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According to the AARP 2013 career study on older workers (ages 45-74), of those who responded that they plan to work in retirement, 31% said they will continue working because they enjoy it while 30% said they will continue working because they need extra money. (p 26)

According to the AARP 2013 career study on older workers (ages 45-74), of those who responded that they plan to work in retirement, 31% said they will continue working because they enjoy it while 30% said they will continue working because they need extra money. (p 26)

AARP. (2014). Staying ahead of the curve 2013: AARP multicultural work and career study: Older workers in an uneasy job market. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2014/Staying-Ahead-of-the-Curve-2013-The-Work-and-Career-Study-AARP-res-gen.pdf

This data comes from the AARP report on the study of older workers ages 45-74. It was extracted from a survey of 1,502 workers age 45-74, with Hispanic and African American oversamples, to update previous surveys conducted in 2002 and 2007.

According to the AARP 2013 career study on older workers (ages 45-74), of those who responded that they plan to work in retirement, 21% said it is to have something interesting to do, 14% said to stay physically active, 11% said to stay mentally active, and 10% said to support oneself. (p 26)

According to the AARP 2013 career study on older workers (ages 45-74), of those who responded that they plan to work in retirement, 21% said it is to have something interesting to do, 14% said to stay physically active, 11% said to stay mentally active, and 10% said to support oneself. (p 26)

AARP. (2014). Staying ahead of the curve 2013: AARP multicultural work and career study: Older workers in an uneasy job market. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2014/Staying-Ahead-of-the-Curve-2013-The-Work-and-Career-Study-AARP-res-gen.pdf

This data comes from the AARP report on the study of older workers ages 45-74. It was extracted from a survey of 1,502 workers age 45-74, with Hispanic and African American oversamples, to update previous surveys conducted in 2002 and 2007.

According to a 2014 Transamerica retirement readiness survey, "fifty-eight percent of workers who plan to work in retirement and/or past age 65 cite reasons related to income and health benefits. Baby Boomers and Generation X (both 62 percent) plan to do so for those reasons, a higher response rate...

According to a 2014 Transamerica retirement readiness survey, "fifty-eight percent of workers who plan to work in retirement and/or past age 65 cite reasons related to income and health benefits. Baby Boomers and Generation X (both 62 percent) plan to do so for those reasons, a higher response rate than that of Millennials (49 percent)." (p. 34)

Collinson, C. (2014). The retirement readiness of three unique generations: Baby boomers, generation X, and millennials. US: Transamerican Center for Retirement Studies. Retrieved from http://www.transamericacenter.org/docs/default-source/resources/center-research/tcrs2014_sr_three_unique_generations.pdf

A 22-minute, online survey was conducted between February 21 - March 17, 2014 among a nationally representative sample of 4,143 workers age 18 or older by Harris Poll for Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies. Respondents were full-time or part-time workers in a for-profit company employing 10 or more people. The base included 1,021 Millennials, 1,120 Generation X, 1,805 Baby Boomers, and 197 who were born prior to 1946.

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, when asked to rank the changes they most wanted in the next 5-10 years, 82% want to "give back more," while 80% would like to pursue one or more of their "passions," and 75% would like to "make life more meaningful;" 46% would like to make a change in...

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, when asked to rank the changes they most wanted in the next 5-10 years, 82% want to "give back more," while 80% would like to pursue one or more of their "passions," and 75% would like to "make life more meaningful;" 46% would like to make a change in their "professional life". (p. 10)

Thayer, C. (2014). Reflections on life & career. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2014/Reflections-on-Life-and-Career-AARP-res-gen.pdf

The survey was fielded by Woelfel Research, Inc. from May 15-May 29, 2014. A total of 1006 telephone interviews were completed with adults ages 40-59 in the United States. The results were weighted to be nationally representative.

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, a majority of respondants rated "job or career" as an important contributor to "a good life" (8.5 on a scale of 1-10). Respondants rated their current satisfaction with their "job or career" at 7.4 on a scale of 1-10. (p. 13)

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, a majority of respondants rated "job or career" as an important contributor to "a good life" (8.5 on a scale of 1-10). Respondants rated their current satisfaction with their "job or career" at 7.4 on a scale of 1-10. (p. 13)

Thayer, C. (2014). Reflections on life & career. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2014/Reflections-on-Life-and-Career-AARP-res-gen.pdf

The survey was fielded by Woelfel Research, Inc. from May 15-May 29, 2014. A total of 1006 telephone interviews were completed with adults ages 40-59 in the United States. The results were weighted to be nationally representative.

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, among respondants who are currently employed or looking for work, 50% indicated that "if money were not a factor, they woud quit their jobs tomorrow," while 49% would not quit. (p. 19)

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, among respondants who are currently employed or looking for work, 50% indicated that "if money were not a factor, they woud quit their jobs tomorrow," while 49% would not quit. (p. 19)

Thayer, C. (2014). Reflections on life & career. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2014/Reflections-on-Life-and-Career-AARP-res-gen.pdf

The survey was fielded by Woelfel Research, Inc. from May 15-May 29, 2014. A total of 1006 telephone interviews were completed with adults ages 40-59 in the United States. The results were weighted to be nationally representative.

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, among respondants who are currently employed or looking for work, 32% have already gone through a major career shift. Reasons for career shifts included changes in the company that forced job cuts (30%); changes in the industry (31%); changes in the...

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, among respondants who are currently employed or looking for work, 32% have already gone through a major career shift. Reasons for career shifts included changes in the company that forced job cuts (30%); changes in the industry (31%); changes in the economy (32%); personally wanting to do something different (48%). (p. 21)

Thayer, C. (2014). Reflections on life & career. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2014/Reflections-on-Life-and-Career-AARP-res-gen.pdf

The survey was fielded by Woelfel Research, Inc. from May 15-May 29, 2014. A total of 1006 telephone interviews were completed with adults ages 40-59 in the United States. The results were weighted to be nationally representative.

