014 survey of adults ages 49-67, "Boomers with a HH [household] income of $50K or more are more likely than those with a HH income of less than 50K to rate their physical health excellent or very good (61-65% vs. 19-32%). Boomers with college graduate or higher level of education are more likely than those with some college (not graduate) or lower level of education to rate their physical health excellent or very good (62% vs. 32-40%)." (p. 8)

Chapagain, M. (2014). Boomers and physical fitness: an AARP bulletin survey. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/health/2014/Boomers-and-Physical-Fitness-An-AARP-Bulletin-Survey-AARP-res-health.pdf

Random-digit dial telephone omnibus survey was fielded from January 02-15, 2014. National representative sample of 760 respondents ages 49 to 67 (Boomers). Of the total, 396 respondents were ages 49-59 and 336 respondents were age 60+, and 28 respondents refused to report their actual age.

According to a 2013 analysis of homeownership patterns among young baby boomers born from 1957 to 1964, "of those who reported owning a home in 2008, 93 percent owned a home in 2010. Almost 7 percent of the sample and 6 percent of 2008 homeowners were delinquent on mortgage payments over this period....

According to a 2013 analysis of homeownership patterns among young baby boomers born from 1957 to 1964, "of those who reported owning a home in 2008, 93 percent owned a home in 2010. Almost 7 percent of the sample and 6 percent of 2008 homeowners were delinquent on mortgage payments over this period. In addition, about 2 percent of homeowners received a foreclosure notice."

Aughinbaugh, A. (2013). Patterns of homeownership, delinquency, and foreclosure among youngest baby boomers. (Beyond the Numbers, Vol. 2 No. 2). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-2/patterns-of-homeownership.htm

This report is based on analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79).

According to a 2013 Bureau of Labor Statistics report, "among youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 11.3 percent of 16- to 19-year-olds and 14.0 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds were in poverty in 2011, about double the 7.2-percent rate for workers age 35 to 44. Workers age 45 to 54,...

According to a 2013 Bureau of Labor Statistics report, "among youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 11.3 percent of 16- to 19-year-olds and 14.0 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds were in poverty in 2011, about double the 7.2-percent rate for workers age 35 to 44. Workers age 45 to 54, those age 55 to 64, and workers age 65 and older had lower working poor rates--5.1 percent, 3.9 percent, and 1.7 percent, respectively--than did other age groups."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). A profile of the working poor, 2011. (Report No. 1041). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswp2011.pdf

Data presented in this report were collected in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS).

According to an analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, among older workers, 2.4% of hourly workers aged 45-54 have earnings at or below the federal minimum wage. Among those age 55-64, 1.8% earn the minimum wage or less, while among those aged 65 and over, the rate is 2.9%.

According to an analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, among older workers, 2.4% of hourly workers aged 45-54 have earnings at or below the federal minimum wage. Among those age 55-64, 1.8% earn the minimum wage or less, while among those aged 65 and over, the rate is 2.9%.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Minimum wage workers account for 4.7 percent of hourly paid workers in 2012. TED: The Editor’s desk. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2013/ted_20130325.htm

These data are from the Current Population Survey. For more information, see “Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2012” (HTML) (PDF). Data are for wage and salary workers age 16 and over and refer to earnings on a person's sole or principal job. Hourly earnings for hourly paid workers do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips received. The estimates of the numbers of minimum and subminimum wage workers pertain to workers paid at hourly rates;

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, a decade after job losing a job, older displaced workers "earn 14 to 19 percent less, have assets that are 22 to 30 percent lower, and are up to 8 percent age points more likely to experience subsequent layoffs" than older workers...

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, a decade after job losing a job, older displaced workers "earn 14 to 19 percent less, have assets that are 22 to 30 percent lower, and are up to 8 percent age points more likely to experience subsequent layoffs" than older workers who had not lost their jobs. (p. 2)

Rutledge, M. S., Orlova, N., & Webb, A. (2013). How will older workers who lose their jobs during the great recession fare in the long-run? (Working Paper No. 2013-9). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/wp_2013-9-508.pdf

The analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to compare individuals who lost their job in the two-year interval between interview waves to those who were not laid off in that period.

According to a 2013 analysis of National Longitudinal Survey data, among men experiencing their first long-term unemployment spell [that is, a spell lasting 27 weeks or longer], "real average hourly wages were about 7 percent lower 4 years after the onset of the long-term unemployment spell than they...

According to a 2013 analysis of National Longitudinal Survey data, among men experiencing their first long-term unemployment spell [that is, a spell lasting 27 weeks or longer], "real average hourly wages were about 7 percent lower 4 years after the onset of the long-term unemployment spell than they were 4 years before the long-term spell...In contrast, men who did not experience a long-term unemployment spell had very significant wage growth over time. For example, over the 8-year period from 1990 to 1998, men who never had a long-term unemployment spell experienced a 41-percent increase in their real hourly wages, on average."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Men's wages before and after long-term unemployment spells: The editor's desk. Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2013/ted_20130906.htm

The article uses the employment history of men in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). The men in the NLSY79 were born in the years 1957 to 1964. The analysis covers the mid-1980s through 2009, focusing on men’s employment histories from their mid-20s, after they had become integrated into the labor market, until their middle to late 40s and early 50s.

According to a 2013 analysis of data from a national longituindal survey, for men experiencing a spell of long-term unemployment [that is, unemployed for 27 weeks or more] during their careers, "4 years after onset of the first long-term unemployment spell , average hourly wages are still 7 percent...

According to a 2013 analysis of data from a national longituindal survey, for men experiencing a spell of long-term unemployment [that is, unemployed for 27 weeks or more] during their careers, "4 years after onset of the first long-term unemployment spell , average hourly wages are still 7 percent below what they were 4 years before the spell began." (p. 8)

Rothstein, D. S. (2013). Long-term unemployment over men's careers. (Beyond the Numbers, Vol. 2 No. 21). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-2/pdf/long-term-unemployment-over-mens-careers.pdf

The data used in this article are from the NLSY79, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women born from 1957 to 1964 (the latter years of the baby boom) and living in the United States at the time of the initial survey in 1979. Respondents were interviewed annually from 1979 through 1994; after 1994, they were interviewed every other year. By the 2010 survey, NLSY79 respondents were ages 45 to 53.7

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the American Time Use Survey, "nonstandard schedules [that is, more than 50 percent of working time performed outside the 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. time band or on weekend] are more common among low-wage workers. Among those with very low wages (weekly earnings...

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the American Time Use Survey, "nonstandard schedules [that is, more than 50 percent of working time performed outside the 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. time band or on weekend] are more common among low-wage workers. Among those with very low wages (weekly earnings lower than those of 75 percent of the population who work full time), 28 percent work most of their hours on a nonstandard schedule. One in four workers with wages at or below the median works on a nonstandard schedule." (p. 6)

Enchautegui, M. E. (2013). Nonstandard work schedules and the well-being of low-income families (Low-Income Working Families Paper No. 26). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412877-nonstandard-work-schedules.pdf

Data for this study are from the American Time Use Survey Multiyear Files 2003 to 2011. The ATUS is based on a sample of respondents to the monthly Current Population Survey.

According to a 2013 analysis of data from EBRI's Retirement Confidence survey, "nearly half of workers and four in 10 retirees age 50 and older have problems with debt; but just 13% describe it as a major problem." (p. 18)

According to a 2013 analysis of data from EBRI's Retirement Confidence survey, "nearly half of workers and four in 10 retirees age 50 and older have problems with debt; but just 13% describe it as a major problem." (p. 18)

AARP. (2013). 2013 retirement confidence survey: A secondary analysis of the findings from respondents age 50+. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2013/2013-Retirement-Confidence-Survey-A-Secondary-Analysis-of-the-Findings-from-Respondents-Age-50-Plus-AARP-rsa-gen.pdf

This report presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the Employee Benefit Research Institute's (EBRI) 2013 Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS) - focusing on findings from survey respondents (i.e., workers and retirees) age 50 years and older.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "working adults ages 50 or older with higher annual incomes are more likely to be saving additional money for retirement than are those with lower incomes. Eighty percent of those earning between $50,000 and...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "working adults ages 50 or older with higher annual incomes are more likely to be saving additional money for retirement than are those with lower incomes. Eighty percent of those earning between $50,000 and $100,000 and 90% of those earning $100,000 or more say they are currently putting away additional money for retirement. Just 57% of people earning less than $50,000 a year say they are doing the same." (p.10)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "working adults age 50 years and older who have experienced a decrease in pay in the last five years are significantly more likely than are adults who have experienced an increase in pay to have searched for...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "working adults age 50 years and older who have experienced a decrease in pay in the last five years are significantly more likely than are adults who have experienced an increase in pay to have searched for a job in the last five years (42% to 21%)." (p.5)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, among workers aged 50+, "47% of those who are not yet retired say that their pay has increased over the last five years, while 36% say it has stayed about the same and 16% say it has decreased". (p.3)

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, among workers aged 50+, "47% of those who are not yet retired say that their pay has increased over the last five years, while 36% say it has stayed about the same and 16% say it has decreased". (p.3)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "the share of adults between 65 and 69 who earned labor income increased from 26 percent to 37 percent between 1985 and 2010." (p. 6)

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "the share of adults between 65 and 69 who earned labor income increased from 26 percent to 37 percent between 1985 and 2010." (p. 6)

Burtless, G. (2013). The impact of population aging and delayed retirement on workforce productivity. Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/wp_2013-111.pdf

This paper uses evidence from the monthly Current Population Survey files.

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Social Security Administration, "the full retirement rate is consistently higher for workers with lower earnings...about 50 percent of 60 year olds in the bottom earnings quintile are fully retired by age 60." (p. 11)

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Social Security Administration, "the full retirement rate is consistently higher for workers with lower earnings...about 50 percent of 60 year olds in the bottom earnings quintile are fully retired by age 60." (p. 11)

Gorodnichenko, Y., Song, J., & Stolyarov, D. (2013). Macroeconomic determinants of retirement timing. (Working Paper No. 2013-281). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Retirement Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.mrrc.isr.umich.edu/publications/papers/pdf/wp281.pdf

This study is based on the Continuous Work History Sample (CWHS) dataset from the Social Security Administration.

According to a 2013 analysis of CPS data, "between 1979 and 2012, women's-to-men's earnings ratios rose for most age groups. Among 25 to 34-year-olds, for example, the ratio increased from 68 percent in 1979 to 90 percent in 2012. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio for 45 to 54-year-olds increased...

According to a 2013 analysis of CPS data, "between 1979 and 2012, women's-to-men's earnings ratios rose for most age groups. Among 25 to 34-year-olds, for example, the ratio increased from 68 percent in 1979 to 90 percent in 2012. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio for 45 to 54-year-olds increased from 57 percent to 75 percent." (p. 2)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Highlights of Women's earnings in 2012. (Report No. 1045). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf

This report presents data highlights and statistical tables of earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

According to a 2013 analysis of CPS data, "median weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64 in 2012, with little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($747), 45- to 54-year-olds ($746), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($766). Among men, workers who were age 45 to 64 had the highest earnings,...

According to a 2013 analysis of CPS data, "median weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64 in 2012, with little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($747), 45- to 54-year-olds ($746), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($766). Among men, workers who were age 45 to 64 had the highest earnings, with 45- to 54-year-olds ($994) making about the same as 55- to 64-year-olds ($1,005). Young women and men age 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($416 and $468, respectively)". (p. 1)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Highlights of Women's earnings in 2012. (Report No. 1045). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf

This report presents data highlights and statistical tables of earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

According to a 2013 Harris Interactive survey, "when asked if they would be willing to give up a portion of their salary for more flexibility at work, 45% of U.S. working adults said they would be willing to relinquish at least some portion of their salary - consistent with the findings of both 2012...

According to a 2013 Harris Interactive survey, "when asked if they would be willing to give up a portion of their salary for more flexibility at work, 45% of U.S. working adults said they would be willing to relinquish at least some portion of their salary - consistent with the findings of both 2012 (45%) and 2011 (42%)". (p1)

MomCorps. (2013). Workplace flexibility is top consideration for nearly three fourths of U.S. working adults. US: MomCorps. Retrieved from http://www.harrisinteractive.com/vault/Mom%20Corps_2013%20workplace%20survey%20release%20FINAL.pdf

This survey was conducted online within the United States by Harris Interactive on behalf of Mom Corps from July 29-31, 2013 among 2,013 adults ages 18 and older, of whom, 886 are employed full-time and/or part-time. The 2012 survey was conducted online from July 26-30, 2012 among 2,207 adults ages 18 and older, of whom, 1,096 are "working adults" (employed full time and/or part time) and the 2011 survey was conducted online from July 27-29, 2011 among 2,127 adults aged 18 and over, of whom 1,071 are employed full time/part time.

According to a 2013 analysis of the Current Population Survey, "in 2012 women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings of $691."

According to a 2013 analysis of the Current Population Survey, "in 2012 women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings of $691."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Women's earnings, 1979-2012 : The Editor's desk. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2013/ted_20131104.htm

This analysis is based on data from the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, "nearly half of adults ages 62 to 69 with debt are working, compared with only a third of those without debt. On the flip side, only 71% of older adults with debt receive Social Security benefits, compared with 78% of those...

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, "nearly half of adults ages 62 to 69 with debt are working, compared with only a third of those without debt. On the flip side, only 71% of older adults with debt receive Social Security benefits, compared with 78% of those without debt." (p. 16)

Butrica, B. A., & Karamcheva, N. S. (2013). Does household debt influence the labor supply and benefit claiming decisions of older Americans? (Working Paper No. 2013-22). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/wp_2013-221.pdf

This analysis is based on the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large nationally representative survey of Americans age 51 and older that has been interviewing respondents every other year since 1992. We restrict our sample to non-disabled individuals ages 62 to 69 because they are age-eligible to collect Social Security retired worker benefits.

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, "between 1998 and 2010, the share of adults ages 62 to 69 with any type of debt increased from 48 to 62%. The median value of outstanding debt for those with debt grew from $19,000 to $32,100 per person in 2010. And the average...

According to a 2013 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, "between 1998 and 2010, the share of adults ages 62 to 69 with any type of debt increased from 48 to 62%. The median value of outstanding debt for those with debt grew from $19,000 to $32,100 per person in 2010. And the average debt-to-asset leverage ratio increased from 10 to 18%." (p. 14)

Butrica, B. A., & Karamcheva, N. S. (2013). Does household debt influence the labor supply and benefit claiming decisions of older Americans? (Working Paper No. 2013-22). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/wp_2013-221.pdf

This analysis is based on the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large nationally representative survey of Americans age 51 and older that has been interviewing respondents every other year since 1992. We restrict our sample to non-disabled individuals ages 62 to 69 because they are age-eligible to collect Social Security retired worker benefits.

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "between 1979 and 2012 women's-to-men's earnings ratios rose for most age groups. Among 25 to 34 year olds, the ratio increased from 68% in 1979 to 90% in 2012. Among 45 to 54 year olds the ratio increased from 57% to 75%," while for those...

According to a 2013 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "between 1979 and 2012 women's-to-men's earnings ratios rose for most age groups. Among 25 to 34 year olds, the ratio increased from 68% in 1979 to 90% in 2012. Among 45 to 54 year olds the ratio increased from 57% to 75%," while for those aged 55-65, the ratio increased from 60.6% to 76.2%"

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Highlights of Women’s earnings in 2012. (Report No. 1045). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf

This analysis is based on data from the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "the median family income for persons aged 65 or older is $36,714, but there are wide differences within the total group. Approximately 6.4% have family income of under $10,000, and roughly 36.1% have family income of $50,000 or more."

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "the median family income for persons aged 65 or older is $36,714, but there are wide differences within the total group. Approximately 6.4% have family income of under $10,000, and roughly 36.1% have family income of $50,000 or more."

Social Security Administration. (2012) Income of the aged chartbook, 2010. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/income_aged/2010/index.html

U.S. Census Bureau in its Current Population Survey. These SSA reports are published under the title Income of the Population 55 or Older. The most recent edition of that publication is based on 2010 data, which, along with special tabulations, form the basis of this chartbook.

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "earnings are received by a greater percentage of aged units in the youngest group (age 65-69) than in the oldest group (age 80+)--48.6% compared with 7.5%."

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "earnings are received by a greater percentage of aged units in the youngest group (age 65-69) than in the oldest group (age 80+)--48.6% compared with 7.5%."

Social Security Administration. (2012) Income of the aged chartbook, 2010. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/income_aged/2010/index.html

U.S. Census Bureau in its Current Population Survey. These SSA reports are published under the title Income of the Population 55 or Older. The most recent edition of that publication is based on 2010 data, which, along with special tabulations, form the basis of this chartbook.

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "nearly 9 out of 10 aged units (individuals aged 65+ or households with at least one person aged 65+) receive Social Security benefits. Asset income is the next most common source of income, received by more than half of the aged. Two-fifths...

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "nearly 9 out of 10 aged units (individuals aged 65+ or households with at least one person aged 65+) receive Social Security benefits. Asset income is the next most common source of income, received by more than half of the aged. Two-fifths receive retirement benefits other than Social Security, and more than one-quarter have earnings."

Social Security Administration. (2012) Income of the aged chartbook, 2010. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/income_aged/2010/index.html

U.S. Census Bureau in its Current Population Survey. These SSA reports are published under the title Income of the Population 55 or Older. The most recent edition of that publication is based on 2010 data, which, along with special tabulations, form the basis of this chartbook.

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "aggregate income for the aged population (age 65+) comes largely from four sources. Social Security accounts for 36.7%, earnings for 30.2%, pensions for 18.6%, and asset income for 11.4%. Only 3.1% comes from other sources."

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "aggregate income for the aged population (age 65+) comes largely from four sources. Social Security accounts for 36.7%, earnings for 30.2%, pensions for 18.6%, and asset income for 11.4%. Only 3.1% comes from other sources."

Social Security Administration. (2012) Income of the aged chartbook, 2010. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/income_aged/2010/index.html

U.S. Census Bureau in its Current Population Survey. These SSA reports are published under the title Income of the Population 55 or Older. The most recent edition of that publication is based on 2010 data, which, along with special tabulations, form the basis of this chartbook.

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "aggregate income for the aged population (age 65+) comes largely from four sources. Social Security accounts for 36.7%, earnings for 30.2%, pensions for 18.6%, and asset income for 11.4%.”  Among those age 65-69, 48.6% received...

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "aggregate income for the aged population (age 65+) comes largely from four sources. Social Security accounts for 36.7%, earnings for 30.2%, pensions for 18.6%, and asset income for 11.4%.”  Among those age 65-69, 48.6% received earnings, that is, income from wages and salaries or self-employment.

Social Security Administration. (2012) Income of the aged chartbook, 2010. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/income_aged/2010/iac10.html

U.S. Census Bureau in its Current Population Survey. These SSA reports are published under the title Income of the Population 55 or Older. The most recent edition of that publication is based on 2010 data, which, along with special tabulations, form the basis of this chartbook.

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, between 1979 and 2011, the average age of low-wage workers [earning $10.00 or less in 2011 dollars] increased 2.6 years, from 32.3 to 34.9. Over the same period, the representation of workers in the 25-to-34 increased from 17.% to 22.1%, while in the 35-to-64...

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, between 1979 and 2011, the average age of low-wage workers [earning $10.00 or less in 2011 dollars] increased 2.6 years, from 32.3 to 34.9. Over the same period, the representation of workers in the 25-to-34 increased from 17.% to 22.1%, while in the 35-to-64 age ranges, there was also an increase, 30.8% to 38.1%. There was a big drop in the share of low-wage workers who are teenagers -- from over one-in-four (26.0 percent) in 1979 to less than one-in-eight (12.0 percent) in 2011. (p. 1)

Schmitt, J., & Jones, J. (2012). Low-wage workers are older and better educated than ever. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/min-wage3-2012-04.pdf

Authors' analysis of CPS ORG. Low-wage workers defined as earning less than or equal to $10.00 per hour in constant 2011 dollars, using CPI-R-US.

According to a 2012 analysis of Census Bureau data, during the Great Recession (2007-2009), "median monthly earnings declined 23 percent upon reemployment for workers age 50 to 61, compared with 11 percent for workers age 25 to 34." (p. 1)

According to a 2012 analysis of Census Bureau data, during the Great Recession (2007-2009), "median monthly earnings declined 23 percent upon reemployment for workers age 50 to 61, compared with 11 percent for workers age 25 to 34." (p. 1)

Johnson, R. W., & Butrica, B. A. (2012). Age disparities in unemployment and reemployment during the great recession and recovery (Brief No. 3). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412574-Age-Disparities-in-Unemployment-and-Reemployment-During-the-Great-Recession-and-Recovery.pdf

Data come primarily from the U.S. Census Bureau's 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), which has been tracking a large sample of American households from mid-2008 through early 2011.

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, median usual weekly earnings of full-time workers varied by age. Among both men and women, median weekly earnings were higher in the older age groups." The highest earners were men ages 45 to 54, who had "median weekly earnings...

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, median usual weekly earnings of full-time workers varied by age. Among both men and women, median weekly earnings were higher in the older age groups." The highest earners were men ages 45 to 54, who had "median weekly earnings of $1,003, about the same as the median for men ages 55 to 64 ($1,015). Median weekly earnings were highest for women ages 35 to 64; the median was $749 for women ages 35 to 44, $733 for women ages 45 to 54, and $760 for women ages 55 to 64."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Weekly earnings of full-time workers by age and sex, second quarter 2012. TED: The editor's desk. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2012/ted_20120720.htm

These data are from the Current Population Survey. For more information, see "Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers, Second Quarter 2012"  news release USDL-12-1419.

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, there were "substantial declines in median net worth by age group between 2007 and 2010...The 35-to-44 age group saw a 54.4 percent decline in median net worth, while the median for the less-than-35 age group fell 25.0 percent....

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, there were "substantial declines in median net worth by age group between 2007 and 2010...The 35-to-44 age group saw a 54.4 percent decline in median net worth, while the median for the less-than-35 age group fell 25.0 percent. The declines in median worth for middle-aged families (the 45-to-54 and 55-to-64 age groups) were also large, 28.4% and 32.6%, respectively. Among 65-74 year olds, the median fell 17.4%."  (p. 21)

Bricker, J., A Kennickell, A. B., Moore, K. B., & Sabelhaus, J. (2012). Changes in U.S. family finances from 2007 to 2010: Evidence from the survey of consumer finances. Federal Reserve Bulletin, 98(2), 2-80. Retrieved from http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/bulletin/2012/pdf/scf12.pdf

The Federal Reserve Board's Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) for 2010

According to a 2012 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "median weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64 in 2011, with little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($734), 45- to 54-year-olds ($744), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($749). Among men, those age 45 to 64 had the...

According to a 2012 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "median weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64 in 2011, with little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($734), 45- to 54-year-olds ($744), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($749). Among men, those age 45 to 64 had the highest earnings, with 45- to 54-year-olds ($979) having made about the same as 55- to 64-year-olds ($997). Young women and men age 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($421 and $455, respectively). (p. 1)

Bureaut of Labor Statistics. (2012). Highlights of women's earnings in 2011. (Report No. 1038). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2011.pdf

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Information on earnings is collected from one-fourth of the CPS sample each month.

According to a 2012 AARP survey of older Americans' concern about their financial well-being during and following the recent recession, "boomer women were one-third more likely than boomer men to express a high degree of financial concern (30.1 percent vs. 22.3 percent)." (p. 2)

According to a 2012 AARP survey of older Americans' concern about their financial well-being during and following the recent recession, "boomer women were one-third more likely than boomer men to express a high degree of financial concern (30.1 percent vs. 22.3 percent)." (p. 2)

Rix, S. (2012). Boomer women feeling more financially insecure than men (Fact Sheet No. 269). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/econ_sec/2012/boomer-women-feeling-financially-insecure-AARP-ppi-econ-sec.pdf

This Fact Sheet reports on the financial concerns of nearly 4,000 boomer men and women included in an AARP Public Policy Institute survey of how the aged 50-plus population fared in the Great Recession.

According to a 2012 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "between 1979 and 2011, the earnings gap between women and men narrowed for most age groups. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio among 25- to 34-year-olds grew from 68 percent in 1979 to 92 percent in 2011, for example, and the ratio for...

According to a 2012 analysis of Current Population Survey data, "between 1979 and 2011, the earnings gap between women and men narrowed for most age groups. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio among 25- to 34-year-olds grew from 68 percent in 1979 to 92 percent in 2011, for example, and the ratio for 45- to 54-year-olds increased from 57 percent to 76 percent."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Women's earnings, 1979-2011: The Editor's desk. Retrieved November 26, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2012/ted_20121123.htm

These data are from the Current Population Survey. Earnings data in this article are median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers.

According to a 2012 report from AARP,  "boomer women were one-third more likely than boomer men to express a high degree of financial concern (30.1 percent vs. 22.3 percent). They were also one-fourth less likely to be among the least concerned (19.4 percent vs. 25.7 percent)" about their financial...

According to a 2012 report from AARP,  "boomer women were one-third more likely than boomer men to express a high degree of financial concern (30.1 percent vs. 22.3 percent). They were also one-fourth less likely to be among the least concerned (19.4 percent vs. 25.7 percent)" about their financial security.

Rix, S. E. (2012). Boomer women feeling more financially insecure than men. (Fact Sheet No. 269). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/econ_sec/2012/boomer-women-feeling-financially-insecure-AARP-ppi-econ-sec.pdf

This Fact Sheet reports on the financial concerns of nearly 4,000 boomer men and women included in an AARP Public Policy Institute survey of how the aged 50- plus population fared in the Great Recession.

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "even after adjusting for inflation, median income has risen 115% for married couples* and 112% for nonmarried persons," compared the 1962, the earliest year for which data is available. (p. 5) *A married couple is aged 65 or older...

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "even after adjusting for inflation, median income has risen 115% for married couples* and 112% for nonmarried persons," compared the 1962, the earliest year for which data is available. (p. 5)

*A married couple is aged 65 or older if the husband is aged 65 or older or if the husband is aged 54 or younger and the wife is 65 or older.

Social Security Administration. (2012). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2012. Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2012/fast_facts12.pdf

Most of the data come from the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, which contains more than 240 detailed tables. The information on the income of the aged is from the data series Income of the Population 55 or Older. Data on trust fund operations are from the 2012 Trustees Report.

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "the proportion of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older who had earnings income [that is, income from employment] was smaller in 2010 (26%) than in 1962 (36%)." Among other sources of income, "the proportion of the aged population...

According to a 2012 report from the Social Security Administration, "the proportion of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older who had earnings income [that is, income from employment] was smaller in 2010 (26%) than in 1962 (36%)." Among other sources of income, "the proportion of the aged population with asset income--the next most common source--is similar to that in 1962. Over the 48-year period, receipt of private pensions has tripled, and receipt of government pensions has increased by more than 50%."  Social security benefits are the most common source of income, with 86% receiving it in 2010 compared to 69% in 1964. (p. 6)

Social Security Administration. (2012). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2012. Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2012/fast_facts12.pdf

Most of the data come from the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, which contains more than 240 detailed tables. The information on the income of the aged is from the data series Income of the Population 55 or Older. Data on trust fund operations are from the 2012 Trustees Report.

According to a 2012 analysis of BLS data, "workers in the bottom 60 percent of earners make up three-quarters (75.3 percent) of all workers without access to paid leave or flexibility but only 43 percent of workers with access to both paid leave and flexibility." (p. 4)

According to a 2012 analysis of BLS data, "workers in the bottom 60 percent of earners make up three-quarters (75.3 percent) of all workers without access to paid leave or flexibility but only 43 percent of workers with access to both paid leave and flexibility." (p. 4)

Glynn, S. J., & Farrell, J. (2012). Workers deserve equal access to paid leave and workplace flexibility. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/GlynnPaidLeaveFlexBrief-21.pdf

Authors' analysis of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' American Time Use Survey, 2012.

According to a BLS report based on Current Population Survey data, among all workers in the United States, "men ages 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 had the highest median weekly earnings, $1,015 and $983, respectively. Usual weekly earnings were highest for women ages 35 to 64; weekly earnings were $757 for...

According to a BLS report based on Current Population Survey data, among all workers in the United States, "men ages 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 had the highest median weekly earnings, $1,015 and $983, respectively. Usual weekly earnings were highest for women ages 35 to 64; weekly earnings were $757 for women ages 35 to 44, $758 for women ages 45 to 54, and $771 for women ages 55 to 64."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Median weekly earnings by age, sex, race, and hispanic or latino ethnicity, first quarter 2013: The Editor's desk. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2013/ted_20130419.htm

These data are from the Current Population Survey. For more information, see "Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers -- First Quarter 2013" , news release USDL-13-0671. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job. The earnings data shown here are not seasonally adjusted. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the U.S. Current Population Survey, among adults 65 years and older, "Social Security accounted for at least 70 percent of the cash income of poor and near-poor older adults, while earnings [wages] accounted for 9.9%. Earnings were more important for higher-income...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the U.S. Current Population Survey, among adults 65 years and older, "Social Security accounted for at least 70 percent of the cash income of poor and near-poor older adults, while earnings [wages] accounted for 9.9%. Earnings were more important for higher-income older adults, accounting for 42.4 percent of their income, while social security income provided 28.8% of their income.

Issa, P., & Zedlewski, S. R. (2011). Poverty among older Americans, 2009. (Retirement Data Security Brief No. 2011-1). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/412296-Poverty-Among-Older-Americans.pdf

The Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) collects data on the economic well-being of Americans. It is conducted every March by the Census Bureau on a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population. The estimates in this paper come from a subsample of 21,856 Americans 65 years old and older.

According to a 2011 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "among youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more in 2009, 12.7 percent of 16- to 19-year-olds and 14.8 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds were in poverty, about double the rate for workers age 35 to 44 (7.0 percent). Workers age...

According to a 2011 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "among youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more in 2009, 12.7 percent of 16- to 19-year-olds and 14.8 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds were in poverty, about double the rate for workers age 35 to 44 (7.0 percent). Workers age 45 to 54 (4.7 percent), 55 to 64 (3.6 percent), and 65 and older (2.3 percent) had lower working-poor rates than did other age groups in 2009." (p. 2)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). A profile of the working poor, 2009. (Report No. 1027). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswp2009.pdf

This report is an analysis of CPS data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2009.

According to a 2011 AARP survey of adults aged 50+ who had worked for pay during the three years prior to October 2010, "more than half (52.7 percent) of the respondents rated their family's financial well-being as only fair or even poor in October 2010. More than two out of five (45 percent) assessed...

According to a 2011 AARP survey of adults aged 50+ who had worked for pay during the three years prior to October 2010, "more than half (52.7 percent) of the respondents rated their family's financial well-being as only fair or even poor in October 2010. More than two out of five (45 percent) assessed their family's financial well-being as at least good, and a few (5.2 percent) said it was excellent. " (p. 5)

Rix, S. E. (2011). Recovering from the great recession: Long struggle ahead for older Americans. (Insight on the Issues No. 50). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/ppi/econ-sec/insight50_recovering.pdf

The survey covered 5,027 men and women who had worked for pay, including those who worked for themselves or in their own businesses, who had tried to find a job, or who had done both at any time in the three years prior to being interviewed--that is, who had been in the labor force. The survey excluded people aged 50 and over who had been out of the labor force for more than three years prior to October 2010.

According to a 2011 AARP survey of adults aged 50+ who had worked for pay during the three years prior to October 2010, "nearly one in seven (13.5 percent) reported starting to collect Social Security retirement benefits to make ends meet....Two-thirds (67 percent) of those who had begun collecting...

According to a 2011 AARP survey of adults aged 50+ who had worked for pay during the three years prior to October 2010, "nearly one in seven (13.5 percent) reported starting to collect Social Security retirement benefits to make ends meet....Two-thirds (67 percent) of those who had begun collecting Social Security retired worker benefits did so earlier than they had previously planned to. The currently unemployed in the survey were about twice as likely as the employed to have begun collecting Social Security in the past three years in order to make ends meet (17.3 percent vs. 9.3 percent, respectively). (p. 4-5)

Rix, S. E. (2011). Recovering from the great recession: Long struggle ahead for older Americans. (Insight on the Issues No. 50). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/ppi/econ-sec/insight50_recovering.pdf

The survey covered 5,027 men and women who had worked for pay, including those who worked for themselves or in their own businesses, who had tried to find a job, or who had done both at any time in the three years prior to being interviewed--that is, who had been in the labor force. The survey excluded people aged 50 and over who had been out of the labor force for more than three years prior to October 2010.

According to a 2011 AARP survey of adults aged 50+ who had worked for pay during the three years prior to October 2010, "nearly one-third (31.6 percent) saw their homes decline substantially in value. A sizable proportion (19.4 percent) fell behind on credit card payments or accumulated more credit...

According to a 2011 AARP survey of adults aged 50+ who had worked for pay during the three years prior to October 2010, "nearly one-third (31.6 percent) saw their homes decline substantially in value. A sizable proportion (19.4 percent) fell behind on credit card payments or accumulated more credit card debt." One in seven (14.6 percent) had trouble paying the rent or mortgage, and one in eight (12.4 percent) lost their health insurance. (p. 2)

Rix, S. E. (2011). Recovering from the great recession: Long struggle ahead for older Americans. (Insight on the Issues No. 50). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/ppi/econ-sec/insight50_recovering.pdf

The survey covered 5,027 men and women who had worked for pay, including those who worked for themselves or in their own businesses, who had tried to find a job, or who had done both at any time in the three years prior to being interviewed--that is, who had been in the labor force. The survey excluded people aged 50 and over who had been out of the labor force for more than three years prior to October 2010.

According to the 2011 EBRI Retirement Confidence Survey, "thirty-four percent of workers report they had to dip into their savings to pay for basic expenses within the past 12 months. A similar percentage of retirees (33 percent) say they had to take more than planned from their savings and investments...

According to the 2011 EBRI Retirement Confidence Survey, "thirty-four percent of workers report they had to dip into their savings to pay for basic expenses within the past 12 months. A similar percentage of retirees (33 percent) say they had to take more than planned from their savings and investments to pay for basic expenses." (p. 18)

Helman, R., Copeland, C., & VanDerhei, J. (2011). The 2011 retirement confidence survey: Confidence drops to record lows, reflecting "the new normal". (Issue Brief No. 355). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/briefspdf/EBRI_03-2011_No355_RCS-2011.pdf

These findings are part of the 21st annual Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), which was conducted in January 2011 through 20-minute telephone interviews with 1,258 individuals (1,004 workers and 254 retirees) age 25 and older in the United States.

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, "in 2009, 88% of married couples and 86% of nonmarried persons aged 65 or older received Social Security benefits. Social Security was the major source of income (providing at least 50% of total income) for 54% of aged beneficiary couples...

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, "in 2009, 88% of married couples and 86% of nonmarried persons aged 65 or older received Social Security benefits. Social Security was the major source of income (providing at least 50% of total income) for 54% of aged beneficiary couples and 73% of aged nonmarried beneficiaries. It was 90% or more of income for 22% of aged beneficiary couples and 43% of aged nonmarried beneficiaries. (p. 7)

Social Security Administration. (2011). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2011. (SSA Publication No. 13-11785). Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2011/fast_facts11.pdf

Most of the data come from the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, which contains more than 240 detailed tables. The information on the income of the aged is from the data series Income of the Population 55 or Older.

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, in 2009, 96% of the aggregate total income of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older come from: social security (38%), earnings [wages or salaries] (29%), income from assets (11%), and private and government employee pensions...

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, in 2009, 96% of the aggregate total income of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older come from: social security (38%), earnings [wages or salaries] (29%), income from assets (11%), and private and government employee pensions (9% each). (p. 6)

Social Security Administration. (2011). Fast facts & figures about social security, 2011. (SSA Publication No. 13-11785). Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2011/fast_facts11.pdf

Most of the data come from the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, which contains more than 240 detailed tables. The information on the income of the aged is from the data series Income of the Population 55 or Older.

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, in 2009, 26% of couples or nonmarried persons aged 65 or older had earnings [wages or salary income], compared to 36% in 1962. (p. 5)

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, in 2009, 26% of couples or nonmarried persons aged 65 or older had earnings [wages or salary income], compared to 36% in 1962. (p. 5)

Social Security Administration. (2011). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2011. (SSA Publication No. 13-11785). Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2011/fast_facts11.pdf

Most of the data come from the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, which contains more than 240 detailed tables. The information on the income of the aged is from the data series Income of the Population 55 or Older.