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, among respondents who are currently employed or looking for work, 32% have already gone through a major career shift while 32% expect to go through a major career shift in the future. Among those who already have made a change, 48% said that they did...

According to a 2014 survey of adults aged 40-59, among respondents who are currently employed or looking for work, 32% have already gone through a major career shift while 32% expect to go through a major career shift in the future. Among those who already have made a change, 48% said that they did so because they personally wanted to do something different. Among those expecting a shift in the future, 81% say that they persponally want to do something different. (p. 21)

Thayer, C. (2014). Reflections on life & career. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2014/Reflections-on-Life-and-Career-AARP-res-gen.pdf

The survey was fielded by Woelfel Research, Inc. from May 15-May 29, 2014. A total of 1006 telephone interviews were completed with adults ages 40-59 in the United States. The results were weighted to be nationally representative.

According to a 2014 MetLife report based on their 2013 US Employee Benefit Trends study, 39% of older boomers and 41% of younger boomers strongly agree that they expect to postpone retirement due to their financial situation. (p. 4)

According to a 2014 MetLife report based on their 2013 US Employee Benefit Trends study, 39% of older boomers and 41% of younger boomers strongly agree that they expect to postpone retirement due to their financial situation. (p. 4)

Metlife. (2014). Benefits breakthrough: How employees and their employers are navingating the evolving environment. New York: Metlife. Retrieved from https://benefittrends.metlife.com/assets/downloads/benefits-breakthrough-summaries-2014.pdf

MetLife's 12th Annual U.S. Employee Benefit Trends Study was conducted during October and November of 2013 and consisted of three distinct studies fielded by GfK Custom Research North America. The employer survey comprised 1,510 interviews with benefits decision-makers at companies with staff sizes of at least two employees. The employee survey comprised 1,203 interviews with full-time employees age 21 and over, at companies with a minimum of two employees.

According to a 2013 MetLife survey of the oldest baby boomers (those born in 1946), "few reported actually retiring later than expected (8%). The primary push to work longer for those who retired later than planned was the need for the salary (30%). Yet just over a quarter (26%) did keep working because...

According to a 2013 MetLife survey of the oldest baby boomers (those born in 1946), "few reported actually retiring later than expected (8%). The primary push to work longer for those who retired later than planned was the need for the salary (30%). Yet just over a quarter (26%) did keep working because they enjoyed it and wanted to stay active." (p. 10)

Goyer, A. (2013). The MetLife report on the oldest boomers: Healthy, retiring rapidly and collecting social security. New York: MetLife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2013/mmi-oldest-boomers.pdf

This survey was conducted for MetLife by GfK Custom Research between November-December 2012. A total of 1003 respondants were interviewed by phone -- all respondents were born in 1946.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "74% of Americans age 50 and older state that they have given their retirement years some or a great deal of thought. Financial need is the most commonly cited factor in deciding when to retire (69%). Majorities...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "74% of Americans age 50 and older state that they have given their retirement years some or a great deal of thought. Financial need is the most commonly cited factor in deciding when to retire (69%). Majorities also cite their health (65%), the need for benefits through an employer such as health insurance (61%), ability to do the job (58%), and job satisfaction (54%) as extremely or very important factors in their decision. Wanting more free time and the retirement plans of spouses and partners are viewed as less important factors (with 38 and 37% respectively designated as very or extremely important)." (p.7)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "40% of adults age 50 and older who have searched for a job at some point in the last five years cite a need for extra income as the main reason for their job search and 18% say they were laid off from a previous...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "40% of adults age 50 and older who have searched for a job at some point in the last five years cite a need for extra income as the main reason for their job search and 18% say they were laid off from a previous job. Other reasons are: wanting a better salary (7%), wanting to get out of the house (6%), wanting to acquire or improve benefits (4%), wanting to change career paths (4%), and being unhappy at their current jobs (3%)." (p.5)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, of those who report that financial need is not an important factor in their retirement plans, "58% say it is unlikely they will work after retirement compared with 28% of those who do consider financial need...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, of those who report that financial need is not an important factor in their retirement plans, "58% say it is unlikely they will work after retirement compared with 28% of those who do consider financial need a factor in their retirement decision. Similarly, 46% of individuals who say that employer-sponsored benefits are not an important factor in their decision on when to retire report that they are unlikely to work during retirement, compared with 29% for whom employer benefits are an important factor in their retirement decision". (p.2)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, 91% of those who are employed agree with the statement 'I am proud to work for the company that employs me'. Other statements about work-life reported by older workers include: 'I am continuing to grow in my work' (87%), 'my job is an important part...

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, 91% of those who are employed agree with the statement 'I am proud to work for the company that employs me'. Other statements about work-life reported by older workers include: 'I am continuing to grow in my work' (87%), 'my job is an important part of who I am' (83%), 'I plan to stay at my current job until I am ready to fully retire from working' (82%), and 'there is a lot I still plan to accomplish in my work' (79%)". (p2)

AARP. (2013). Staying ahead of the curve 2013: AARP multicultural work and career study. Snapshot of the wants and needs of older workers -- ages 45-74 (revised). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/econ/2013/Staying-Ahead-of-the-Curve-2013-Snapshot-of-the-Wants-and-Needs-of-Older-Workers-AARP-rsa-econ.pdf

The facts provided in this publication by the AARP were acquired through a telephone survey fielded in November 2012 and December 2012 with a national sample of 1,502 adults ages 45-74 who were working full-time or part-time, self-employed, or looking for work.

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, needing money is the most commonly selected reason why older workers continue to work (96%), followed by enjoying working (92%), needing to save money for retirement (89%), feeling useful (83%), and paying for health insurance for themselves or family...