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, "median annual income for married couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older has increased markedly since 1962 (the earliest year for which data are available). Even after adjusting for inflation, median income has risen 111% for...

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, "median annual income for married couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older has increased markedly since 1962 (the earliest year for which data are available). Even after adjusting for inflation, median income has risen 111% for married couples and 122% for nonmarried persons." In 2009, median income for married couples (at least one partner aged 65 or older) was $43,114, for single persons, $17,845. (p. 4)

Social Security Administration. (2011). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2011. (SSA Publication No. 13-11785). Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2011/fast_facts11.pdf

According to a 2011 AARP analysis of housing data, 48 percent of renters who are 50-64 years of age have unsustainable housing costs*, compared to 59 percent of those 65 and older. For homeowners with mortgages, 33 percent of those between 50 and 64, and 48 percent of those 65 and older have housing...

According to a 2011 AARP analysis of housing data, 48 percent of renters who are 50-64 years of age have unsustainable housing costs*, compared to 59 percent of those 65 and older. For homeowners with mortgages, 33 percent of those between 50 and 64, and 48 percent of those 65 and older have housing costs at 30 percent and above. Similarly, homeowners with no mortgages follow this pattern as 10 percent of those between 50-64 and 17 percent of those 65+ are past the threshold for housing cost burden. (p. 2)

*Households that use 30 percent or more of their income for housing costs are defined as 'housing-cost-burdened'. (p. 2)

Harrell, R. (2011). Housing for older adults: The impacts of the recession. (Insight on the Issues No. 53). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/home-garden/housing/info-09-2011/insight-53.html

State Housing Profiles 2011 uses data from several sources to look at key housing indicators for older adults in every state and the District of Columbia. Most of the data come from the Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey,

According to a 2011 AARP analysis of housing data, "In 2000, more homeowners age 50+ owned their homes outright than owned with mortgages (40 percent of households owned with no mortgage and 38 percent had a mortgage). In 2009, only 38 percent owned with no mortgage and 42 percent owned homes with a...

According to a 2011 AARP analysis of housing data, "In 2000, more homeowners age 50+ owned their homes outright than owned with mortgages (40 percent of households owned with no mortgage and 38 percent had a mortgage). In 2009, only 38 percent owned with no mortgage and 42 percent owned homes with a mortgage." (fig. 2, p. 3)

Harrell, R. (2011). Housing for older adults: The impacts of the recession. (Insight on the Issues No. 53). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/home-garden/housing/info-09-2011/insight-53.html

State Housing Profiles 2011 uses data from several sources to look at key housing indicators for older adults in every state and the District of Columbia. Most of the data come from the Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey,

According to a 2011 GAO analysis of data from the BLS and Census Bureau, from 2007-2009, "poverty rates increased from 8.7 to 10.1 percent for adults aged 55-64, but declined from 10.1 percent to 9.0 percent for those 65 and older." (p. 23)

According to a 2011 GAO analysis of data from the BLS and Census Bureau, from 2007-2009, "poverty rates increased from 8.7 to 10.1 percent for adults aged 55-64, but declined from 10.1 percent to 9.0 percent for those 65 and older." (p. 23)

GAO. (2011). Income security: Older adults and the 2007-2009 recession. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1276.pdf

This report is based on analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and Census Bureau data concerning the employment status of older adults, Census Bureau and Federal Reserve Board data concerning the income and assets of older adults, and other sources.

According to a 2011 GAO analysis of data from the BLS and Census Bureau, "after adjusting for inflation, the median incomes of households 45-54 and 55-64 dropped by 9 percent and 6 percent, respectively, during the recession. After adjusting for inflation, median household income for households headed...

According to a 2011 GAO analysis of data from the BLS and Census Bureau, "after adjusting for inflation, the median incomes of households 45-54 and 55-64 dropped by 9 percent and 6 percent, respectively, during the recession. After adjusting for inflation, median household income for households headed by adults 65 and older increased by 5 percent." (p. 19)

GAO. (2011). Income security: Older adults and the 2007-2009 recession. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1276.pdf

This report is based on analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and Census Bureau data concerning the employment status of older adults, Census Bureau and Federal Reserve Board data concerning the income and assets of older adults, and other sources.

According to a 2011 GAO analysis of data from the BLS and Census Bureau, "about one-third [34%] of workers 65 and older are in low-wage jobs -- those that paid less than $11.00 per hour in 2010," compared to 18% of workers aged 55-64, and 21% of workers aged 25-54. "There was no significant change between...

According to a 2011 GAO analysis of data from the BLS and Census Bureau, "about one-third [34%] of workers 65 and older are in low-wage jobs -- those that paid less than $11.00 per hour in 2010," compared to 18% of workers aged 55-64, and 21% of workers aged 25-54. "There was no significant change between 2007 and 2010 in the percentage of workers in low-wage jobs in any age group." (p. 14)

GAO. (2011). Income security: Older adults and the 2007-2009 recession. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1276.pdf

This report is based on analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and Census Bureau data concerning the employment status of older adults, Census Bureau and Federal Reserve Board data concerning the income and assets of older adults, and other sources.

According to a 2011 GAO analysis of data from the BLS and Census Bureau, "median household income fell by 6 percent for adults 55-64, but increased by 5 percent for adults 65 and older." (p. 4)

According to a 2011 GAO analysis of data from the BLS and Census Bureau, "median household income fell by 6 percent for adults 55-64, but increased by 5 percent for adults 65 and older." (p. 4)

GAO. (2011). Income security: Older adults and the 2007-2009 recession. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1276.pdf

This report is based on analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and Census Bureau data concerning the employment status of older adults, Census Bureau and Federal Reserve Board data concerning the income and assets of older adults, and other sources.

According to a 2011 analysis of asset and labor market data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), "the retirement wealth held by those ages 53 to 58 before the onset of the recession in 2006 declined by a relatively modest 2.8 percentage points by 2010. In more normal times, their wealth would...

According to a 2011 analysis of asset and labor market data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), "the retirement wealth held by those ages 53 to 58 before the onset of the recession in 2006 declined by a relatively modest 2.8 percentage points by 2010. In more normal times, their wealth would have increased over these four years." (p. 1)

Gustman, A. L., Steinmeier, T. L., & Tabatabai, N. (2011). How did the recession of 2007-2009 affect the wealth and retirement of the near retirement age population in the health and retirement study? (NBER Working Paper No. 17547). Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://papers.nber.org/papers/w17547

This paper uses asset and labor market data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2011 Pew analysis of data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), "in 2009, households headed by adults ages 65 and older possessed 42% more median net worth (assets minus debt) than households headed by their same-aged counterparts had in 1984. During this same period,...

According to a 2011 Pew analysis of data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), "in 2009, households headed by adults ages 65 and older possessed 42% more median net worth (assets minus debt) than households headed by their same-aged counterparts had in 1984. During this same period, the wealth of households headed by younger adults moved in the opposite direction. In 2009, households headed by adults younger than 35 had 68% less wealth than households of their same-aged counterparts had in 1984." (p. 1)

Taylor, P., Fry, R., Cohn, D., & Livingston, G. (2011). The rising age gap in economic well-being: The old prosper relative to the young. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/11/WealthReportFINAL.pdf

This report is based on analyses of data from the Census Bureau, the Survey of Income and Program Participation and other sources. The figures on the wealth of households are derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).The report presents the conventional data source for the trends in household income and poverty, the U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC).

According to a 2011 Pew analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in 2010, 11% of households headed by adults ages 65 and older were in poverty ...compared with 33% in 1967. Among households headed by an adult younger than 35, 22% were in poverty in 2010 compared with 12% in 1967...Among households...

According to a 2011 Pew analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in 2010, 11% of households headed by adults ages 65 and older were in poverty ...compared with 33% in 1967. Among households headed by an adult younger than 35, 22% were in poverty in 2010 compared with 12% in 1967...Among households headed by 45- to 54-year-olds, 8% were in poverty in 1967 and 12% were so in 2010. Among households headed by 55- to 64-year-olds, 14% were in poverty in 1967 and 12% were so in 2010." (p. 22)

Taylor, P., Fry, R., Cohn, D., & Livingston, G. (2011). The rising age gap in economic well-being: The old prosper relative to the young. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/11/WealthReportFINAL.pdf

This report is based on analyses of data from the Census Bureau, the Survey of Income and Program Participation and other sources. The figures on the wealth of households are derived from the U.S. Census Bureauв's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).The report presents the conventional data source for the trends in household income and poverty, the U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC).

According to a 2011 analysis by Pew Research Center, "in 2009, households headed by adults ages 65 and older possessed 42% more median net worth (assets minus debt) than households headed by their same-aged counterparts had in 1984. During this same period, the wealth of households headed by younger...

According to a 2011 analysis by Pew Research Center, "in 2009, households headed by adults ages 65 and older possessed 42% more median net worth (assets minus debt) than households headed by their same-aged counterparts had in 1984. During this same period, the wealth of households headed by younger adults moved in the opposite direction. In 2009, households headed by adults younger than 35 had 68% less wealth than households of their same-aged counterparts had in 1984. " (p. 1)

Fry, R., Cohn, D., Livingston, G., & Taylor, P. (2011). The rising age gap in economic well-being. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/11/WealthReportFINAL.pdf

This analysis uses data from the Survey on Income Program Participation of the U.S. Census.

According to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "part-time workers (persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week) were more likely than their full-time counterparts to be paid the Federal minimum wage or less (about 11 percent versus about 2 percent)."

According to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "part-time workers (persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week) were more likely than their full-time counterparts to be paid the Federal minimum wage or less (about 11 percent versus about 2 percent)."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Characteristics of minimum wage workers: 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2010, from http://www.bls.gov/cps/minwage2009.htm

These data on minimum wage earners are derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly nationwide survey of households. Data in this summary are 2009 annual averages.

According to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "minimum wage workers tend to be young. Although workers under age 25 represented only about one-fifth of hourly-paid workers, they made up about half of those paid the Federal minimum wage or less. Among employed teenagers paid by the...

According to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "minimum wage workers tend to be young. Although workers under age 25 represented only about one-fifth of hourly-paid workers, they made up about half of those paid the Federal minimum wage or less. Among employed teenagers paid by the hour, nearly 19 percent earned the minimum wage or less, compared with about 3 percent of workers age 25 and over."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Characteristics of minimum wage workers: 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2010, from http://www.bls.gov/cps/minwage2009.htm

These data on minimum wage earners are derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly nationwide survey of households. Data in this summary are 2009 annual averages.

According to a 2010 BLS report, take-up rate (the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan) for [defined-contribution] plans was 40 percent among the lowest paid workers, compared with 80 percent among the highest paid workers." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 BLS report, take-up rate (the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan) for [defined-contribution] plans was 40 percent among the lowest paid workers, compared with 80 percent among the highest paid workers." (p. 1)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Program perspectives on benefits by wage level (Vol. 2, Issue No. 1). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/perspectives/program_perspectives_vol2_issue1.pdf

This report is based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in the United States, March 2009.

According to a 2010 BLS report, "medical care benefits were available to 26 percent [of workers] in the lowest wage category, compared with 92 percent in the highest wage category." (p. 2)

According to a 2010 BLS report, "medical care benefits were available to 26 percent [of workers] in the lowest wage category, compared with 92 percent in the highest wage category." (p. 2)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Program perspectives on benefits by wage level (Vol. 2, Issue No. 1). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/perspectives/program_perspectives_vol2_issue1.pdf

This report is based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in the United States, March 2009.

According to a 2010 BLS report, for employees eligible to participate in a defined-contribution retirement plan, "13 percent of the lowest paid workers participated, compared with 55 percent for the highest paid workers." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 BLS report, for employees eligible to participate in a defined-contribution retirement plan, "13 percent of the lowest paid workers participated, compared with 55 percent for the highest paid workers." (p. 1)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Program perspectives on benefits by wage level (Vol. 2, Issue No. 1). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/perspectives/program_perspectives_vol2_issue1.pdf

This report is based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in the United States, March 2009.

According to a 2010 BLS report, "thirty-one percent of civilian workers in the lowest 10 percent of the national earnings range had access to defined-contribution retirement plans, compared with 68 percent of workers in the highest 10-percent earnings category." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 BLS report, "thirty-one percent of civilian workers in the lowest 10 percent of the national earnings range had access to defined-contribution retirement plans, compared with 68 percent of workers in the highest 10-percent earnings category." (p. 1)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Program perspectives on benefits by wage level (Vol. 2, Issue No. 1). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/perspectives/program_perspectives_vol2_issue1.pdf

This report is based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in the United States, March 2009.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "between 2007 and 2009, real median weekly earnings increased about 11 percent for men age 65 and older employed full time and 9 percent for their female counterparts. Real earnings growth was flat for men age 55 to 64 and reached 3.5 percent for women age...

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "between 2007 and 2009, real median weekly earnings increased about 11 percent for men age 65 and older employed full time and 9 percent for their female counterparts. Real earnings growth was flat for men age 55 to 64 and reached 3.5 percent for women age 55 to 64." (p. 20)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "real earnings for full-time workers of all ages grew modestly between 2007 and 2009. Expressed in constant 2009 dollars (as measured by the consumer price index), median usual weekly earnings increased 3.3 percent (from $793 to $819) for men and 3.5 percent...

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "real earnings for full-time workers of all ages grew modestly between 2007 and 2009. Expressed in constant 2009 dollars (as measured by the consumer price index), median usual weekly earnings increased 3.3 percent (from $793 to $819) for men and 3.5 percent (from $635 to $657) for women." (p. 19)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "in 2009, median full-time weekly earnings for men age 65 and older were 18 percent lower than median earnings for men age 45 to 54. For women, full-time workers age 65 and older earned 15 percent less than their counterparts age 45 to 54." (p. 21)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "in 2009, median full-time weekly earnings for men age 65 and older were 18 percent lower than median earnings for men age 45 to 54. For women, full-time workers age 65 and older earned 15 percent less than their counterparts age 45 to 54." (p. 21)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 AARP analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in 2008, nearly 75 percent of poor families headed by a person age 65 or older received income from Social Security; 25 percent of older families did not report receiving Social Security. Older poor families were much less likely...

According to a 2010 AARP analysis of Current Population Survey data, "in 2008, nearly 75 percent of poor families headed by a person age 65 or older received income from Social Security; 25 percent of older families did not report receiving Social Security. Older poor families were much less likely to have income from earnings (7.5 percent) or from pensions (7.8 percent). About 14 percent of older poor families received income from SSI or other public assistance programs, and just over 20 percent had asset income, but the amount of income from assets (among those who received it) was insignificant, typically just over $200 per year." (p. 24-25)

O'Brien, E., Wu, K. B., & Baicker, K. (2010). Older Americans in poverty: A snapshot. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/ppi/econ-sec/2010-03-poverty.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the 2008-2009 Current Population Survey and the 2009 CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

According to a 2010 AARP analysis of Current Population Survey data, "nearly 3.7 million older adults (9.7 percent of adults age 65 and older) live in poverty. Another 2.4 million older adults live in families with incomes marginally above the poverty threshold (between 100 percent and 125 percent of...

According to a 2010 AARP analysis of Current Population Survey data, "nearly 3.7 million older adults (9.7 percent of adults age 65 and older) live in poverty. Another 2.4 million older adults live in families with incomes marginally above the poverty threshold (between 100 percent and 125 percent of the federal poverty line), and 2.6 million have incomes between 125 percent and 150 percent of the federal poverty line. Overall, 36.2 percent of older adults, or 13.7 million adults age 65 and older, have low income -- defined as family income below 200 percent of the FPL." (p. 8-9)

O'Brien, E., Wu, K. B., & Baicker, K. (2010). Older Americans in poverty: A snapshot. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/ppi/econ-sec/2010-03-poverty.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the 2008-2009 Current Population Survey and the 2009 CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "in 2008, Social Security was the largest source of income for those currently age 65 and older, accounting for 39.8 percent of their income on average. Pension and annuities income was 19.7 percent, income from assets 13.0 percent, and income from earnings...

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "in 2008, Social Security was the largest source of income for those currently age 65 and older, accounting for 39.8 percent of their income on average. Pension and annuities income was 19.7 percent, income from assets 13.0 percent, and income from earnings was 25.6 percent." (p. 2)

McDonnell, K. (2010). Income of the elderly population age 65 and over, 2008 (EBRI Notes, Vol. 31 No. 6). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_06-June10.Inc-Eld.pdf

The data in this article were tabulated from the March Current Population Surveys, published annually by the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2010 BLS report, "between 1979 and 2009, the earnings gap between women and men narrowed for most age groups. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio among 25- to 34-year-olds, for example, rose from 68 percent in 1979 to 89 percent in 2009, and the ratio for 45- to 54-year-olds increased...

According to a 2010 BLS report, "between 1979 and 2009, the earnings gap between women and men narrowed for most age groups. The women's-to-men's earnings ratio among 25- to 34-year-olds, for example, rose from 68 percent in 1979 to 89 percent in 2009, and the ratio for 45- to 54-year-olds increased from 57 percent to 74 percent. The earnings ratios for teenagers (91 percent in 2009) and for workers aged 65 and older (76 percent in 2009) fluctuated from 1979 to 2009, but the long-term trends were essentially flat." (Table 12.)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Highlights of women's earnings in 2009 (Report No. Report 1025). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2009.pdf

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Information on earnings is collected from one-fourth of the CPS sample each month

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "in 2008, among those elderly ages 65-69, 41.2 percent of their income was from work-related earnings." For this age group [65-69], the increase in proportion of income from work-related earnings "was significant, increasing 18.1 percentage points from 1985...

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "in 2008, among those elderly ages 65-69, 41.2 percent of their income was from work-related earnings." For this age group [65-69], the increase in proportion of income from work-related earnings "was significant, increasing 18.1 percentage points from 1985 to 2008." (p. 2)

McDonnell, K. (2010). Income of the elderly population age 65 and over, 2008 (EBRI Notes, Vol. 31 No. 6). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_06-June10.Inc-Eld.pdf

The data in this article were tabulated from the March Current Population Surveys, published annually by the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, "roughly 75 percent of men who were poor less than nine years as children are consistently employed as adults, compared with only 34 percent of men who were poor nine years or longer." (p. 8)

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, "roughly 75 percent of men who were poor less than nine years as children are consistently employed as adults, compared with only 34 percent of men who were poor nine years or longer." (p. 8)

Ratcliffe, C., & McKernan, S. (2010). Childhood poverty persistence: Facts and consequences (Brief No. 14). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412126-child-poverty-persistence.pdf

This analysis uses data from the 1968 through 2005 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a longitudinal survey that interviewed respondents annually from 1968 to 1997 and biennially thereafter.

According to a 2010 report based on data from the Current Population Survey, "in 1959, 35 percent of Americans over age 65 lived below the poverty level, but by 1990, this rate had fallen to 12 percent. In 2008, it stood at 10 percent." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 report based on data from the Current Population Survey, "in 1959, 35 percent of Americans over age 65 lived below the poverty level, but by 1990, this rate had fallen to 12 percent. In 2008, it stood at 10 percent." (p. 1)

Shattuck, A. (2010). Older Americans working more, retiring less (Issue Brief No. 16). Durham, NH: Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire. Retrieved from http://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/IB_Shattuck_Older_Workers.pdf

Data used in this brief are from the Current Population survey, annual social and economic supplements of 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2009.

According to a 2010 Pew survey of adult who were unemployed during the recession, "a majority of the long-term unemployed (56%) say their family income has declined during the recession, compared with 42% who were out of work less than three months and 26% of adults who have not been unemployed since...

According to a 2010 Pew survey of adult who were unemployed during the recession, "a majority of the long-term unemployed (56%) say their family income has declined during the recession, compared with 42% who were out of work less than three months and 26% of adults who have not been unemployed since the recession began in December 2007. " (p. 2)

Morin, R., & Kochbar, R. (2010). The impact of long-term unemployment: Lost income, lost friends--and loss of self-respect. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/760-recession.pdf

Survey results for this report are based on telephone interviews conducted in May 2010 with a sample of 810 people ages 18 to 64 living in the continental United States who were unemployed at some point during the recession. A total of 446 interviews were completed with respondents who are currently unemployed and 364 interviews were conducted of those who are currently working but were unemployed at some point during the recession.

Among respondents to a 2010 AARP-sponsored survey of persons aged 45 years or older, economic problems reported include "having to stop contributing to retirement savings (28%), having work hours cut or having to take a pay cut (20%), and having problems paying for essential items like food and utilities...

Among respondents to a 2010 AARP-sponsored survey of persons aged 45 years or older, economic problems reported include "having to stop contributing to retirement savings (28%), having work hours cut or having to take a pay cut (20%), and having problems paying for essential items like food and utilities (20%)."

Rainville, G. (2010). AARP Closer Look (SM) June 2010 survey. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/money/budgeting-saving/info-09-2010/closer-look-econ-0610.html

A nationally representative sample of 1,000 respondents 45 years of age or older completed ICR telephone interviews during June 9-June 30, 2010.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "63.3 percent of older workers in the bottom wage quintile had difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions] compared to only about 25 percent of those in the top quintile." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "63.3 percent of older workers in the bottom wage quintile had difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions] compared to only about 25 percent of those in the top quintile." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "56.4 percent of older workers in the bottom wage quintile had physically demanding jobs compared to only about 17 percent of those in the top quintile." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "56.4 percent of older workers in the bottom wage quintile had physically demanding jobs compared to only about 17 percent of those in the top quintile." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from a survey of unemployed job seekers, "coping strategies used by both older and younger job seekers to help survive their unemployment include 67% of those aged 55+ reported using money from savings to make ends meet, compared to 69% of those under age 55, while...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from a survey of unemployed job seekers, "coping strategies used by both older and younger job seekers to help survive their unemployment include 67% of those aged 55+ reported using money from savings to make ends meet, compared to 69% of those under age 55, while 37% of both age groups report selling possessions. While 16% of older job seekers report using Food Stamps, 31% of the younger group have done so. Six percent of the older respondents said they had lost their homes to foreclosure compared to 1% of the younger respondents. (fig. 6, p. 13)

Heidkamp, M., Corre, N., & Van Horn, C. (2010). The new unemployables: Older job seekers struggle to find work during the great recession--comparing the job search, financial, and emotional experiences of older and younger unemployed Americans. Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/research_sites/agingandwork/pdf/publications/IB25_NewUnemployed.pdf

The March 2010 survey reinterviewed 908 of the 1,202 individuals who had been part of a nationally representative August 2009 survey of people who lost jobs during the prior year.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from a survey of unemployed job seekers, 30% of older workers (aged 55+) indicated that they had more in credit card debt than retirement savings, and 41% had just as much in credit card debt as retirement savings. A majority of both older (59%) and younger (66%)...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from a survey of unemployed job seekers, 30% of older workers (aged 55+) indicated that they had more in credit card debt than retirement savings, and 41% had just as much in credit card debt as retirement savings. A majority of both older (59%) and younger (66%) workers indicated that they have financial debt aside from mortgage or rent. (p. 14)

Heidkamp, M., Corre, N., & Van Horn, C. (2010). The new unemployables: Older job seekers struggle to find work during the great recession--comparing the job search, financial, and emotional experiences of older and younger unemployed Americans. Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/research_sites/agingandwork/pdf/publications/IB25_NewUnemployed.pdf

The March 2010 survey reinterviewed 908 of the 1,202 individuals who had been part of a nationally representative August 2009 survey of people who lost jobs during the prior year.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from a survey of unemployed job seekers, "two-thirds of both older and younger workers said they are using savings set aside for retirement or other things to help ends meet. (fig. 6, p. 13)

According to a 2010 analysis of data from a survey of unemployed job seekers, "two-thirds of both older and younger workers said they are using savings set aside for retirement or other things to help ends meet. (fig. 6, p. 13)

Heidkamp, M., Corre, N., & Van Horn, C. (2010). The new unemployables: Older job seekers struggle to find work during the great recession--comparing the job search, financial, and emotional experiences of older and younger unemployed Americans. Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/research_sites/agingandwork/pdf/publications/IB25_NewUnemployed.pdf

The March 2010 survey reinterviewed 908 of the 1,202 individuals who had been part of a nationally representative August 2009 survey of people who lost jobs during the prior year.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from a survey of unemployed job seekers, "among older workers, 40% rated their financial situation as poor, and 61% said they have adjusted their plans for retirement. Almost the same percentage of younger workers (39%) also rated their financial situation as poor,...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from a survey of unemployed job seekers, "among older workers, 40% rated their financial situation as poor, and 61% said they have adjusted their plans for retirement. Almost the same percentage of younger workers (39%) also rated their financial situation as poor, but a smaller percentage of them have changed retirement plans (43%). (p. 13)

Heidkamp, M., Corre, N., & Van Horn, C. (2010). The new unemployables: Older job seekers struggle to find work during the great recession--comparing the job search, financial, and emotional experiences of older and younger unemployed Americans. Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/research_sites/agingandwork/pdf/publications/IB25_NewUnemployed.pdf

The March 2010 survey reinterviewed 908 of the 1,202 individuals who had been part of a nationally representative August 2009 survey of people who lost jobs during the prior year.

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "young people who have been hurt by the recession anticipate a fairly speedy recovery. Nearly half (47%) say they will have regained what they lost in less than two years. By contrast, only 24% of those ages 50 and older who were hurt by the recession say they will recover...

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "young people who have been hurt by the recession anticipate a fairly speedy recovery. Nearly half (47%) say they will have regained what they lost in less than two years. By contrast, only 24% of those ages 50 and older who were hurt by the recession say they will recover in the next two years." (p. 49)

Taylor, P., & Morin, R. (2010). How the great recession has changed life in America. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/files/2010/11/759-recession.pdf

This report is based on data from two sources: a comprehensive Pew Research telephone survey of a representative, national sample of 2,967 adults conducted from May 11 to May 31, 2010 (see Appendix for details) and a Pew Research analysis of government economic and demographic trend data.

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "young adults are the least likely age group to say the economy is still in a recession. Some 47% of 18- to 29-year-olds say so, compared with 57% of those ages 30-64 and 51% of those 65 and older." (p 37)

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "young adults are the least likely age group to say the economy is still in a recession. Some 47% of 18- to 29-year-olds say so, compared with 57% of those ages 30-64 and 51% of those 65 and older." (p 37)

Taylor, P., & Morin, R. (2010). How the great recession has changed life in America. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/files/2010/11/759-recession.pdf

This report is based on data from two sources: a comprehensive Pew Research telephone survey of a representative, national sample of 2,967 adults conducted from May 11 to May 31, 2010 (see Appendix for details) and a Pew Research analysis of government economic and demographic trend data.

According to a 2010 Pew survey, more than half of the adults in U.S. labor force (55%) have experienced some work-related hardship -- such as, a reduction in hours (28%), a cut in pay (23%), having to take an unpaid leave (12%), or an involuntary move to part-time work (11%). About half (48%) say...

According to a 2010 Pew survey, more than half of the adults in U.S. labor force (55%) have experienced some work-related hardship -- such as, a reduction in hours (28%), a cut in pay (23%), having to take an unpaid leave (12%), or an involuntary move to part-time work (11%). About half (48%) say they are in worse financial shape now than before the recession began. p. 1)

Taylor, P., & Morin, R. (2010). How the great recession has changed life in America. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/files/2010/11/759-recession.pdf

This report is based on data from two sources: a comprehensive Pew Research telephone survey of a representative, national sample of 2,967 adults conducted from May 11 to May 31, 2010 (see Appendix for details) and a Pew Research analysis of government economic and demographic trend data.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "change in real median householdincome by age of the householder between 2008 and 2009 was not uniform across the age groups...the median income of households with householders under 65 declined (1.3 percent), while the income...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "change in real median household
income by age of the householder between 2008 and 2009 was not uniform across the age groups...the median income of households with householders under 65 declined (1.3 percent), while the income of households with householders 65 and older increased (5.8 percent)."(p. 8)

DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. (2010). Income, poverty and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2009. (Report No. P60-238). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/p60-238.pdf

This report presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2010 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "between 2008 and 2009, both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for people aged 18 to 64 (from 11.7 percent and 22.1 million to 12.9 percent and 24.7 million). Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty decreased...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "between 2008 and 2009, both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for people aged 18 to 64 (from 11.7 percent and 22.1 million to 12.9 percent and 24.7 million). Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty decreased for people aged 65 and older (from 9.7 percent and 3.7 million to 8.9 percent and 3.4 million)" (Table 4 and Figure 5). (p. 16)

DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. (2010). Income, poverty and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2009. (Report No. P60-238). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/p60-238.pdf

This report presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2010 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to the 2010 Towers Watson retirement attitudes survey, in 2010, "38% of employees over age 50 report that they have increased their monthly savings," compared to 15% of that age group in 2009. (fig. 2, p, 2)

According to the 2010 Towers Watson retirement attitudes survey, in 2010, "38% of employees over age 50 report that they have increased their monthly savings," compared to 15% of that age group in 2009. (fig. 2, p, 2)

Towers Watson. (2010). Retirement attitudes part II: Employee attitudes towards risk. Retrieved from http://www.towerswatson.com/assets/pdf/2717/TowersWatson_Retirement-Pt2-Attitudes_NA-2010-17683.pdf

The Towers Watson Retirement Attitudes survey was conducted in May and June of 2010 and includes responses from 9,080 full-time U.S. employees at nongovernment organizations.

According to the Older Americans 2010 report, "in 2008, aggregate income for the population aged 65 and over came largely from four sources. Social Security provided 37 percent, earnings provided 30 percent, pensions provided 19 percent, and asset income accounted for 13 percent." (p. 14)

According to the Older Americans 2010 report, "in 2008, aggregate income for the population aged 65 and over came largely from four sources. Social Security provided 37 percent, earnings provided 30 percent, pensions provided 19 percent, and asset income accounted for 13 percent." (p. 14)

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2010). Older Americans 2010: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2010_Documents/Docs/OA_2010.pdf

This report uses data from over a dozen national data sources, including the Current Population Survey, the Health and Retirement Survey, the American Time Use Survey, etc.

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "the median income for units aged 65 or older is $25,757, but there are wide differences within the total group. Approximately 13% have an income of under $10,000, and roughly 25% have an income of $50,000 or more."

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "the median income for units aged 65 or older is $25,757, but there are wide differences within the total group. Approximately 13% have an income of under $10,000, and roughly 25% have an income of $50,000 or more."

A profile of the working poor, 2010. (2012). (Report No. 1035). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswp2010.pdf

This report is based on analysis of Current Population Survey data.

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "in 2010, among youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 15.5 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds were in poverty, about double the rate for workers age 35 to 44 (7.3 percent). Workers age 45 to 54 (4.9 percent), 55 to 64 (3.4 percent), and 65 and...

According to a 2012 analysis of CPS data, "in 2010, among youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 15.5 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds were in poverty, about double the rate for workers age 35 to 44 (7.3 percent). Workers age 45 to 54 (4.9 percent), 55 to 64 (3.4 percent), and 65 and older (2.0 percent) had lower working-poor rates than did other age groups in 2010."

A profile of the working poor, 2010. (2012). (Report No. 1035). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswp2010.pdf

This report is based on analysis of Current Population Survey data.

A 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data shows that 37% of men and 35% of women aged 55 to 64 who received income from a pension in 2007 were employed in March 2008. (p. 98)

A 2008 analysis of Social Security Administration data shows that 37% of men and 35% of women aged 55 to 64 who received income from a pension in 2007 were employed in March 2008. (p. 98)

Purcell, P. J. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Journal of Deferred Compensation, 14(2), 85-107

In this report, data from the Census Bureau, Buearu of Labor Statistics, and Social Security Administration are analyzed.

A 2009 analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows that the median usual weekly earnings in 2007 for full-time wage and salary workers increased from $450 at ages 20 to 24, to $643 at ages 25 to 34, to $790 at ages 45 to 54. However, wages grow relatively slowly after the early 40s. Median 2007...

A 2009 analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows that the median usual weekly earnings in 2007 for full-time wage and salary workers increased from $450 at ages 20 to 24, to $643 at ages 25 to 34, to $790 at ages 45 to 54. However, wages grow relatively slowly after the early 40s. Median 2007 wages for full-time workers were only about 3% higher at ages 45 to 54 than at ages 35 to 44 and only 2% higher at ages 55 to 64 than at ages 45 to 54. (p. 8)

Johnson, R. W. (2009). Employment opportunities at older ages: Introduction to the special issue. Research on Aging, 31(1), 3-16

This report includes a review of the literature and the author's analysis of 2008 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

A 2009 analysis of data from the US Census and Quarterly Workforce Indicators, "the typical worker aged 55 to 64 years earns $3,941 per month, 17% higher than the all-age average of $3,379 ($47,292 and $40,548 per year, respectively). New hires aged 55 to 64 earn only $2,744 ($32,928 annually), 30%...

A 2009 analysis of data from the US Census and Quarterly Workforce Indicators, "the typical worker aged 55 to 64 years earns $3,941 per month, 17% higher than the all-age average of $3,379 ($47,292 and $40,548 per year, respectively). New hires aged 55 to 64 earn only $2,744 ($32,928 annually), 30% less than their already employed counterparts...Moreover, new hires who are older are more expensive than other new hires, with a 27% premium over the average new-hire monthly earnings of $2,162 ($25,944 annually)." (p. 82)

Adler, G., & Hilber, D. (2009). Industry hiring patterns of older workers. Research on Aging, 31(1), 69-88

The data used in this research came primarily from the Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI) tabulations of the Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) program, a partnership between the U.S. Census Bureau and state employment security agencies.

According to a 2009 analysis of participation in 401(k) plans, "maximum contributions are closely related to income. Less than 2 percent of those earning $40,000-$60,000 contribute the maximum compared to 30 percent for those earning $100,000 or more." (p. 5)

According to a 2009 analysis of participation in 401(k) plans, "maximum contributions are closely related to income. Less than 2 percent of those earning $40,000-$60,000 contribute the maximum compared to 30 percent for those earning $100,000 or more." (p. 5)

Munnell, A. H., Golub-Sass, F., & Muldoon, D. (2009). An update on 401(k) plans: Insights from the 2007 SCF [survey of consumer finances] (Issue Brief No. 9-5). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/images/stories/Briefs/ib_9_5.pdf

The Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) is a triennial survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. households, which collects detailed information on households' assets, liabilities, and demographic characteristics. This report includes an analysis of 2007 survey.

According to a 2009 analysis of HRS data, "hourly wages are substantially lower on new jobs than former jobs for all older career changers. Median wages fell by 57 percent for retirees, 22 percent for those who were laid off, and 5 percent for those who quit their former jobs." (p. x)

According to a 2009 analysis of HRS data, "hourly wages are substantially lower on new jobs than former jobs for all older career changers. Median wages fell by 57 percent for retirees, 22 percent for those who were laid off, and 5 percent for those who quit their former jobs." (p. x)

Johnson, R. W., Kawachi, J., & Lewis, E. K. (2009). Older workers on the move: Recareering in later life (Research Report No. 2009-08). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/2009_08_recareering.pdf

This PPI Research Paper by examines the characteristics of workers who change careers in late life, using data from eight waves of the biennial Health and Retirement Study (1992-2006). A sample of 1,705 workers who were ages 51-55 in 1992 were followed until 2006, when they were 65-69.

According to  2009 analysis of US Census and Vital Statistics data, "in 1980, those with the highest socio-economic status had a life expectancy 2.8 years higher than those with the lowest status (75.8 versus 73.0 years, respectively). By 2000, that gap had grown: those in the top decile had attained...

According to  2009 analysis of US Census and Vital Statistics data, "in 1980, those with the highest socio-economic status had a life expectancy 2.8 years higher than those with the lowest status (75.8 versus 73.0 years, respectively). By 2000, that gap had grown: those in the top decile had attained a life expectancy of 79.2 years -- 4.5 years more than those in the bottom decile. Disparities in life expectancy also increased between the top and the middle decile and between the middle and the bottom."

Gould, E. (2009). Growing disparities in life expectancy. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.epi.org/economic_snapshots/entry/webfeatures_snapshots_20080716/

This analysis is based on analysis of data from the US Vital Statistics System and US Census.