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, needing money is the most commonly selected reason why older workers continue to work (96%), followed by enjoying working (92%), needing to save money for retirement (89%), feeling useful (83%), and paying for health insurance for themselves or family (80%). Other factors include those qualifiying for Social Security (70%) and those fulfilling pension requirements (61%). (p. 1)

AARP. (2013). Staying ahead of the curve 2013: AARP multicultural work and career study. Snapshot of the wants and needs of older workers -- ages 45-74 (revised). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/econ/2013/Staying-Ahead-of-the-Curve-2013-Snapshot-of-the-Wants-and-Needs-of-Older-Workers-AARP-rsa-econ.pdf

The facts provided in this publication by the AARP were acquired through a telephone survey fielded in November 2012 and December 2012 with a national sample of 1,502 adults ages 45-74 who were working full-time or part-time, self-employed, or looking for work.

According to the 2013 Merrill Lynch retirement survey, "52% of respondents say that money and financial security are the most important motivations for working in retirement, almost half (48%) say continued 'stimulation and satisfaction' are the main reasons they want to work in retirement. Among...

According to the 2013 Merrill Lynch retirement survey, "52% of respondents say that money and financial security are the most important motivations for working in retirement, almost half (48%) say continued 'stimulation and satisfaction' are the main reasons they want to work in retirement. Among the more affluent respondents, 68% say that continued stimulation and satisfaction are the primary reason, compared to 32% for money and financial security." (fig. 4, p. 6)

Merrill Lynch. (2013). Americans' perspectives on new retirement realities and the longevity bonus. U. S.: Merrill Lynch. Retrieved from http://www.wealthmanagement.ml.com/publish/content/application/pdf/GWMOL/AR111544.pdf

This report is based on a national public opinion poll conducted online by Harris Interactive. The Merrill Lynch survey was completed from December 2012 to January 2013, in partnership with Age Wave, and included more than 6,300 respondents age 45 and older. Findings are based on 3,002 responses from the general population.

According to a 2013 Merrill Lynch survey, "six in ten people (62%) age 50+ today are providing financial support to family members." Among those who provided financial support to family members in the last five years,"68% provided support to their adult children (age 21+), 26% to grandchildren, 16%...

According to a 2013 Merrill Lynch survey, "six in ten people (62%) age 50+ today are providing financial support to family members." Among those who provided financial support to family members in the last five years,"68% provided support to their adult children (age 21+), 26% to grandchildren, 16% to parents/in-laws, 13% to siblings, and 14% to other relatives." (fig.1, p. 5)

Merrill Lynch. (2013). Family & retirement: The elephant in the room. U. S.: Bank of America. Retrieved from http://www.wealthmanagement.ml.com/publish/content/application/pdf/GWMOL/Merrill-Lynch-2013-Family-and-Retirement-Study.pdf

The survey included a total of 5,415 respondents age 25+, including 2,104 respondents among the Boomer (age 47-67) and Silent (age 68-88) generations, 250 Millennials (age 25-36), and 252 respondents among Generation X (age 37-48). The survey, which was completed in August 2013, was conducted in partnership with Age Wave and executed online by Harris Interactive.

According to a 2013 Merrill Lynch survey, "half of pre-retirees age 50+ say they would make major sacrifices that could impact their retirement to help family members. Among these pre-retirees, three in five say they would retire later, four in ten would return to work after retirement, and more than...

According to a 2013 Merrill Lynch survey, "half of pre-retirees age 50+ say they would make major sacrifices that could impact their retirement to help family members. Among these pre-retirees, three in five say they would retire later, four in ten would return to work after retirement, and more than one-third say they would accept a less comfortable retirement lifestyle to help family financially." (fig. 4, p. 7)

Merrill Lynch. (2013). Family & retirement: The elephant in the room. U. S.: Bank of America. Retrieved from http://www.wealthmanagement.ml.com/publish/content/application/pdf/GWMOL/Merrill-Lynch-2013-Family-and-Retirement-Study.pdf

The survey included a total of 5,415 respondents age 25+, including 2,104 respondents among the Boomer (age 47-67) and Silent (age 68-88) generations, 250 Millennials (age 25-36), and 252 respondents among Generation X (age 37-48). The survey, which was completed in August 2013, was conducted in partnership with Age Wave and executed online by Harris Interactive.

According to a 2012 Heldrich Center report, "among those workers who had graduated from college and were employed full-time who say they have an 'Impact Job', half (49 percent) say they are very satisfied with their job, compared to just a quarter of those who say they do not have this opportunity at...

According to a 2012 Heldrich Center report, "among those workers who had graduated from college and were employed full-time who say they have an 'Impact Job', half (49 percent) say they are very satisfied with their job, compared to just a quarter of those who say they do not have this opportunity at work. Whereas just 10 percent of those who have an opportunity to make a social or environmental contribution at work say they are dissatisfied, 28 percent of those who do not have an opportunity to make a contribution say they are dissatisfied with their jobs." (p. 18)

Zukin, C., & Szeltner, M. (2012). Net impacts's talent report: What workers want in 2012. Brunswick, NJ: Heldrich Center, Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/sites/default/files/content/Net_Impact_Talent_Report.pdf

The survey was conducted by Knowledge Networks, with an on-line probability sample between February 15 and 28, 2012. The sample included 807 Millennial Workers who graduated from a four-year college and who are currently employed full time; 230 GenerationX Workers who graduated from a four-year college and are currently employed full time; and 258 Baby Boomer Workers who graduated from a four-year college and who are currently employed full time.

According to a 2012 Heldrich Center report, Millennials who had graduated from college and were employed full-time "are less satisfied with their jobs than either GenXers or Baby Boomers. Just 31 percent say they are 'very satisfied' with their job, compared to 39 percent of Xers and 44 percent of Boomers....