A 2009 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that "nearly all individuals (89.3 percent ) age 65 and over were receiving income from Social Security in 2007, while 52.9 percent received income from assets, 34.3 percent received income from pensions and annuities, and 19.9 percent received income from...

A 2009 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that "nearly all individuals (89.3 percent ) age 65 and over were receiving income from Social Security in 2007, while 52.9 percent received income from assets, 34.3 percent received income from pensions and annuities, and 19.9 percent received income from earnings." (p. 9)

McDonnell, K. (2009). Income of the elderly population age 65 and over, 2007. EBRI Notes, 30(5), 9-14. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_05-May09.CstShrg-IncEld.pdf

This article reviews the latest available data on the older population's income (from the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2008 Current Population Survey) and how it has changed over time, as well as how the elderly's reliance on these sources varies across demographic characteristics.

A 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that "in 2007 there was a 59.5 percent difference in the median incomes among men and women aged 55-64 and a 57.6 percent difference for those over age 65." (Table 6.1)

A 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that "in 2007 there was a 59.5 percent difference in the median incomes among men and women aged 55-64 and a 57.6 percent difference for those over age 65." (Table 6.1)

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (2009). EBRI databook on employee benefits. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://www.ebri.org/publications/books/index.cfm?fa=databook

The EBRI Databook on Employee Benefits includes data from dozens of sources to provide a comprehensive analysis of how the employee benefits system works, who and what its various functions affect, and its relationship with the U.S. economy.

A 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that "in 2007, 43 percent of persons over age 75 lived under 200 percent of poverty (For individuals and couples over age 65 in 2007, 200 percent of poverty was $19,888 and $25,100 respectively) (chart 6.1b)

A 2009 analysis of Current Population Survey data shows that "in 2007, 43 percent of persons over age 75 lived under 200 percent of poverty (For individuals and couples over age 65 in 2007, 200 percent of poverty was $19,888 and $25,100 respectively) (chart 6.1b)

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (2009). EBRI databook on employee benefits. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://www.ebri.org/publications/books/index.cfm?fa=databook

The EBRI Databook on Employee Benefits includes data from dozens of sources to provide a comprehensive analysis of how the employee benefits system works, who and what its various functions affect, and its relationship with the U.S. economy.

A 2008 tabulation of CPS data shows that in 1974, 21.3% of the population age 65 and over received income from earnings [wages, salaries and self-employment income], compared to 25.3% in 2007 (charts 7.1a and 7.1b)

A 2008 tabulation of CPS data shows that in 1974, 21.3% of the population age 65 and over received income from earnings [wages, salaries and self-employment income], compared to 25.3% in 2007 (charts 7.1a and 7.1b)

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (2009). EBRI databook on employee benefits. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from http://www.ebri.org/publications/books/index.cfm?fa=databook

The EBRI Databook on Employee Benefits includes data from dozens of sources to provide a comprehensive analysis of how the employee benefits system works, who and what its various functions affect, and its relationship with the U.S. economy.

According to a 2009 survey of employees and retirees, "19 percent have increased savings to offset losses due to the financial crisis and another 34 percent are considering doing so, while others have borrowed or withdrawn money from retirement savings (9 percent) or are considering doing so in the...

According to a 2009 survey of employees and retirees, "19 percent have increased savings to offset losses due to the financial crisis and another 34 percent are considering doing so, while others have borrowed or withdrawn money from retirement savings (9 percent) or are considering doing so in the next 12 months (9 percent)." (p. 2)

Watson Wyatt Worldwide. (2009). Effect of the economic crisis on employee attitudes toward retirement - part I: Retirement Security. Washington, DC: Watson Wyatt Worldwide. Retrieved from http://www.watsonwyatt.com/research/deliverpdf.asp?catalog=WT-2009-12718&id=x.pdf

In February 2009, Watson Wyatt surveyed 2232 active employees and 904 retirees of nongovernmental organizations with 1000 or more employees to gauge the impact of the economic crisis on Americans.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, "the median household with a person between the ages of 45 to 54 saw its net worth fall by more than 45 percent between 2004 and 2009, from $172,400 in 2004 to just $94,200 in 2009 (all amounts are in 2009 dollars). The median...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, "the median household with a person between the ages of 45 to 54 saw its net worth fall by more than 45 percent between 2004 and 2009, from $172,400 in 2004 to just $94,200 in 2009 (all amounts are in 2009 dollars). The median household with a person between the ages of 55 and 64 saw its wealth fall by almost 50 percent from $315,400 in 2004 to $159,800 in 2009."

Baker, D., & Rosnick, D. (2009). The wealth of the baby boom cohorts after the collapse of the housing bubble. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/baby-boomer-wealth-2009-02.pdf

This paper makes projections of wealth for 2009 for the baby boom cohorts (ages 45 to 54 and ages 55-64) using data from the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finance.

According to a 2009 analysis by the Social Security Administration, "median annual income for married couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older has increased markedly since 1962 (the earliest year for which data are available). Even after adjusting for inflation, median income has risen 106% for...

According to a 2009 analysis by the Social Security Administration, "median annual income for married couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older has increased markedly since 1962 (the earliest year for which data are available). Even after adjusting for inflation, median income has risen 106% for married couples and 104% for nonmarried persons. Median income for a married couple in 2007 was $40,644 and $15,858 for nonmarried persons. A married couple is aged 65 or older if the husband is aged 65 or older or if the husband is aged 54 or younger and the wife is 65 or older."

Social Security Administration. (2009). Fast facts & figures about social security, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2009/fast_facts09.html#generalinfo

Data for 1962 are from Social Security Administration, The Aged Population of the United States: The 1963 Social Security Survey of the Aged (1967). Data for 2007 are Social Security Administration calculations from the March 2008 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2009 analysis by the Social Security Administration, "the proportion of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older who had earnings [i.e., income from employment] was smaller in 2007 than in 1962. In 2007, 25% of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 had earnings, compared to 36%...

According to a 2009 analysis by the Social Security Administration, "the proportion of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older who had earnings [i.e., income from employment] was smaller in 2007 than in 1962. In 2007, 25% of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 had earnings, compared to 36% in 1962."

Social Security Administration. (2009). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2009/fast_facts09.html#generalinfo

Data for 1962 are from Social Security Administration, The Aged Population of the United States: The 1963 Social Security Survey of the Aged (1967). Data for 2007 are Social Security Administration calculations from the March 2008 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, married males (of all ages) work more hours for pay (an average of 35 hours per week) than their wives (who work an average of 23 hours per week). Wives spend an average of 18 hours per week...

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, married males (of all ages) work more hours for pay (an average of 35 hours per week) than their wives (who work an average of 23 hours per week). Wives spend an average of 18 hours per week on household tasks, while their husbands spend an average of 8 hours per week on such tasks. (fig. 2, p. 3)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "at the highest levels of income and wealth, hours of paid work drops off compared to households at lower levels of financial resources, mainly because higher levels of financial resources are...

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "at the highest levels of income and wealth, hours of paid work drops off compared to households at lower levels of financial resources, mainly because higher levels of financial resources are attained near the end of a lifetime of work. Therefore, people with high levels of financial resources tend to be older, often retired or semi-retired, or in a financial position to elect to work fewer hours." (fig. 3, p. 4)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "as they approach retirement age (roughly age 65), older adults tend to cut back on paid work and start increasing time for housework as well as volunteer activities. For instance, unmarried...

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "as they approach retirement age (roughly age 65), older adults tend to cut back on paid work and start increasing time for housework as well as volunteer activities. For instance, unmarried men under age 50 spend 45 hours per week working (of which 82 percent is paid work), while those ages 65 and older report 18 hours of work (of which only 45 percent is paid work)." (fig. 4a, p. 6)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "as they approach retirement age (roughly age 65), older adults tend to cut back on paid work and start increasing time for housework as well as volunteer activities." For instance, married men...

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, "as they approach retirement age (roughly age 65), older adults tend to cut back on paid work and start increasing time for housework as well as volunteer activities." For instance, married men under age 50 spend 42 hours per week doing paid work; those aged 50-64 do 36 hours per week paid work, while those ages 65 and older report 8 hours of work (fig. 4b, p. 6)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, married women under age 50 spend 26 hours per week on paid work, the same rate as those aged 50-64. Married women aged 65 and older report 7 hours of paid work. (fig. 4d, p. 6)

According to a 2009 Sloan Center on Aging and Work analysis of data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, married women under age 50 spend 26 hours per week on paid work, the same rate as those aged 50-64. Married women aged 65 and older report 7 hours of paid work. (fig. 4d, p. 6)

Havens, J. (2009). The working day: Understanding "work" across the life course (Issue Brief No. 21). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB21_WorkingDay_05-05.pdf

This brief examines the interaction of marital status and financial resources on the work participation of men and women across the life course. The findings are based on analysis of the 2003 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF).

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, show that among men aged 55 to 64 who received pension income in 2008, 37.2% were employed full or part time in March 2009. Relatively few men aged 65 or older who received income from pensions engaged in paid employment: only 10% to...

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, show that among men aged 55 to 64 who received pension income in 2008, 37.2% were employed full or part time in March 2009. Relatively few men aged 65 or older who received income from pensions engaged in paid employment: only 10% to 13% were employed, on average, at any point during the period [from 1990 to 2008]. Women who received pension income were less likely than men to be employed. Among women 55 to 64 years old who received income from a pension or retirement savings plan in 2008, 32.2% were employed in March 2009. Among women aged 65 or older who received income from a pension or retirement savings plan, only 6% to 9%, on average, were employed at any time during the period from 1990 to 2008." (p. 9-10)

Purcell, P. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/files/crs-rl30629.pdf

This reports presents an analysis of data from various years of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey and the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin.

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, "37% of men and 32% of women aged 55 to 64 who received income from a pension in 2008 were employed in March 2009. (p. 14)

According to a 2009 analysis of US Current Population Survey data, "37% of men and 32% of women aged 55 to 64 who received income from a pension in 2008 were employed in March 2009. (p. 14)

Purcell, P. (2009). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/files/crs-rl30629.pdf

This reports presents an analysis of data from various years of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey and the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin.

A 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances shows that "the percentage of American families with a head age 55 or older who have some level of debt was 63.0 percent in 2007, almost 3 percentage points higher than 2004, 7 percentage points higher than the 2001, and up nearly 10 percentage...

A 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances shows that "the percentage of American families with a head age 55 or older who have some level of debt was 63.0 percent in 2007, almost 3 percentage points higher than 2004, 7 percentage points higher than the 2001, and up nearly 10 percentage points from the 1992 level of 53.8 percent." (p. 2)

Copeland, C. (2009). Debt of the elderly and near elderly, 1992-2007. EBRI Notes, 30(10), 1-14. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_10-Oct09.DebtEldly.pdf

This analysis is based on data from the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances.

A 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances shows that "as the percentage of families with a head age 55 or older with any debt increased from 1992-2007, the average total debt level also increased: from $32,191 (2007 dollars) in 1992 to $70,370 in 2007; the median debt level (half...

A 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances shows that "as the percentage of families with a head age 55 or older with any debt increased from 1992-2007, the average total debt level also increased: from $32,191 (2007 dollars) in 1992 to $70,370 in 2007; the median debt level (half above, half below) of those with debt increased from $15,923 to $43,000. This was a real increase in the average and median debt levels by 118.6 percent and 170.0 percent, respectively, from 1992." (p. 3)

Copeland, C. (2009). Debt of the elderly and near elderly, 1992-2007. EBRI Notes, 30(10), 1-14. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_10-Oct09.DebtEldly.pdf

This analysis is based on data from the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances.

A 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances shows that "the share of income that went to housing debt payments increased significantly for those families with heads ages 55-64 or 65-74 in 2007, even after the increase in 2004. In particular, the share of income that housing debt payments...

A 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances shows that "the share of income that went to housing debt payments increased significantly for those families with heads ages 55-64 or 65-74 in 2007, even after the increase in 2004. In particular, the share of income that housing debt payments accounted for among families with heads ages 55-64 increased from 6.5 percent in 2001 to 8.1 percent in 2004 to 9.1 percent in 2007." (fig. 6, p. 6)

Copeland, C. (2009). Debt of the elderly and near elderly, 1992-2007. EBRI Notes, 30(10), 1-14. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_10-Oct09.DebtEldly.pdf

This analysis is based on data from the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "when asked to describe their household's financial situation, fully four-in-ten of all self-employed workers (40%) say their family either falls short of meeting their basic living expenses or are barely getting by. In contrast, only about a third (32%) of all wage...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "when asked to describe their household's financial situation, fully four-in-ten of all self-employed workers (40%) say their family either falls short of meeting their basic living expenses or are barely getting by. In contrast, only about a third (32%) of all wage and salary workers report being similarly stressed."

Morin, R. (2009). Take this job and love it: Job satisfaction highest among the self-employed. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/743/job-satisfaction-highest-among-self-employed#prc-jump

A total of 1,040 adults ages 16 and older who are employed full or part-time were interviewed July 20-Aug. 2, 2009 for this survey, including 254 self-employed workers and 885 who are wage and salaried workers

According to a 2009 Metlife survey of workers and job seekers aged 55-70, "more than half (55%) of the respondents who are working or seeking work say their primary motivation is needing income for basic expenses. (p. 5)

According to a 2009 Metlife survey of workers and job seekers aged 55-70, "more than half (55%) of the respondents who are working or seeking work say their primary motivation is needing income for basic expenses. (p. 5)

MetLife. (2009). Buddy, can you spare a job? the new realities of the job market for aging baby boomers. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from http://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/mmi-buddy-can-you-spare-job.pdf

Quantitative information was obtained from a survey of 1,242 U.S. residents, ages 55 to 70, who were working or seeking work, or who reported being retired because they could not find work. An oversample was surveyed to achieve a significant amount of job seekers. The survey was conducted online by Harris Interactive in May 2009.

According to a 2009 analysis of Census Bureau and CPS data, "the poverty rate of 9.7% among Americans aged 65 and older in 2008 was two percentage points lower than the poverty rate among adults aged 18 to 64, at 11.7%....In 2008, 3.6 million people aged 65 and older had income below the federal poverty...

According to a 2009 analysis of Census Bureau and CPS data, "the poverty rate of 9.7% among Americans aged 65 and older in 2008 was two percentage points lower than the poverty rate among adults aged 18 to 64, at 11.7%....In 2008, 3.6 million people aged 65 and older had income below the federal poverty thresholds of $10,326 for single elderly persons and $13,014 for elderly couples." (p. 25)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income of Americans aged 65 and older, 1968 to 2008 (CRS Report for Congress No. RL33387). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL33387_20091104.pdf

The data presented in this report were collected by the Census Bureau through the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of the civilian, non-institutional population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, for adults who become disabled between age 51 and 64, the share with income below the federal poverty level increases from 7.4 percent in the wave [of HRS data collection] before disability onset to 15.5 percent in the wave after...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, for adults who become disabled between age 51 and 64, the share with income below the federal poverty level increases from 7.4 percent in the wave [of HRS data collection] before disability onset to 15.5 percent in the wave after disability onset. Post-disability poverty rates reach nearly 31 percent for single adults and 21 percent for the two-fifths of disabled adults with the most severe disabilities." (p. 29)

Johnson, R. W., Favreault, M., & Mommaerts, C. (2009). Work ability and the social insurance safety net in the years prior to retirement (Working Paper No. WP 2009-28). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/images/stories/Working_Papers/wp_2009-28.pdf

Data for this study come from the University of Michigan's Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a longitudinal survey of Americans age 51 and older. The sample is restricted to 4,661 noninstitutionalized respondents age 51 to 55 in 1992, who we follow until they reach age 64. It includes 1,820 respondents who are disabled at some point between age 51 and 64.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finance, the was greater debt among the near-retiree cohort of 2004 compared to that of 1995. "This is indicated by a significant rise in median debt, from $19,697 in 1995 to $40,300 in 2004, and mean debt, from $58,124 in 1995 to $97,363...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finance, the was greater debt among the near-retiree cohort of 2004 compared to that of 1995. "This is indicated by a significant rise in median debt, from $19,697 in 1995 to $40,300 in 2004, and mean debt, from $58,124 in 1995 to $97,363 in 2004. It is also evidenced by a rise in the proportion of near-retiree families holding debt, from 79.8 percent to 82.7 percent."

Anguelov, C. E., & Tamborini, C. R. (2009). Retiring in debt? differences between the 1995 and 2004 near-retiree cohorts. Social Security Bulletin, 69(2), 13-34. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v69n2/v69n2p13.html

This study is based on analysis of data from the 1995 and 2004 Survey of Consumer Finance, a triennial cross-sectional survey sponsored by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors with the cooperation of the Statistics of Income Division of the Internal Revenue Service. The analysis compares debt in families headed by near-retirees (workers aged 50-61) in 1995 with debt in families headed by near-retirees in 2004. The survey collects data on household assets, debt, saving behavior, use of financial services, income, demographics, and labor force participation.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, the median income of individuals aged 65 and older was $18,208 but incomes varied widely around this average. One-fourth of Americans 65 and older had incomes of less than $11,139 in 2008, while another one-fourth had...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, the median income of individuals aged 65 and older was $18,208 but incomes varied widely around this average. One-fourth of Americans 65 and older had incomes of less than $11,139 in 2008, while another one-fourth had incomes of $33,677 or more." (p. i)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, 96.6% of individuals aged 65 and older had income from one or more sources. The median total income of these individuals was $18,208. Of all households in which either the householder or the householder's spouse...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, 96.6% of individuals aged 65 and older had income from one or more sources. The median total income of these individuals was $18,208. Of all households in which either the householder or the householder's spouse (if present) was 65 or older, 99.0% had income from one or more sources, and the median income of these households was $31,157." (p. 2)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "among individuals with total income in the highest 25% among all persons aged 65 and older--those with 2008 income of more than $33,677--38% of total income came from earnings, 23% of income came from pensions, 17% of income came...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "among individuals with total income in the highest 25% among all persons aged 65 and older--those with 2008 income of more than $33,677--38% of total income came from earnings, 23% of income came from pensions, 17% of income came from assets, 20% of income came from Social Security, less than 1% of income came from public assistance, and 2% came from other sources. Thus, among elderly individuals in the highest income quartile, 78% of total income came from earnings, pensions, and assets." (p. 6)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "among elderly households whose income in 2008 was in the lowest quartile for households in which either the householder or spouse was 65 or older--those with income of less than $17,194--3% of all income came from earnings, 5%...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "among elderly households whose income in 2008 was in the lowest quartile for households in which either the householder or spouse was 65 or older--those with income of less than $17,194--3% of all income came from earnings, 5% of income came from pensions, 3% of income came from assets, 84% of income came from Social Security, 4% came from public assistance, and 1% came from other sources." (p. 6)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "the median income of older Americans increases substantially with their educational level. Those with only a high-school diploma had a median income of $16,733 in 2008, whereas college graduates had a median income of $34,031......