According to a 2012 Heldrich Center report, Millennials who had graduated from college and were employed full-time "are less satisfied with their jobs than either GenXers or Baby Boomers. Just 31 percent say they are 'very satisfied' with their job, compared to 39 percent of Xers and 44 percent of Boomers. And, while only about 15 percent of the older generations say they are dissatisfied with their job, one-quarter of Millennials are unhappy with their work life." (p. 15)

Zukin, C., & Szeltner, M. (2012). Net impacts's talent report: What workers want in 2012. Brunswick, NJ: Heldrich Center, Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/sites/default/files/content/Net_Impact_Talent_Report.pdf

The survey was conducted by Knowledge Networks, with an on-line probability sample between February 15 and 28, 2012. The sample included 807 Millennial Workers who graduated from a four-year college and who are currently employed full time; 230 GenerationX Workers who graduated from a four-year college and are currently employed full time; and 258 Baby Boomer Workers who graduated from a four-year college and who are currently employed full time.

According to a 2012 Heldrich Center report, when workers who had graduated from college and were employed full-time were asked to rank the importance of 'having a job where I can make an impact on causes or issues that are important to me,' 59 percent of Millenials in the workforce rated this goal as...

According to a 2012 Heldrich Center report, when workers who had graduated from college and were employed full-time were asked to rank the importance of 'having a job where I can make an impact on causes or issues that are important to me,' 59 percent of Millenials in the workforce rated this goal as 'very important or essential', compared to 49 percent of GenXers and 52 percent of Baby Boomers. (p. 4)

Zukin, C., & Szeltner, M. (2012). Net impact's talent report: What workers want in 2012. Brunswick, NJ: Heldrich Center, Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/sites/default/files/content/Net_Impact_Talent_Report.pdf

The survey was conducted by Knowledge Networks, with an on-line probability sample between February 15 and 28, 2012. The sample included 807 Millennial Workers who graduated from a four-year college and who are currently employed full time; 230 GenerationX Workers who graduated from a four-year college and are currently employed full time; and 258 Baby Boomer Workers who graduated from a four-year college and who are currently employed full time.

According to a 2012 report on the Transamerica Retirement Survey, among workers in their fifties who plan to work after aged 65, 8% say they need health benefits, while 44% say the can't afford to retire and 17% say they need the income. Other reasons including wanting to stay involved (18%) and enjoying...

According to a 2012 report on the Transamerica Retirement Survey, among workers in their fifties who plan to work after aged 65, 8% say they need health benefits, while 44% say the can't afford to retire and 17% say they need the income. Other reasons including wanting to stay involved (18%) and enjoying what they do (10%). Among workers in their sixties, a somewhat higher proportion report wanting to keep working for enjoyment reasons: 26% say they enjoy what they do while 14% say they want to stay involved. (p. 22)

Collinson, C. (2012). Redefining retirement: The new 'retirement readiness': The 13th annual Transamerica Retirement Survey. San Francisco, CA: Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies. Retrieved from https://www.ta-retirement.com/resources/TCRS%2013th%20Annual%20Thematic%20Report%20Final%205-14-12.pdf

A 22-minute, online survey was conducted between January 13 - 31, 2012 among a nationally representative sample of 3,609 workers using the Harris online panel. The sample is of U.S. residents, age 18 or older who are full-time or part-time workers in a for-profit company employing 10 or more people

According to a 2012 AARP/SHRM survey of 1004 adults age 50+ who are employed full or part time or who are looking for work, "the tendency to work primarily for non-financial reasons (such as enjoyment or the desire to be productive) increased with age -- about two in five (41%) of workers ages 70+ say...

According to a 2012 AARP/SHRM survey of 1004 adults age 50+ who are employed full or part time or who are looking for work, "the tendency to work primarily for non-financial reasons (such as enjoyment or the desire to be productive) increased with age -- about two in five (41%) of workers ages 70+ say that they are working primarily for non-financial reason compared to just 14 percent of workers ages 50-59 and 23 of workers ages 60-69." (p. 3)

Brown, S. K. (2012). What are older workers seeking? an AARP/SHRM survey of 50+ workers. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/econ/2012/What-Are-Older-Workers-Seeking-An-AARP-SHRM-Survey-of-50-Plus-Workers-AARP.pdf

This nationally representative survey of 1004 adults ages 50 and older who are working or looking for work was conducted via telephone from May 2 through May 30, 2023 by SSRS for AARP amd SHRM.

According to a 2012 AARP/SHRM survey of 1004 adults age 50+ who are employed full or part time or who are looking for work, financial reasons (need for money or health insurance) are the primary motivation for working for 78% of respondents. However, "the likelihood of citing financial reasons declines...

According to a 2012 AARP/SHRM survey of 1004 adults age 50+ who are employed full or part time or who are looking for work, financial reasons (need for money or health insurance) are the primary motivation for working for 78% of respondents. However, "the likelihood of citing financial reasons declines with age. For example, more than eight in ten (84%) workers ages 50-59 cite financial motivations as the primary reason, compared to just over seven in ten (73%) of those ages 60-69 and just over half (54%) of those ages 70+." (p. 3)

Brown, S. K. (2012). What are older workers seeking? an AARP/SHRM survey of 50+ workers. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/econ/2012/What-Are-Older-Workers-Seeking-An-AARP-SHRM-Survey-of-50-Plus-Workers-AARP.pdf

This nationally representative survey of 1004 adults ages 50 and older who are working or looking for work was conducted via telephone from May 2 through May 30, 2023 by SSRS for AARP amd SHRM.

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, among those still working, 61% report that the age they plan to retire has not changed from that of their planned age one year ago... A third (32%), however, have changed their plans to a later date. This is primarily due...

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, among those still working, 61% report that the age they plan to retire has not changed from that of their planned age one year ago... A third (32%), however, have changed their plans to a later date. This is primarily due to the need to continue receiving a salary to pay for day-to-day expenses, as reported by 27% of respondents. Another 24% report that they enjoy working or want to stay active. Of the few (7%) who now plan to retire earlier than they did one year ago, 23% attribute this to health reasons." (p. 7)

MetLife. (2012). Transitioning into retirement: TheMetLife study of baby boomers at 65. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2012/studies/mmi-transitioning-retirement.pdf

Transitioning into Retirement was conducted by GfK Custom Research North America on behalf of the MetLife Mature Market Institute from November 3, 2011 through November 30, 2011. A total of 1,012 respondents born in 1946 were surveyed by random digit-dial telephone contact. The recontacted sample was among 942 respondents from the previous wave of Boomer Bookends: Insights Into the Oldest and Youngest Boomers (2009) who agreed to be recontacted. A total of 450 respondents from this group completed the follow-up survey. The sample was supplemented by an additional sample of 562 respondents from Dunhill.

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "while few (8%) retired later than planned, the main reason for this was the need for salary to pay for day-to-day expenses (27%), followed by the desire to remain active/enjoy working (13%), and the need to save more toward...

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "while few (8%) retired later than planned, the main reason for this was the need for salary to pay for day-to-day expenses (27%), followed by the desire to remain active/enjoy working (13%), and the need to save more toward retirement (11%)." (p. 8)

MetLife. (2012). Transitioning into retirement: TheMetLife study of baby boomers at 65. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2012/studies/mmi-transitioning-retirement.pdf

Transitioning into Retirement was conducted by GfK Custom Research North America on behalf of the MetLife Mature Market Institute from November 3, 2011 through November 30, 2011. A total of 1,012 respondents born in 1946 were surveyed by random digit-dial telephone contact. The recontacted sample was among 942 respondents from the previous wave of Boomer Bookends: Insights Into the Oldest and Youngest Boomers (2009) who agreed to be recontacted. A total of 450 respondents from this group completed the follow-up survey. The sample was supplemented by an additional sample of 562 respondents from Dunhill.

According to a 2012 survey of employed adults age 18 and older, "although 60 percent ...said they remain with their current employers because of benefits and 59 percent reported staying because of the pay, more than two-thirds (67 percent) said they choose to stay because their jobs fit well with the...

According to a 2012 survey of employed adults age 18 and older, "although 60 percent ...said they remain with their current employers because of benefits and 59 percent reported staying because of the pay, more than two-thirds (67 percent) said they choose to stay because their jobs fit well with the other aspects of their lives. Sixty-seven percent also said they stay at their current jobs because they enjoy the work they do."

American Psychological Association. (2012, September 5). Work-life fit and enjoying what they do top the list of reasons why employees stay on the job. Psychologically Health Workplace Good Company Newsletter, Retrieved from http://www.phwa.org/resources/goodcompany/newsletter/article/391

The Workforce Retention Survey was conducted online by Harris Interactive on behalf of the American Psychological Association between Aug. 3 and Aug. 7, 2012 among 1,240 adults age 18 and older who reside in the U.S. and are employed either full-time or part-time.

According to a 2012 survey of employed adults age 18 and older, "working Americans age 55 and older were the most likely to cite enjoying the work (80 percent), work-life fit (76 percent), benefits (66 percent), feeling connected to the organization (63 percent) and having an opportunity to make a difference...

According to a 2012 survey of employed adults age 18 and older, "working Americans age 55 and older were the most likely to cite enjoying the work (80 percent), work-life fit (76 percent), benefits (66 percent), feeling connected to the organization (63 percent) and having an opportunity to make a difference (57 percent) as reasons for staying with their current employers."

American Psychological Association. (2012, September 5). Work-life fit and enjoying what they do top the list of reasons why employees stay on the job. Psychologically Health Workplace Good Company Newsletter, Retrieved from http://www.phwa.org/resources/goodcompany/newsletter/article/391

The Workforce Retention Survey was conducted online by Harris Interactive on behalf of the American Psychological Association between Aug. 3 and Aug. 7, 2012 among 1,240 adults age 18 and older who reside in the U.S. and are employed either full-time or part-time.

According to a 2010 Careerbuilder survey of 500 workers aged 60+, "the primary drivers for postponing retirement are financial restraints, as indicated by 65 percent of respondents, and the need for health insurance and other benefits, as indicated by 58 percent of respondents. However, mature workers...

According to a 2010 Careerbuilder survey of 500 workers aged 60+, "the primary drivers for postponing retirement are financial restraints, as indicated by 65 percent of respondents, and the need for health insurance and other benefits, as indicated by 58 percent of respondents. However, mature workers are staying on board at their companies for a variety of other reasons, including: enjoy their job (39 percent); enjoy where they work (36 percent); fear retirement may just be boring (26 percent); enjoy feeling needed (14 percent)."

Careerbuilder. (2011). Fewer workers age 60 and up postponing retirement, finds new CareerBuilder survey. Retrieved January 29, 2011, from http://www.careerbuilder.com/share/aboutus/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?id=pr617&sd=1%2f26%2f2011&ed=1%2f26%2f2011&siteid=cbpr&sc_cmp1=cb_pr617_

The nationwide survey was conducted among more than 500 U.S. workers age 60 and up between November 15 and December 2, 2010.

According to a 2011 survey from AARP, among the top dreams for adults age 50+, 38% want to spend time travelling and 15% want to pursue their hobbies and interests, while 13% want to spend time with children, grandchildren family and friends. Around 5% of respondents mention career, job and work among...

According to a 2011 survey from AARP, among the top dreams for adults age 50+, 38% want to spend time travelling and 15% want to pursue their hobbies and interests, while 13% want to spend time with children, grandchildren family and friends. Around 5% of respondents mention career, job and work among their top dreams.

AARP. (2011). Voices of 50+ America: Dreams & challenges. Washington, DC: AARP Research and Strategic Analysis. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/general/voices-america-dreams-challenges-national.pdf

The data comes from a random digit dial telephone survey conducted by AARP to over 29,000 adults age 50+ across the 50 states between Jan 2-31, 2011. Data presented in the report is based on a national sample of 1000 50+ adults.