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "the median income of older Americans increases substantially with their educational level. Those with only a high-school diploma had a median income of $16,733 in 2008, whereas college graduates had a median income of $34,031... Elderly households in which the householder had only a high-school diploma had a median income of $27,684 in 2008, while elderly households headed by a college graduate had a median income of $57,957." (p. 11)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, 68.9% of Social Security [individual] beneficiaries aged 65 or older received more than half of their income from Social Security, and 57.1% of elderly households [couples] that received Social Security benefits received...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, 68.9% of Social Security [individual] beneficiaries aged 65 or older received more than half of their income from Social Security, and 57.1% of elderly households [couples] that received Social Security benefits received more than half of their total household income from Social Security." (p. 13)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, the median earnings of workers aged 55 to 61 were $38,000, while the median earnings of workers aged 62 to 64 were $33,000. For those aged 65 or older who were working, median earnings were $20,000 in 2008." (p. 22)

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, the median earnings of workers aged 55 to 61 were $38,000, while the median earnings of workers aged 62 to 64 were $33,000. For those aged 65 or older who were working, median earnings were $20,000 in 2008." (p. 22)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "38% of workers aged 55 to 61 earned $50,000 or more in 2008, while only 23% of those aged 65 and older had earned income totaling more than $50,000 in that year. In contrast, while only 10% of Americans aged 55 to 61 who worked...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "38% of workers aged 55 to 61 earned $50,000 or more in 2008, while only 23% of those aged 65 and older had earned income totaling more than $50,000 in that year. In contrast, while only 10% of Americans aged 55 to 61 who worked in 2008 had total earnings of less than $10,000, 30% of workers aged 65 and older had earnings of $10,000 or less in 2008." (p. 22)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "although the poverty rate for all persons aged 65 and older was just 9.7% in 2008, 12% of women aged 65 and older were in poverty in 2008 compared with only 6.7% of men. Because women live longer, the number of poor older women...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "although the poverty rate for all persons aged 65 and older was just 9.7% in 2008, 12% of women aged 65 and older were in poverty in 2008 compared with only 6.7% of men. Because women live longer, the number of poor older women in 2008 (2.5 million) was more than twice the number of poor older men (1.1 million)." (p. 23)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, one-fifth of elderly African- Americans and elderly Hispanics were in poverty. About 80% of all older Americans identify their ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic. Thus, although only 7.6% of older white Americans were poor,...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, one-fifth of elderly African- Americans and elderly Hispanics were in poverty. About 80% of all older Americans identify their ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic. Thus, although only 7.6% of older white Americans were poor, poor white persons comprised 60% of all poor elderly persons in the United States in 2008." (p. 23)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, only 9.7% of people aged 65 and older had incomes below the poverty thresholds of $10,326 for an individual and $13,014 for a couple; however, another 13.1% of Americans aged 65 and older had family incomes between 100%...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, only 9.7% of people aged 65 and older had incomes below the poverty thresholds of $10,326 for an individual and $13,014 for a couple; however, another 13.1% of Americans aged 65 and older had family incomes between 100% and 149% of the poverty threshold [near-poor]. Also, whereas 11.5% of persons aged 80 and older had incomes below the poverty threshold, another 17.9% of people aged 80 and older had family incomes between 100% and 149% of the poverty threshold in 2008. (p. 24)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

According to a 2009 report from the Sloan Center on Aging and Work, "workplace flexibility options tend to be common for medium and high-wage employees, who have more control over their schedules. Low-wage employees, however, often have fewer options for workplace flexibility and less control over working...

According to a 2009 report from the Sloan Center on Aging and Work, "workplace flexibility options tend to be common for medium and high-wage employees, who have more control over their schedules. Low-wage employees, however, often have fewer options for workplace flexibility and less control over working hours." (p. 9, fig. 6)

Sheaks, C., & Wong, M. (2009). Public policy: United States (Global Policy Brief No. 5). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/GPB05_UnitedStates_2009-11-30.pdf

This report includes analysis of data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce; see http://www.familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/brief3.pdf

According to a 2009 analysis of CPS data, "almost 30 percent of part-time primary earners lived below the Federal poverty line during 2007, and close to half of all part-time primary earners lived below 150 percent of the poverty line. On some key social welfare outcomes, part-time primary earners fared...

According to a 2009 analysis of CPS data, "almost 30 percent of part-time primary earners lived below the Federal poverty line during 2007, and close to half of all part-time primary earners lived below 150 percent of the poverty line. On some key social welfare outcomes, part-time primary earners fared worse than nonworking adults in 2007. While 41 percent of nonworkers were under 150 percent of the Federal poverty line, almost 48 percent of part-time primary earners also were." (p. 8)

Shaefer, H. L. (2009). Part-time workers: Some key differences between primary and secondary earners. Monthly Labor Review, 132(10), 3-15. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2009/10/art1full.pdf

This article uses historical and current data from the March 2008 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS)

In a 2009 report on education and training of employed persons in Australia, among workers in low-paid occupations, 23% of those aged 45 years or older had "expectations that future participation [within the next 12 months] in education or training was quite or very likely", while 60.4% expected that...

In a 2009 report on education and training of employed persons in Australia, among workers in low-paid occupations, 23% of those aged 45 years or older had "expectations that future participation [within the next 12 months] in education or training was quite or very likely", while 60.4% expected that participation in education or training was not at all likely. In contrast, among low-paid workers aged 25-44, 29.0% thought it quite/very likely that they would participate in education or training, while 48.3% felt that it was not at all likely. For younger workers aged 18-24, the rates were 49.3% quite/very likely and 30.1% not at all likely.

Skinner, N. (2009). Worklife issues and participation in education and training. Adelaide, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research. Retrieved from http://www.ncver.edu.au/research/proj/2216.pdf

Using data from the 2009 Australian Work and Life Index (AWALI), this report examines how worklife pressures influence the capacity and motivation of individuals to engage in education and training. The Australian Work and Life Index is an annual national survey of nearly 3000 employed persons and is representative of the Australian working population.

Based on a 2008 analysis of CPS data, the results "showed that the predominance of working poverty as a form of underemployment was especially pronounced among nonmetropolitan area women, particularly among those of older age." In 2003-05, for non-metropolitan women aged 55-59, the percentage earning...

Based on a 2008 analysis of CPS data, the results "showed that the predominance of working poverty as a form of underemployment was especially pronounced among nonmetropolitan area women, particularly among those of older age." In 2003-05, for non-metropolitan women aged 55-59, the percentage earning less than 125% of the poverty threshold was 10.4%, compared to 5.8% of metropolitan women. For women aged 60-64, the rates were 12.0 % and 8.2% for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan, respectively. (Table 5, S20)

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2008). Employment hardship among older workers: Does residential and gender inequality extend into older age? The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 63(1), S15-24.

This study is based on data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers. (p. S15)

According to a 2008 analysis of Consumer Bankruptcy Project data, "in 1991 the median age for filing bankruptcy was 36.5. By 2001, the median age had risen to 40.6. By 2007, the median age had reached 43 -- more than seven years older than their counterparts who filed in the early 1990s." (p. 3)

According to a 2008 analysis of Consumer Bankruptcy Project data, "in 1991 the median age for filing bankruptcy was 36.5. By 2001, the median age had risen to 40.6. By 2007, the median age had reached 43 -- more than seven years older than their counterparts who filed in the early 1990s." (p. 3)

Thorne, D., Warren, E., & Sullivan, T. A. (2008). Generations of struggle No. #2008-11). Washington DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/consume/2008_11_debt.pdf

This paper is the first report from the 2007 Consumer Bankruptcy Project (CBP), which surveyed 2,435 adults of all ages who filed for bankruptcy in early 2007. Analysis of the age distribution of bankruptcy filings was compared to the 1991 and 2001 CBP reports.

According to a 2008 analysis of Consumer Bankruptcy Project data, "in 1991, the age group of 55-84 comprised 8.2 percent of all filers, with a filing rate of 1.97 per thousand Americans. In contrast, by 2007, this group comprised 22.3 percent of all filers, with a filing rate of 3.5 per thousand. For...

According to a 2008 analysis of Consumer Bankruptcy Project data, "in 1991, the age group of 55-84 comprised 8.2 percent of all filers, with a filing rate of 1.97 per thousand Americans. In contrast, by 2007, this group comprised 22.3 percent of all filers, with a filing rate of 3.5 per thousand. For this age group, the change in filing rates represents an increase of 78 percent." (p. 7)

Thorne, D., Warren, E., & Sullivan, T. A. (2008). Generations of struggle. Washington DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/consume/2008_11_debt.pdf

This paper is the first report from the 2007 Consumer Bankruptcy Project (CBP), which surveyed 2,435 adults of all ages who filed for bankruptcy in early 2007. Analysis of the age distribution of bankruptcy filings was compared to the 1991 and 2001 CBP reports.

According to a 2008 analysis of Consumer Bankruptcy Project data, the rates of total bankruptcy filings among baby boomers were 6.5, 9.6 and 4.5 per thousand in 1991, 2001, and 2007 respectively. (Table 3, p. 8)

According to a 2008 analysis of Consumer Bankruptcy Project data, the rates of total bankruptcy filings among baby boomers were 6.5, 9.6 and 4.5 per thousand in 1991, 2001, and 2007 respectively. (Table 3, p. 8)

Thorne, D., Warren, E., & Sullivan, T. A. (2008). Generations of struggle. Washington DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/consume/2008_11_debt.pdf

This paper is the first report from the 2007 Consumer Bankruptcy Project (CBP), which surveyed 2,435 adults of all ages who filed for bankruptcy in early 2007. Analysis of the age distribution of bankruptcy filings was compared to the 1991 and 2001 CBP reports.

According to a 2008 analysis of Consumer Bankruptcy Project data, "in 1991 only 8.2 percent of bankrupt debtors were age 55 or older. By 2007, the proportion of bankrupt debtors age 55 or older had nearly tripled to 22.3 percent." In contrast, "in 1991, 45.4 percent of all bankrupt debtors were under...

According to a 2008 analysis of Consumer Bankruptcy Project data, "in 1991 only 8.2 percent of bankrupt debtors were age 55 or older. By 2007, the proportion of bankrupt debtors age 55 or older had nearly tripled to 22.3 percent." In contrast, "in 1991, 45.4 percent of all bankrupt debtors were under age 35; by 2007, that proportion had dropped to 26.1 percent. This represents a 42 percent decline in the proportion of bankruptcy filers in this age group. (p. 4)

Thorne, D., Warren, E., & Sullivan, T. A. (2008). Generations of struggle. Washington DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/consume/2008_11_debt.pdf

This paper is the first report from the 2007 Consumer Bankruptcy Project (CBP), which surveyed 2,435 adults of all ages who filed for bankruptcy in early 2007. Analysis of the age distribution of bankruptcy filings was compared to the 1991 and 2001 CBP reports.

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), the poverty rate was three times higher for African-American women (42 percent) than for white women (14 percent). (p. ii)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), the poverty rate was three times higher for African-American women (42 percent) than for white women (14 percent). (p. ii)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), nearly one-third of them were either in poverty (18 percent) or in near-poverty (15 percent). (p. 7)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), nearly one-third of them were either in poverty (18 percent) or in near-poverty (15 percent). (p. 7)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, "the poverty rate for African-American women in 1967, when they were in midlife (aged 30-44), was more than four times greater than the rate for white women (44 percent versus 10 percent). In 2001 when most were in their...

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, "the poverty rate for African-American women in 1967, when they were in midlife (aged 30-44), was more than four times greater than the rate for white women (44 percent versus 10 percent). In 2001 when most were in their retirement years, it was still nearly three times greater for African-American women than the rate for white women (42 percent versus 14 percent). (p. 8)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), "among whites, unmarried women were nearly three times more likely than married women to live in poverty or near poverty (44 percent vs. 15 percent)....

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, in 2001 when most of the women were in retirement ages (ages 64-78), "among whites, unmarried women were nearly three times more likely than married women to live in poverty or near poverty (44 percent vs. 15 percent). Among African-Americans, unmarried women 47.7% were poor and 21.0 percent were near poor; for married women 25.4% and 21.2 percent were poor and near poor, respectively. (Table 3, p. 8)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, "poverty increased markedly for those who became widowed or divorced between 1982 and 1992, from a mere 4 percent to 15 percent for white women, and from 18 percent to 42 percent for African-American women." (p. 11)

In a 2008 analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, "poverty increased markedly for those who became widowed or divorced between 1982 and 1992, from a mere 4 percent to 15 percent for white women, and from 18 percent to 42 percent for African-American women." (p. 11)

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From work to retirement: Tracking changes in women's poverty. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/assistance/lowincome/2008_03_poverty.html

This study examines the extent and possible causes of women's poverty as they move from midlife into their retirement years. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, which is a unique data source that tracked a large number of women from midlife (ages 30-44 in 1967) until they reached retirement years (ages 64-78 in 2001). Respondents were surveyed periodically since 1967, and the survey collected data on a variety of topics including marital status, employment, health, income, and assets throughout a near 35-year period. (p. i)

A 2008 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "the workers who reported that they did not have extra money after paying for monthly expenses were significantly more likely than those with extra money to be female and significantly less likely to have a graduate or professional...

A 2008 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "the workers who reported that they did not have extra money after paying for monthly expenses were significantly more likely than those with extra money to be female and significantly less likely to have a graduate or professional degree, be in good health, and live with a partner." (Fig. 9, p. 7)


Johnson, J. K. M., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Besen, E., Smyer, M., & Matz-Costa, C. (2008). Quality of employment and life-satisfaction: A relationship that matters for older workers (Issue Brief No. 13). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB13_LifeSatisfaction.pdf

Drawing on data from various sources, this issue brief offers insights about how employment experiences affect the life satisfaction of older workers.

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, older workers without extra money after paying for monthly expenses have access to fewer workplace resources (such as benefits, workplace flexibility, etc.) than those with extra money (Fig. 10, p.7 ).

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, older workers without extra money after paying for monthly expenses have access to fewer workplace resources (such as benefits, workplace flexibility, etc.) than those with extra money (Fig. 10, p.7 ).


Johnson, J. K. M., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Besen, E., Smyer, M., & Matz-Costa, C. (2008). Quality of employment and life-satisfaction: A relationship that matters for older workers (Issue Brief No. 13). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB13_LifeSatisfaction.pdf

Drawing on data from various sources, this issue brief offers insights about how employment experiences affect the life satisfaction of older workers.

According to a 2008 report, data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that "among older workers, the odds of being very satisfied with life are 187.8% higher for those in good or excellent health than for those poor or fair health; 146.5% higher for those living with spouses...

According to a 2008 report, data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that "among older workers, the odds of being very satisfied with life are 187.8% higher for those in good or excellent health than for those poor or fair health; 146.5% higher for those living with spouses or partners than for those in other living arrangements; and 105.1% higher for those with extra money to save or invest after monthly expenses than for those without such additional funds." (p. 6)

Johnson, J. K. M., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Besen, E., Smyer, M., & Matz-Costa, C. (2008). Quality of employment and life-satisfaction: A relationship that matters for older workers (Issue Brief No. 13). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB13_LifeSatisfaction.pdf

Drawing on data from various sources, this issue brief offers insights about how employment experiences affect the life satisfaction of older workers.

Based on a 2008 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, less than 10% of male wage-and-salary workers making less than $10/hour switched to self-employment, while 18% of workers making $20-$50/hour did so. The trend was the same for female workers, although the difference was not as...

Based on a 2008 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, less than 10% of male wage-and-salary workers making less than $10/hour switched to self-employment, while 18% of workers making $20-$50/hour did so. The trend was the same for female workers, although the difference was not as large. (Fig. 7, p. 6)


Giandrea, M. D., Cahill, K. E., & Quinn, J. F. (2008). Self employment as a step in the retirement process (Issue Brief No. 15). Chestnut Hill, MA: The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB15_SelfEmployment_Retire.pdf

This 2008 Issue Brief discusses the reasons and benefits supporting the transition from wage-and-salary work to self-employment, specifically for older workers as an alternative to complete retirement. Accompanying the discussion is analysis of statistics on several factors taken from the Health and Retirement Study, such as health status and education level, that affect a worker's decision on whether or not to enter self-employment.

According to a 2008 BLS report, in 2006, younger workers were more likely to be among the working poor than were their older counterparts, due largely to younger workers' lower average earnings and higher rates of unemployment. Among the youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more in...

According to a 2008 BLS report, in 2006, younger workers were more likely to be among the working poor than were their older counterparts, due largely to younger workers' lower average earnings and higher rates of unemployment. Among the youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more in 2006, 10.5 percent of 16- to 19-year-olds and 11.1 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds were in poverty. These rates were several times greater than the rates for workers aged 35 to 44 years (4.8 percent), 45 to 54 years (3.0 percent), and 55 to 64 years (2.4 percent). (p. 1-2)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). A profile of the working poor, 2006 (Report No. 1006). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswp2006.pdf

This report presents data on the relationship between labor force activity and poverty in 2006 for workers and their families. The data were collected in the 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2008 report on sources of income for older persons, "34.8 million people age 65 and older, 96.6 percent of the older population, had income in 2006. 86.4 percent of the older population had Social Security income. 30.7 percent of the older population had income from pensions and retirement...