According to a 2011 survey of business executives and benefit administrators, 84% of employers surveyed anticipate that their older employees will work longer to extend the benefits of their 401(k) plan. (p. 9)

According to a 2011 survey of business executives and benefit administrators, 84% of employers surveyed anticipate that their older employees will work longer to extend the benefits of their 401(k) plan. (p. 9)

Bank of America Merrill Lynch workplace benefits report. (2011). USA: Bank of America. Retrieved from http://www.benefitplans.baml.com/Publish/Content/application/pdf/GWMOL/Executive-Summary-BofAML-Workplace-Benefits-Report.pdf

A national sample of 650 CEOs, CFOs, HR Executives/Managers and Benefit Administrators were interviewed by Market Strategies International between April 19 –23, 2011 on behalf Bank of America Merrill Lynch Retirement Services

According to the 2011 EBRI Retirement Confidence Survey, "almost all retirees who worked for pay in retirement [during the previous year] gave a positive reason for doing so, saying they did so because they wanted to stay active and involved (92 percent) or enjoyed working (86 percent). However, the...

According to the 2011 EBRI Retirement Confidence Survey, "almost all retirees who worked for pay in retirement [during the previous year] gave a positive reason for doing so, saying they did so because they wanted to stay active and involved (92 percent) or enjoyed working (86 percent). However, the percentage who report working solely for nonfinancial reasons is small. Ninety percent identify at least one financial reason for having worked, such as wanting to buy extras (72 percent), a decrease in the value of their savings or investments (62 percent), needing money to make ends meet (59 percent), or keeping health insurance or other benefits (40 percent)." (p. 31)

Helman, R., Copeland, C., & VanDerhei, J. (2011). The 2011 retirement confidence survey: Confidence drops to record lows, reflecting "the new normal". (Issue Brief No. 355). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/briefspdf/EBRI_03-2011_No355_RCS-2011.pdf

These findings are part of the 21st annual Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), which was conducted in January 2011 through 20-minute telephone interviews with 1,258 individuals (1,004 workers and 254 retirees) age 25 and older in the United States.

According to a 2011 survey of over 4000 adults aged 18+, 35% of workers report that that they plan to work after retirement age for non-financial reasons, including wanting to stay involved (19%), enjoying their work (16%), and wanting the income (18%). (p. 15)

According to a 2011 survey of over 4000 adults aged 18+, 35% of workers report that that they plan to work after retirement age for non-financial reasons, including wanting to stay involved (19%), enjoying their work (16%), and wanting the income (18%). (p. 15)

Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies. (2011). The new retirement: Working. 12th annual Transamerica retirement survey. USA: Transamerica Center. Retrieved from http://www.transamericacenter.org/resources/TCRS12thAnnual%20WorkerNewRetirementFINAL05162011.pdf

A 25 minute, online survey was conducted between January 31, 2011 -- March 10, 2011 among a nationally representative sample of 4,080 workers aged 18+ using the Harris online panel. Full-time and part-time workers are combined.

According to a 2011 survey of over 4000 adults aged 18+, half (54%) of workers plan to work after they retire, with 9% planning to work full-time and 44% planning to work in part-time jobs. More than 4 out of 10 (44%) of those workers report that they will work in retirement out of necessity, either...

According to a 2011 survey of over 4000 adults aged 18+, half (54%) of workers plan to work after they retire, with 9% planning to work full-time and 44% planning to work in part-time jobs. More than 4 out of 10 (44%) of those workers report that they will work in retirement out of necessity, either because of not having saved enough or can't afford to (34%) or needing health benefits (9%). (p 15)

Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies. (2011). The new retirement: Working. 12th annual Transamerica retirement survey. USA: Transamerica Center. Retrieved from http://www.transamericacenter.org/resources/TCRS12thAnnual%20WorkerNewRetirementFINAL05162011.pdf

A 25 minute, online survey was conducted between January 31, 2011 -- March 10, 2011 among a nationally representative sample of 4,080 workers using the Harris online panel.

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "two-thirds of survey respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statement 'to me, my work is only a small part of who I am'. Only 16% of respondents supported the statement that 'most of my interests are centered on work.' (p. 10)

According to a 2011 study of working fathers, "two-thirds of survey respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statement 'to me, my work is only a small part of who I am'. Only 16% of respondents supported the statement that 'most of my interests are centered on work.' (p. 10)

Harrington, B., Van Deusen, F. R., & Humberd, B. K. (2011). The new dad: Caring, committed and conflicted. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for Work & Family. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

Findings are based on a national survey of 963 working fathers with at least one child age 18 or younger, who work for one of four Fortune 500 companies that agreed to administer the study within their organizations. The four companies are all large and have revenues ranging from $20-50 billion per year.60% of respondents were managers, 37% salaried professionals, and only 3% were paid hourly. All worked full-time.

According to a 2011 survey of 400 "boomers" with incomes of at least $50,000, 68% of survey respondents said they plan to work [during retirement] because they want to 'stay busy.' Running a close second is the wish to 'stay intellectually engaged' which was cited by 66% of respondents. Almost half...

According to a 2011 survey of 400 "boomers" with incomes of at least $50,000, 68% of survey respondents said they plan to work [during retirement] because they want to 'stay busy.' Running a close second is the wish to 'stay intellectually engaged' which was cited by 66% of respondents. Almost half of Boomers said they 'want the sense of fulfillment' they get from working. One in five want to 'keep the community aspect of the workplace.'"(p. 3)

First Command. (2011). Reinventing retirement. USA: First Command Financial Services. Retrieved from http://www.firstcommand.com/pv_obj_cache/pv_obj_id_C7647F3F3EECD2E75D89649D6B51A29FDEE81B00/filename/reinventing-retirement.pdf

A national survey performed through the First Command Financial Behaviors IndexВ® is a monthly survey of approximately 1,000 U.S. consumers aged 25 to 70 with annual household incomes of at least $50,000. Results are reported quarterly.

According to the 2011 Sun-Life Unretirement Index, the top reason Americans expect to keep working at age 67 is to earn enough money, with 49% selecting this as the number one reason, while 14% selected "to stay mentally engaged." Concern that social security will not be available was selected by 15%...

According to the 2011 Sun-Life Unretirement Index, the top reason Americans expect to keep working at age 67 is to earn enough money, with 49% selecting this as the number one reason, while 14% selected "to stay mentally engaged." Concern that social security will not be available was selected by 15% of respondents.

Sun-Life Financial. (2011). Sun-Life Financial U.S. Unretirement Index - Fall 2011: Americans' trust in retirement reaches a tipping point. US: Sun-Life Financial. Retrieved from http://cdn.sunlife.com/static/unitedstates/Unretirement%20Index/files/2011%20files/UnretirementIndex2011_Result_Final.pdf

The fifth wave of the Unretirement Index was conducted in September 2011 using a probability-based panel designed to be statistically representative of the U.S. population, ages 18-66. There were a total of 1,499 qualified respondents aged 18-66 to the survey.

According to the 2010 Retirement Confidence Survey, "retirees who work for pay in retirement most often say they did so because they wanted to stay active and involved (92 percent) or enjoyed working (86 percent), but the percentage who report working solely for non-financial reasons is small. Ninety...

According to the 2010 Retirement Confidence Survey, "retirees who work for pay in retirement most often say they did so because they wanted to stay active and involved (92 percent) or enjoyed working (86 percent), but the percentage who report working solely for non-financial reasons is small. Ninety percent identify at least one financial reason for having worked, such as wanting to buy extras (72 percent), a decrease in the value of their savings or investments (62 percent), needing money to make ends meet (59 percent), or keeping health insurance or other benefits (40 percent)." (p. 31)

Helman, R., Greenwald, M., Copeland, C., & VanDerhei, J. (2010). The 2010 retirement confidence survey: Confidence stabilizing, but preparations continue to erode (Issue Brief No. 340). Washington, D.C.: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/briefspdf/EBRI_IB_03-2010_No340_RCS.pdf

These findings are part of the 20th annual Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS). The survey was conducted in January 2010 through 20-minute telephone interviews with 1,153 individuals (902 workers and 251 retirees) age 25 and older in the United States.

According to the 2010 MetLife Retirement Readiness Index, "forty-six percent have considered the importance of relationships with co-workers in making the decision to retire, and 45% have considered how various aspects of their retirement might positively or negatively affect the relationships with...

According to the 2010 MetLife Retirement Readiness Index, "forty-six percent have considered the importance of relationships with co-workers in making the decision to retire, and 45% have considered how various aspects of their retirement might positively or negatively affect the relationships with family and friends." (p. 15)

MetLife. (2010). The MetLife retirement readiness index: Are Americans prepared for the transition? Westport, CT: MetLife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from http://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2010/mmi-retirement-readiness-index-.pdf

A total of 1,048 respondents age 45-70 completed the online questionnaire using Harris Interactive's QuickScreenerSM service from December 14-18, 2009. Responses were weighted to be representative of the population.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "three-fourths of multiple jobholders age 16 to 24 had economic reasons [for holding multiple jobs], compared with half of their counterparts age 55 and over. Conversely, the share of workers who moonlighted because they enjoyed...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "three-fourths of multiple jobholders age 16 to 24 had economic reasons [for holding multiple jobs], compared with half of their counterparts age 55 and over. Conversely, the share of workers who moonlighted because they enjoyed the second job tended to increase with age. For example, only 11 percent of multiple jobholders age 16 to 24 reported that they moonlighted because they enjoyed the second job, compared with 27 percent of workers age 55 and over." (p. 29)

Hipple, S. (2010). Multiple jobholding during the 2000s. Monthly Labor Review, 133(7), 21-32. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2010/07/art3full.pdf

This paper is based on analysis of information on multiple jobholding which is available from the Current Population Survey (CPS).

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, of those aged 50+ who have retired, "53% indicate they keep working so that they can keep earning money to be more economically comfortable when they really stop working and 18% indicate that income from other sources...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, of those aged 50+ who have retired, "53% indicate they keep working so that they can keep earning money to be more economically comfortable when they really stop working and 18% indicate that income from other sources is not enough. Additionally, nearly a third reports that they would be bored if they were not working. Other reasons include wanting to feel productive and useful (18%) and having a job that is fun and enjoyable (15%)."

Brown, M., Aumann, K., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Galinsky, E., & Bond, J. T. (2010). Working in retirement: A 21st century phenomenon. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/workinginretirement.pdf

This study is based on analysis of data from Families and Work Institute's 2008 nationally representative study of the U.S. workforce, the National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). Of the participants in that study, 1,382 participants were aged 50 and older.

According to the 2010 Towers Watson retirement attitudes survey,health care coverage and costs are the most-cited reasons for delayed retirement, expecially among older workers. Over two-thirds (68%) of older workers cite keeping their health care coverage as a reason to delay retirement, while 62%...

According to the 2010 Towers Watson retirement attitudes survey,health care coverage and costs are the most-cited reasons for delayed retirement, expecially among older workers. Over two-thirds (68%) of older workers cite keeping their health care coverage as a reason to delay retirement, while 62% cite the higher cost of health care. (fig. 11, p. 6)

Towers Watson. (2010). Retirement attitudes part II: Employee attitudes towards risk. Retrieved from http://www.towerswatson.com/assets/pdf/2717/TowersWatson_Retirement-Pt2-Attitudes_NA-2010-17683.pdf

The Towers Watson Retirement Attitudes survey was conducted in May and June of 2010 and includes responses from 9,080 full-time U.S. employees at nongovernment organizations.

According to the 2009 Retirement Confidence Survey, "workers who have lost confidence in their ability to secure a comfortable retirement say they are responding by taking some steps to improve their situation. Most (81 percent) say they have reduced their expenses, while others are changing the way...