According to a 2008 report on sources of income for older persons, "34.8 million people age 65 and older, 96.6 percent of the older population, had income in 2006. 86.4 percent of the older population had Social Security income. 30.7 percent of the older population had income from pensions and retirement savings. Many over 65 year olds were working; 18.6 percent had earnings income. (p. 1)

Wu, K. B. (2008). Sources of income for older persons, 2006. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs143_income.pdf

This report includes information about income sources for individuals age 65 and older in 2006 obtained from the March 2007 Current Population Survey (CPS)

According to a 2006 report on sources of income for older persons, "older men were twice as likely (42.6 percent) as older women (21.7 percent) to have income from pensions and retirement savings, and the men's median retirement income of $12,334 was almost two times that of women ($6,804)...About...

According to a 2006 report on sources of income for older persons, "older men were twice as likely (42.6 percent) as older women (21.7 percent) to have income from pensions and retirement savings, and the men's median retirement income of $12,334 was almost two times that of women ($6,804)...About 24 percent of older men had income from earnings, with a median of $24,000 while 14.7 percent of older women had earnings income, with a median of $15,000." (p. 3)

Wu, K. B. (2008). Sources of income for older persons, 2006. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs143_income.pdf

This report includes information about income sources for individuals age 65 and older in 2006 obtained from the March 2007 Current Population Survey (CPS)

According to a 2008 BLS report, "earnings of workers 65 and older have long been below those of all workers. In 1979, median weekly earnings for full-time workers age 65 and older were $198 compared to $240 for all full-time employees age 16 and up. In 2007, earnings of older workers were $605 per week,...

According to a 2008 BLS report, "earnings of workers 65 and older have long been below those of all workers. In 1979, median weekly earnings for full-time workers age 65 and older were $198 compared to $240 for all full-time employees age 16 and up. In 2007, earnings of older workers were $605 per week, still below the median of $695 for all workers. (All of these earnings amounts are in current dollars.) Over the long term, however, earnings of older workers have risen at a slightly faster pace than the total workforce. In 1979, median earnings of older full-time employees were 83 percent of those ages 16 and up; but, by 2007, that ratio had climbed to 87 percent."


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Spotlight on statistics: Older workers. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://stats.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/older_workers/pdf/older_workers_bls_spotlight.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and BLS Employment Projections.

According to a 2008 BLS report, Consumer Price Index (CPI) data show that the annual inflation rate for seniors has been equal to or greater than the inflation rate for all urban consumers in every year since that series began except for 1983 and 2007. However, the yearly differences have been fairly...

According to a 2008 BLS report, Consumer Price Index (CPI) data show that the annual inflation rate for seniors has been equal to or greater than the inflation rate for all urban consumers in every year since that series began except for 1983 and 2007. However, the yearly differences have been fairly small; over the past 25 years the index for older Americans has risen an average of 3.3 percent each year, as compared to 3.1 percent for the official CPI."




Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Spotlight on statistics: Older workers. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://stats.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/older_workers/pdf/older_workers_bls_spotlight.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and BLS Employment Projections.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, 76% cited "need the money" as a major reason for working, while "enjoy the job or enjoy working" was cited by 70%. Other reasons chosen by more than 60% of the respondents include "to save more for retirement" (64%) and "to maintain health insurance...

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, 76% cited "need the money" as a major reason for working, while "enjoy the job or enjoy working" was cited by 70%. Other reasons chosen by more than 60% of the respondents include "to save more for retirement" (64%) and "to maintain health insurance coverage" (61%). (fig. 1, p. 21)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "between 80 and 87 percent of workers in each income group below $100,000 per year cite the need for money as a major reason for working." Among those with incomes of $100,000+, only 59% cite the need for money as a major factor in the decision to work....

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "between 80 and 87 percent of workers in each income group below $100,000 per year cite the need for money as a major reason for working." Among those with incomes of $100,000+, only 59% cite the need for money as a major factor in the decision to work. (p. 23)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. Additional intereviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "planning to work for pay during retirement is more likely among men (73%) than women (63%) and among older workers with household annual incomes of less than $80,000 (75%) than those with incomes of $80,000 or more. (p. 86)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "planning to work for pay during retirement is more likely among men (73%) than women (63%) and among older workers with household annual incomes of less than $80,000 (75%) than those with incomes of $80,000 or more. (p. 86)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 45-54 was $108,300, compared to $201,000 with family head aged 55-64, $218,000 for family heads aged 65-74, and $181,000 for family heads aged 75 or more....

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 45-54 was $108,300, compared to $201,000 with family head aged 55-64, $218,000 for family heads aged 65-74, and $181,000 for family heads aged 75 or more. (Table 10-2008)

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics. (2008). Older Americans 2008: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2008_Documents/OA_2008.pdf

This report describes the overall status of the U.S. population age 65 and over, using data from over a dozen national data sources to construct broad indicators of well-being for the older population and to monitor changes in these indicators over time.

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 65 or more was $328,300 for married heads-of-household, compared to $104,000 for unmarried heads-of-household. (Table 10-2008)

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 65 or more was $328,300 for married heads-of-household, compared to $104,000 for unmarried heads-of-household. (Table 10-2008)

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics. (2008). Older Americans 2008: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2008_Documents/OA_2008.pdf

This report describes the overall status of the U.S. population age 65 and over, using data from over a dozen national data sources to construct broad indicators of well-being for the older population and to monitor changes in these indicators over time.

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 65 or more was $226,900 for whites, compared to $37,800 for blacks. (Table 10-2008)

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 65 or more was $226,900 for whites, compared to $37,800 for blacks. (Table 10-2008)

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics. (2008). Older Americans 2008: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2008_Documents/OA_2008.pdf

This report describes the overall status of the U.S. population age 65 and over, using data from over a dozen national data sources to construct broad indicators of well-being for the older population and to monitor changes in these indicators over time.

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 65 or more was $59,500 if the family head had no high-school diploma, compared to $184,000 for those with a high school diploma, and $412,100 for those...

According to a 2008 analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in 2005 the median net worth of households with family head aged 65 or more was $59,500 if the family head had no high-school diploma, compared to $184,000 for those with a high school diploma, and $412,100 for those with some or more college education. (Table 10-2008)

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics. (2008). Older Americans 2008: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2008_Documents/OA_2008.pdf

This report describes the overall status of the U.S. population age 65 and over, using data from over a dozen national data sources to construct broad indicators of well-being for the older population and to monitor changes in these indicators over time.

A 2008 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study shows that "Social Security and traditional pension benefits comprise a substantial share of wealth for typical near-retiree households. Middle-quintile households have $151,000 in Social Security wealth per adult and $72,000 in pension wealth...

A 2008 analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study shows that "Social Security and traditional pension benefits comprise a substantial share of wealth for typical near-retiree households. Middle-quintile households have $151,000 in Social Security wealth per adult and $72,000 in pension wealth per adult. Together, Social Security and pensions account for nearly two-thirds of their $361,000 in total wealth. (p. 1)

Mermin, G. B. T. (2008). Typical wealth held by those at the verge of retirement (Opportunity and Ownership Facts No. 7). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411618_typical_wealth.pdf

This report shows wealth among households with an adult age 57-61 in 2004, using data from the Health and Retirement Study.

In a 2008 analysis of CPS data, "across all age groups women faced higher rates of underemployment" [defined as either unemployed, discouraged, involuntary part-time, or earnings less than 125% of the poverty threshold]. Among workers aged 20-29 in 2003-2005, underemployment rates were 24.7% for women,...

In a 2008 analysis of CPS data, "across all age groups women faced higher rates of underemployment" [defined as either unemployed, discouraged, involuntary part-time, or earnings less than 125% of the poverty threshold]. Among workers aged 20-29 in 2003-2005, underemployment rates were 24.7% for women, compared to 23.6% for men.  For workers aged 60-64, 16.9% of women report underemployment, compared to 12.1% of men. (Table 2, p. S18)
 

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2008). Employment hardship among older workers: Does residential and gender inequality extend into older age? The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 63(1), S15-24.

This study is based on data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers. (p. S15) 

A 2008 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that "in 2007, 42.6 percent of men age 65 and over received annuity and/or pension income, with a mean amount of $18,293 per year. In comparison, only 27.9 percent of women age 65 and over received annuity and/or pension income that year, with mean pension...

A 2008 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that "in 2007, 42.6 percent of men age 65 and over received annuity and/or pension income, with a mean amount of $18,293 per year. In comparison, only 27.9 percent of women age 65 and over received annuity and/or pension income that year, with mean pension income of $11,895. Hence, a woman age 65 and over in 2007 was almost two-thirds (65.5 percent) as likely to receive an annuity and/or pension payment as her male counterpart. If she did receive one, her mean benefit was likely to be about 65 percent of that received by a man in the same age group." (p. 3)

McDonnell, K. (2008). Retirement annuity and employment-based pension income among individuals age 50 and over: 2007 (EBRI Notes Vol. 29 No. 11). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_11-2008.pdf

This article provides an analysis of data from the March 2008 Census Bureau's Current Population survey on retirement annuity and pension income for the population age 50 and over.

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Survey data, "nearly 8 in 10 households headed by individuals age 55 and older owned a home in 2006, but only about 40 percent owned their homes free of debt. Homeownership increases with income, but the top income quartile carries mortgage debt...

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Survey data, "nearly 8 in 10 households headed by individuals age 55 and older owned a home in 2006, but only about 40 percent owned their homes free of debt. Homeownership increases with income, but the top income quartile carries mortgage debt more often than those with lower incomes. Debt-free homeownership increases with age. Whites more often own homes than either blacks or Hispanics, and their homes are more likely to be mortgage free." (fig. 1, p. 2)

Zedlewski, S., Cushing-Daniels, B., & Lewis, E. (2008). How much could reverse mortgages contribute to retirement incomes? (Brief Series No. 23). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411763_reverse_mortgages.pdf

The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) surveys more than 22,000 Americans over the age of 50 every two years.

According to a 2008 analysis of a national data sample, "over 684,000 Americans age 50 and over were either delinquent or in foreclosure at the end of 2007--Americans age 50 and over represent about 28 percent of all delinquencies (30 to 180 days late) and foreclosures." (p. 6)

According to a 2008 analysis of a national data sample, "over 684,000 Americans age 50 and over were either delinquent or in foreclosure at the end of 2007--Americans age 50 and over represent about 28 percent of all delinquencies (30 to 180 days late) and foreclosures." (p. 6)

Shelton, A. (2008). A first look at older Americans and the mortgage crisis (Insight on the Issues No. 9). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/i9_mortgage.pdf

A random sample of 2.5 million persons included about 1 million persons age 50 or older. The sample included data on mortgages and foreclosures during the six-month period ending December 31, 2007.

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, the median income for all households in 2006 was $48,201. The median income by age of householder was $30,937 for ages 15-24, $49,164 for ages 25-34, $60,405 for ages 35-44, $64,874 for ages 45-54, and $54,592 for ages 54,592. For aged 65 and older, median...

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, the median income for all households in 2006 was $48,201. The median income by age of householder was $30,937 for ages 15-24, $49,164 for ages 25-34, $60,405 for ages 35-44, $64,874 for ages 45-54, and $54,592 for ages 54,592. For aged 65 and older, median income was $27,798. (Table 1, p. 5)

DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. (2007). Income, poverty and health insurance coverage in the united states: 2006 (Current Population Reports No. P60-233). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p60-233.pdf

This report "presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2007 and earlier Annual Social and Economic Supplements (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau."

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, the percentage of families whose income was below poverty in 2006 was 12.3%. By age, 17.4% of those under 18 years were below poverty, compared to 10.8% of those aged 18-64, and 9.4% of those aged 65 and older. (Table 3, p. 12)

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, the percentage of families whose income was below poverty in 2006 was 12.3%. By age, 17.4% of those under 18 years were below poverty, compared to 10.8% of those aged 18-64, and 9.4% of those aged 65 and older. (Table 3, p. 12)

DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. (2007). Income, poverty and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2006 (Current Population Reports No. P60-233). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p60-233.pdf

This report "presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2007 and earlier Annual Social and Economic Supplements (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau."

A 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data for Americans 45-75 found that "about one-half of men and 40 percent of women who retired from long-term jobs and were reemployed elsewhere experienced hourly wage losses of at least 50 percent. By comparison, about 25 percent of men laid-off from...

A 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data for Americans 45-75 found that "about one-half of men and 40 percent of women who retired from long-term jobs and were reemployed elsewhere experienced hourly wage losses of at least 50 percent. By comparison, about 25 percent of men laid-off from long-term jobs, 16 percent of men who quit long-term jobs, and 24 percent of men who left long-term jobs for other reasons experienced such large relative wage declines." (p. iv)

Johnson, R. W., & Kawachi, J. (2007). Job changes at older ages: Effects on wages, benefits, and other job attributes. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311435_Job_Changes.pdf

This report uses data from the Health and Retirement Study of Americans over age 50. It compares wages, benefits, and other job attributes on new and former jobs for adults ages 45 to 75 who changed employers between 1986 and 2004. The sample consisted of 8,362 job changes by 5,541 different respondents.

A 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data for Americans 45-75 found that "overall mean hourly wages fell by about 13 percent when older workers changed jobs, from $18.57 to $16.23." (p. iv)

A 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data for Americans 45-75 found that "overall mean hourly wages fell by about 13 percent when older workers changed jobs, from $18.57 to $16.23." (p. iv)

Johnson, R. W., & Kawachi, J. (2007). Job changes at older ages: Effects on wages, benefits, and other job attributes. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311435_Job_Changes.pdf

This report uses data from the Health and Retirement Study of Americans over age 50. It compares wages, benefits, and other job attributes on new and former jobs for adults ages 45 to 75 who changed employers between 1986 and 2004. The sample consisted of 8,362 job changes by 5,541 different respondents.

A 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data for Americans 45-75 found that "average wages for retirees from long-term jobs (with more than 10 years of service) who continued to work declined by about 39 percent, and median wages plunged by 53 percent. Older people displaced from long-term jobs...

A 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data for Americans 45-75 found that "average wages for retirees from long-term jobs (with more than 10 years of service) who continued to work declined by about 39 percent, and median wages plunged by 53 percent. Older people displaced from long-term jobs who found other employment experienced average wage losses of about 19 percent." (p. iv)

Johnson, R. W., & Kawachi, J. (2007). Job changes at older ages: Effects on wages, benefits, and other job attributes. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311435_Job_Changes.pdf

This report uses data from the Health and Retirement Study of Americans over age 50. It compares wages, benefits, and other job attributes on new and former jobs for adults ages 45 to 75 who changed employers between 1986 and 2004. The sample consisted of 8,362 job changes by 5,541 different respondents.

In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 45-54 were $74,446. In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 55-64 were $56,521. In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 65-74 were $20,727. In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 75-84 were...

In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 45-54 were $74,446. In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 55-64 were $56,521. In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 65-74 were $20,727. In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 75-84 were $10,062. In 2005, the mean household earnings for individuals aged 85-94 were $9,509. In 2005, the mean household earnings for the population were $59,266.

*Note: means are calculated for all persons in the age category, whether they are working or not; family and household values are similarly averaged over all persons in the age category.

Havens, J. (2006). [Analysis of the U.S. Census Current Population Survey for March 2005]. Unpublished raw data. Center on Wealth and Philanthropy for the Center on Aging & Work / Workplace Flexibility. Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA

"The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey has been conducted for more than 50 years. The CPS is the primary source of information on the labor force characteristics of the U.S. population. The sample is scientifically selected to represent the civilian noninstitutional population. Respondents are interviewed to obtain information about the employment status of each member of the household 15 years of age and older. However, published data focus on those ages 16 and over. The sample provides estimates for the nation as a whole and serves as part of model-based estimates for individual states and other geographic areas. Estimates obtained from the CPS include employment, unemployment, earnings, hours of work, and other indicators...They are available by a variety of demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, marital status, and educational attainment...occupation, industry, and class of worker."

According to a 2006 report, "For households aged 63-73 in 2004, 67 percent had acquired some sort of employer-sponsored pension coverage over their lifetime. However, again, pension coverage is much more extensive for high-income households -- coverage drops from about 84 percent in the top two quintiles...

According to a 2006 report, "For households aged 63-73 in 2004, 67 percent had acquired some sort of employer-sponsored pension coverage over their lifetime. However, again, pension coverage is much more extensive for high-income households -- coverage drops from about 84 percent in the top two quintiles of the income distribution to 28 percent for the bottom quintile." (p.3)

Munnell, A. H., & Perun, P. (2006). An update on private pensions (Issue Brief No. 50). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/images/stories/Briefs/ib_50.pdf?phpMyAdmin=43ac483c4de9t51d9eb41

Using primarily the 1980 through 2005 Current Population Survey data, ”this brief…explores who is covered by a pension plan and who is not, how much retirees receive in pension income, and how pension coverage and receipt have changed over time. The key finding is that total pension coverage has continued to shift to 401(k) plans. These developments, coupled with declining levels of earnings replacement under Social Security, mean that future retirees will have to work longer if they want to maintain their pre-retirement standard of living in retirement." (p.1)

According to a 2006 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, "less than 1 percent of those earning $40-$60,000 contribute the maximum [to a 401(k) plan] compared to 58 percent for those earning $100,000 or more." (p.3)

According to a 2006 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, "less than 1 percent of those earning $40-$60,000 contribute the maximum [to a 401(k) plan] compared to 58 percent for those earning $100,000 or more." (p.3)

Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. (2006, March). 401(k) Plans are Still Coming Up Short. Chestnut Hill, MA: Munnell, A.H., and Sunden, A.

"The release of the Federal Reserve's 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) is a(n)…opportunity to reassess the role that 401(k) plans are playing in the provision of retirement income. The SCF is a triennial survey of nationally representative sample of U.S. households' assets, liabilities, and demographic characteristics....The 2001 survey showed that 401(k) accumulations were coming up short. The 2004 survey shows some progress but most of the problems persist."

According to 2006 data from the Social Security Administration, of households with at least one adult aged 55-61, 43% of those that received Old Age, Survivors, and Disbiliaty (OASDI) benefits reported receiving wage, salary, or self-employment income as well, compared to 87% of households that did...

According to 2006 data from the Social Security Administration, of households with at least one adult aged 55-61, 43% of those that received Old Age, Survivors, and Disbiliaty (OASDI) benefits reported receiving wage, salary, or self-employment income as well, compared to 87% of households that did not receive OASDI benefits. (p. 14-15).




Social Security Administration, Office of Policy. (2006, May). Income of the Population 55 or Older, 2004. Washington, DC. Retrieved January 8, 2007, from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/statcomps/income_pop55/2004/incpop04.pdf

"This report provides a broad income picture of a cross section of the population aged 55 and older, with special emphasis on income of the population aged 65 and older." (p.iii)

In 1990, 11.4% of persons age 65 and above lived in poverty. In 2003, 10.4% of persons age 65 and above lived in poverty.

In 1990, 11.4% of persons age 65 and above lived in poverty. In 2003, 10.4% of persons age 65 and above lived in poverty.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 31, p. 35). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

In 2003, 7.7% of men and 12.4% of women age 65 and above lived in poverty.

In 2003, 7.7% of men and 12.4% of women age 65 and above lived in poverty.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 31, p. 35). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

In 2002, house owners age 55 to 64 and 65 and above had median household incomes of $47,203 and $23,152, respectively.

In 2002, house owners age 55 to 64 and 65 and above had median household incomes of $47,203 and $23,152, respectively.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Income, expenditures, and wealth. (Section 13, Table 667, p. 444). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents data on gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), national and personal income, saving and investment, money income, poverty, and national and personal wealth." "The primary source for data on GDP, GNP, national and personal income, gross saving and investment, and fixed reproducible tangible wealth is the Survey of Current Business, published monthly by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)."

In 2002, persons age 55 to 64 and 65 and above had median personal incomes of $36,277 and $19,436, respectively.

In 2002, persons age 55 to 64 and 65 and above had median personal incomes of $36,277 and $19,436, respectively.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Income, expenditures, and wealth. (Section 13, Table 677, p. 449). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents data on gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), national and personal income, saving and investment, money income, poverty, and national and personal wealth." "The primary source for data on GDP, GNP, national and personal income, gross saving and investment, and fixed reproducible tangible wealth is the Survey of Current Business, published monthly by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)."

In 1999, 8.2%, 12.3%, 19.6% and 23.5% of White, Asian American, Hispanic / Latino and Black persons age 65 and above, respectively, lived below the poverty level.

In 1999, 8.2%, 12.3%, 19.6% and 23.5% of White, Asian American, Hispanic / Latino and Black persons age 65 and above, respectively, lived below the poverty level.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Income, expenditures, and wealth. (Section 13, Table 682, p. 451). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents data on gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), national and personal income, saving and investment, money income, poverty, and national and personal wealth." "The primary source for data on GDP, GNP, national and personal income, gross saving and investment, and fixed reproducible tangible wealth is the Survey of Current Business, published monthly by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)."

In 2002, 1.3% and 1.8% of full-time workers age 55 to 64 and 65 and above, respectively, lived below the poverty level.

In 2002, 1.3% and 1.8% of full-time workers age 55 to 64 and 65 and above, respectively, lived below the poverty level.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Income, expenditures, and wealth. (Section 13, Table 687, p. 454). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents data on gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), national and personal income, saving and investment, money income, poverty, and national and personal wealth." "The primary source for data on GDP, GNP, national and personal income, gross saving and investment, and fixed reproducible tangible wealth is the Survey of Current Business, published monthly by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)."

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “small business owners have much higher annual earnings ($114,102 average; $65,000 median) than wage and salaried employees or independently self-employed workers.” (Table 2, p.5)

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, “small business owners have much higher annual earnings ($114,102 average; $65,000 median) than wage and salaried employees or independently self-employed workers.” (Table 2, p.5)

Center on Aging & Work / Workplace Flexibility. (2005, November).Context matters: Insights about older workers from the National study of the changing workforce. (Research Highlights No. 01).Chestnut Hill, MA: Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, A. M. Retrieved July 31, 2006, from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/template_highlights

“This report is the first in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute that present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This first issue compares the personal characteristics, employment experiences, and attitudes of workers, 50 or more years old, who are wage and salaried employees, independent self-employed workers, and small business owners…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 report, "older female employees tend to live in households with lower family incomes than their male counterparts. In 2002, the average (mean) annual income of older men is $80,839 compared with $64,444 for women. There is a similar disparity in median annual family income: $66,300...

According to a 2005 report, "older female employees tend to live in households with lower family incomes than their male counterparts. In 2002, the average (mean) annual income of older men is $80,839 compared with $64,444 for women. There is a similar disparity in median annual family income: $66,300 for older men versus $51,134 for older women.” (p.3)

Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "older women earn 55 cents for every dollar that men earn from all hours worked at all jobs. Comparing the hourly rates of pay at main jobs (with salaries converted to hourly rates), older women earn 69 cents for...

According to a 2005 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "older women earn 55 cents for every dollar that men earn from all hours worked at all jobs. Comparing the hourly rates of pay at main jobs (with salaries converted to hourly rates), older women earn 69 cents for every dollar older men earn-still a substantial difference.” (p.15)   Comparing employees 50 years of age or older, men have higher mean ($49,020) and median ($69,141) salaries than women ($29,412 mean; $37,870 median). (p. 7, fig. 5)






Bond, T. J., Galinsky, M. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2005). The diverse employment experiences of older men and women in the workforce. (Research Highlight 02). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH02_DiverseEmployExper.pdf


“This report is the second in a series of Research Highlights published by the Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility in collaboration with the Families and Work Institute. These Research Highlights present the findings of in-depth analyses of the Families and Work Institute’s 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). This report compares and contrasts the experiences of men and women, 50 and older, in the U.S. workforce. Gender is an important lens for examining the employment experiences of older workers, in part because the work and family histories of men and women tend to vary across the course of their lives…The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers.”

According to a 2005 report, "The median annual income of adult children caregivers is slightly smaller than the median annual income of adult children without caregiving responsibilities - $54,720 and $55,000, respectively." (p.2)

According to a 2005 report, "The median annual income of adult children caregivers is slightly smaller than the median annual income of adult children without caregiving responsibilities - $54,720 and $55,000, respectively." (p.2)

Center on an Aging Society. (2005, May). Adult children. The likelihood of providing care for an older parent. (Data Profile No. 2). Washington, DC: Center on an Aging Society. Retrieved August 21, 2005, from http://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/caregiver2/caregiver2.html

"This Profile provides an overview of adult children who are primary caregivers to an older parent that needs assistance performing one or more basic everyday activities…Furthermore, this Profile examines adult children that have living parents but are not primary caregivers as well as adults without any living parents. Adult children, non-caregivers and adults without living parents could be caregivers in another capacity, such as a secondary caregiver or a caregiver to a spouse or sibling."

According to a 2005 AARP survey of adults aged 50 and older, compared to other respondents, respondents with low incomes (under $25,000) were significantly less likely to have heard of phased retirement while respondents with high incomes ($75,000 and above) were significantly more likely." (p.9)

According to a 2005 AARP survey of adults aged 50 and older, compared to other respondents, respondents with low incomes (under $25,000) were significantly less likely to have heard of phased retirement while respondents with high incomes ($75,000 and above) were significantly more likely." (p.9)

AARP. (2005, March). Attitudes of individuals 50 and older toward phased retirement. Research report. Washington, DC: Brown, K.S. Retrieved June 1, 2006, from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/retirement/Articles/attitudes_of_individuals_50_and_older_toward_phase.html

"This survey of individuals ages 50 and older was designed to gauge reactions to the concept of phased retirement as outlined and to determine the extent to which phased retirement would encourage workers near traditional retirement age to remain in the workforce longer than they would have otherwise...Conducted from January 6th through January 15th 2005, the survey was fielded to panel members who were ages 50 or older...A total of 2,167 individuals participated in the survey. Of all respondents, approximately one-third were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to retire by age 65, about one-quarter were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to continue working beyond age 65, approximately one in ten were workers ages 66 or older, and the remaining one-quarter were individuals ages 50 or older who are currently retired."

In 2003, the median money income of older households ($23,787) was below the median for all households ($43,318), and was the lowest among all age groups. It was slightly below the median money income of households with a householder under age 25 ($27,053).

In 2003, the median money income of older households ($23,787) was below the median for all households ($43,318), and was the lowest among all age groups. It was slightly below the median money income of households with a householder under age 25 ($27,053).

U.S. Census Bureau. (2004, August). Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

This report presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2004 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2002 AARP report, in 1999, 65.4% of female workers between age 50 and 64 worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $27,040. In 1999, 29.2% of female workers age 65 and older worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $20,000.   In 1999, 80.5% of male...

According to a 2002 AARP report, in 1999, 65.4% of female workers between age 50 and 64 worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $27,040.

In 1999, 29.2% of female workers age 65 and older worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $20,000.

 

In 1999, 80.5% of male workers between age 50 and 64 worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $43,000.

In 1999, 40.1% of male workers age 65 and older worked full-time all year; they earned a median income of $34,000.

 

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Employment). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

In 1999, female full-time, year-round workers between age 50 and 64 earned 63% of the income earned by male full-time, year-round workers in the same age group. In 1999, female full-time, year-round workers age 65 and above earned 59% of the income earned by male full-time, year-round workers in the...

In 1999, female full-time, year-round workers between age 50 and 64 earned 63% of the income earned by male full-time, year-round workers in the same age group.

In 1999, female full-time, year-round workers age 65 and above earned 59% of the income earned by male full-time, year-round workers in the same age group.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Employment). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

Accordingto a 2002 AARP report, approximately 3.5% of all workers between age 55 and 64 were poor in 1999.  Approximately 2.9% of all workers age 65 and above were poor in 1999.

Accordingto a 2002 AARP report, approximately 3.5% of all workers between age 55 and 64 were poor in 1999.  Approximately 2.9% of all workers age 65 and above were poor in 1999.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Employment). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the percentage of uninsured poor white persons age 50 to 64 decreased by 3.9% from 76.33% in 1988 to 73.32% in 2000.  The percentage of uninsured poor nonwhite persons age 50 to 64 increased by 7.4% from 59.75% in 1988 to 64.20% in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, the percentage of uninsured poor white persons age 50 to 64 decreased by 3.9% from 76.33% in 1988 to 73.32% in 2000.  The percentage of uninsured poor nonwhite persons age 50 to 64 increased by 7.4% from 59.75% in 1988 to 64.20% in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Health insurance and medicaid). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the percentage of uninsured poor persons age 50 to 64 decreased by 0.6% from 71.49% in 1988 to 71.08% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured poor males age 50 to 64 increased by 1.6% from 73.39% in 1988 to 74.60% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured poor females age 50...

According to a 2002 AARP report, the percentage of uninsured poor persons age 50 to 64 decreased by 0.6% from 71.49% in 1988 to 71.08% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured poor males age 50 to 64 increased by 1.6% from 73.39% in 1988 to 74.60% in 2000. The percentage of uninsured poor females age 50 to 64 decreased by 2.4% from 70.29% in 1988 to 68.60% in 2000.


AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Health insurance and medicaid). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, approximately 69% of persons age 50 to 61 in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000. Approximately 57.5% of persons age 62 to 74 in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000. Approximately 47.9% of persons...

According to a 2002 AARP report, approximately 69% of persons age 50 to 61 in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000.

Approximately 57.5% of persons age 62 to 74 in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000.

Approximately 47.9% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000.  

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core Indicators by Age & Income Data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, approximately 93.4% of persons age 50 to 61 in the top 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000. Approximately 83.5% of persons age 62 to 74 in the top 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000. Approximately 85.3% of...

According to a 2002 AARP report, approximately 93.4% of persons age 50 to 61 in the top 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000.

Approximately 83.5% of persons age 62 to 74 in the top 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000.

Approximately 85.3% of persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners participated in a pension plan in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, approximately 7.7% of persons age 50 to 61 in the top 25% of income earners received pension income in 2000. Approximately 36% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners received pension income in 2000. Approximately 36.1% of persons age 75 and above in the...

According to a 2002 AARP report, approximately 7.7% of persons age 50 to 61 in the top 25% of income earners received pension income in 2000.

Approximately 36% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners received pension income in 2000.

Approximately 36.1% of persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners received pension income in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, 57.6% of persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000. 71.5% of persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000. 69.1% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, 57.6% of persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000.

71.5% of persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000.

69.1% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, 93.2% of persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000. 93.6% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, 93.2% of persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000.

93.6% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners owned homes in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners spent 96.5% of their incomes in 1998. Persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners spent 69% of their incomes in 1998. Persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners spent 39.7% of their incomes...

According to a 2002 AARP report, persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners spent 96.5% of their incomes in 1998. Persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners spent 69% of their incomes in 1998. Persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners spent 39.7% of their incomes in 1998.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners spent 14.5% of their incomes in 1998. Persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners spent 14.1% of their incomes in 1998. Persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners spent 15% of their incomes in 1998.

According to a 2002 AARP report, persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners spent 14.5% of their incomes in 1998. Persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners spent 14.1% of their incomes in 1998. Persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners spent 15% of their incomes in 1998.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, while the average pension amount for persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners was $5,271 in 2000, persons of the same age in the top 25% of income earners had average pensions of $24,237 in 2000.   While the average pension amount for persons age 62-74...

According to a 2002 AARP report, while the average pension amount for persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners was $5,271 in 2000, persons of the same age in the top 25% of income earners had average pensions of $24,237 in 2000.   While the average pension amount for persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners was $4,347 in 2000, persons of the same age in the top 25% of income earners had average pensions of $24,730 in 2000.  While the average pension amount for persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners was $3,679 in 2000, persons of the same age in the top 25% of income earners had average pensions of $26,177 in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to 2002 AARP report, among the bottom 25% of income earners, 31.2% of persons aged 50-61 and  23.4% of persons aged 62-64 were without health insurance.  Among the top 25% of income earners, 5.7% of persons aged 50-61 and 9.4% of persons aged 62-64 were without health insurance.

According to 2002 AARP report, among the bottom 25% of income earners, 31.2% of persons aged 50-61 and  23.4% of persons aged 62-64 were without health insurance.  Among the top 25% of income earners, 5.7% of persons aged 50-61 and 9.4% of persons aged 62-64 were without health insurance.

Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M.  (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC:AARP. . Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, 34.5% of persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000. 19.1% of persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000. 8.2% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners were...

According to a 2002 AARP report, 34.5% of persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000.

19.1% of persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000.

8.2% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, 6.4% of persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000. 5.6% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000. 4.4% of persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, 6.4% of persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000.

5.6% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000.

4.4% of persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners were divorced in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, 33.6% of persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000. 46.1% of persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000. 63.6% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, 33.6% of persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000.

46.1% of persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000.

63.6% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, 3.8% of persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000. while 6.1% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000 and 7% of persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, 3.8% of persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000. while 6.1% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000 and 7% of persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners lived alone in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May).  Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

In 2000, 66.7% of persons age 50-61, 56.3% of persons age 62-74, and 53.2% of persons age 75 and above, were high school graduates and had incomes in bottom 25%.

In 2000, 66.7% of persons age 50-61, 56.3% of persons age 62-74, and 53.2% of persons age 75 and above, were high school graduates and had incomes in bottom 25%.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

In 2000, 96.2% of persons age 50-61, 90.9% of persons age 62-74, and 87.2% of persons age 75 and above, were high school graduates and had incomes in top 25%.

In 2000, 96.2% of persons age 50-61, 90.9% of persons age 62-74, and 87.2% of persons age 75 and above, were high school graduates and had incomes in top 25%.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, 41.9% of persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000. 11.7% of persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000. 3.9% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income...

According to a 2002 AARP report, 41.9% of persons age 50-61 in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000.

11.7% of persons age 62-74 in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000.

3.9% of persons age 75 and above in the bottom 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000.


AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, 86.3% of persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000. 45.3% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000. 34% of persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners...

According to a 2002 AARP report, 86.3% of persons age 50-61 in the top 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000.

45.3% of persons age 62-74 in the top 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000.

34% of persons age 75 and above in the top 25% of income earners participated in the labor force in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Core indicators by age & income data). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the median net worth of families, of all races and ethnicities, headed by a person age 50 and older increased by 35.9% between 1983 and 1998.  The median net worth of nonwhite families headed by a person age 50 and older increased by 59.4% between 1983 and 1998. ...

According to a 2002 AARP report, the median net worth of families, of all races and ethnicities, headed by a person age 50 and older increased by 35.9% between 1983 and 1998.  The median net worth of nonwhite families headed by a person age 50 and older increased by 59.4% between 1983 and 1998.  The median net worth of white families headed by a person age 50 and older increased by 43.4% between 1983 and 1998.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Wealth and net worth). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the poverty rate for female persons age 50 and older decreased by 24.3% from 13.9% in 1980 to 10.5% in 2000.  The poverty rate for male persons age 50 and older decreased by 19.1% from 8.7% in 1980 to 7% in 2000.

According to a 2002 AARP report, the poverty rate for female persons age 50 and older decreased by 24.3% from 13.9% in 1980 to 10.5% in 2000.  The poverty rate for male persons age 50 and older decreased by 19.1% from 8.7% in 1980 to 7% in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Poverty). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

According to a 2002 AARP report, the poverty rate for persons age 50 and older, of all races and ethnicity, decreased by 22.7% from 11.5% in 1980 to 8.9% in 2000.  The poverty rate for nonwhite persons age 50 and older decreased by 40.2% from 27.7% in 1980 to 16.6% in 2000.  The poverty rate...

According to a 2002 AARP report, the poverty rate for persons age 50 and older, of all races and ethnicity, decreased by 22.7% from 11.5% in 1980 to 8.9% in 2000.  The poverty rate for nonwhite persons age 50 and older decreased by 40.2% from 27.7% in 1980 to 16.6% in 2000.  The poverty rate for white persons age 50 and older decreased by 19.8% from 9.7% in 1980 to 7.8% in 2000.

AARP. (2002, May). Beyond 50: summary tables and charts. Research report. (Table: Poverty). Washington, DC: Gist, J., Figueiredo, C., & Ng-Baumhackl, M. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.aarp.org/research/reference/statistics/aresearch-import-298.html

"Through its analysis of both the status quo and developing trends, Beyond 50: A Report to the Nation on Economic Security provides readers with an in-depth look at the well-being of more than one-quarter of Americans - the 76 million people age 50 and older in 2000."

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