According to the 2009 Retirement Confidence Survey, "workers who have lost confidence in their ability to secure a comfortable retirement say they are responding by taking some steps to improve their situation. Most (81 percent) say they have reduced their expenses, while others are changing the way they invest their money (43 percent), working more hours or a second job (38 percent), saving more money (25 percent), and seeking advice from a financial professional (25 percent)." (p. 3)

Helman, R., Copeland, C., & VanDerhei, J. (2009). The 2009 retirement confidence survey: Economy drives confidence to record lows; many looking to work longer (Issue Brief No. 328). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/briefspdf/EBRI_IB_4-2009_RCS1.pdf

These findings are part of the 19th annual Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), a survey that gauges the views and attitudes of working-age and retired Americans regarding retirement, their preparations for retirement, their confidence with regard to various aspects of retirement, and related issues. The survey was conducted in January 2009 through 20-minute telephone interviews with 1,257 individuals (1,001 workers and 256 retirees) age 25 and older in the United States. Random digit dialing was used to obtain a representative cross section of the U.S. population. To further increase representation, a cell phone supplement was added to the sample

According to a 2009 survey of employees and retirees, "among the reasons for postponing retirement, 76% of workers aged 50-64 say the decline in the value of their 401(k) plans is a key reason. Other reasons include: the high cost of health care (63%), higher prices for basic necessities (62%), need...

According to a 2009 survey of employees and retirees, "among the reasons for postponing retirement, 76% of workers aged 50-64 say the decline in the value of their 401(k) plans is a key reason. Other reasons include: the high cost of health care (63%), higher prices for basic necessities (62%), need to keep health care coverage (56%), and desire to work as long as physically able (40%). (p. 6)

Watson Wyatt Worldwide. (2009). Effect of the economic crisis on employee attitudes toward retirement - part II: Retirement Timing . Washington, DC: Watson Wyatt Worldwide. Retrieved from http://www.watsonwyatt.com/research/deliverpdf.asp?catalog=WT-2009-12911&id=x.pdf

In February 2009, Watson Wyatt surveyed 2,232 active employees and 904 retirees of nongovernment organizations with 1,000 or more employees to gauge the effect of the economic crisis on Americans.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "the majority (58%) of younger respondents (aged 18-64) anticipate not having to work when they are older. Fully two-thirds of older respondents(aged 65+) say they do not have to work." (p. 29)

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "the majority (58%) of younger respondents (aged 18-64) anticipate not having to work when they are older. Fully two-thirds of older respondents(aged 65+) say they do not have to work." (p. 29)

Taylor, P., Morin, R., Parker, K., & Wang, W. (2009). Growing old in America: Expectations vs. reality. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/getting-old-in-america.pdf

The Pew Social Trends Aging Survey obtained telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults living in the continental United States. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from February 23 to March 23, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "slightly more than two-thirds of working retirees (69%) say they have part-time or full-time jobs because they want to work and not because they need a paycheck. That is more than double the proportion of seniors who say they work because they need the money (69% vs....

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "slightly more than two-thirds of working retirees (69%) say they have part-time or full-time jobs because they want to work and not because they need a paycheck. That is more than double the proportion of seniors who say they work because they need the money (69% vs. 16 %). But an additional 14% say they work both because they want to and because they need the money." (p. 91)

Taylor, P., Morin, R., Parker, K., & Wang, W. (2009). Growing old in America: Expectations vs. reality. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/getting-old-in-america.pdf

The Pew Social Trends Aging Survey obtained telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults living in the continental United States. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from February 23 to March 23, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "a majority (54%) of workers ages 65 and older say the main reason they work is that they want to. Just 17% say the main reason is that they need the paycheck. An additional 27% say they're motivated by a mix of desire and need." (p. 1)

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "a majority (54%) of workers ages 65 and older say the main reason they work is that they want to. Just 17% say the main reason is that they need the paycheck. An additional 27% say they're motivated by a mix of desire and need." (p. 1)

Pew Research Center. (2009). Recession turns a graying office grayer. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/americas-changing-workforce.pdf

This report is based on a Pew Research Center analysis of long-term trends in survey data from the U.S. Census Bureau as well as on Pew Research's own survey of a representative national sample of 1,815 people ages 16 and older conducted from July 20 to Aug. 2, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "workers younger than 65 are nearly three times as likely as their older colleagues to say they work because they need the money (49% vs. 17%). Conversely, older workers are more than two and a half times as likely as younger workers to say they are employed because they...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "workers younger than 65 are nearly three times as likely as their older colleagues to say they work because they need the money (49% vs. 17%). Conversely, older workers are more than two and a half times as likely as younger workers to say they are employed because they want to work (54% vs. 20%), while about equal shares of both age groups say both reasons are equally important to them." (p. 22)

Pew Research Center. (2009). Recession turns a graying office grayer. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/americas-changing-workforce.pdf

This report is based on a Pew Research Center analysis of long-term trends in survey data from the U.S. Census Bureau as well as on Pew Research's own survey of a representative national sample of 1,815 people ages 16 and older conducted from July 20 to Aug. 2, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, among workers aged 65 and older, "about 12% of older women and 25% of older men do some kind of work for pay. As a group, working older women are significantly more likely than older men to say they are working because they need a paycheck (25% vs. 12%) and significantly...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, among workers aged 65 and older, "about 12% of older women and 25% of older men do some kind of work for pay. As a group, working older women are significantly more likely than older men to say they are working because they need a paycheck (25% vs. 12%) and significantly less likely to say they are working because they want to (43% vs. 63%)." (p. 22)

Pew Research Center. (2009). Recession turns a graying office grayer. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/americas-changing-workforce.pdf

This report is based on a Pew Research Center analysis of long-term trends in survey data from the U.S. Census Bureau as well as on Pew Research's own survey of a representative national sample of 1,815 people ages 16 and older conducted from July 20 to Aug. 2, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "nearly seven-in-ten older workers (68%) say the desire "to feel like a useful and productive person" is a big reason they work. A similar proportion of younger workers (70%) share this view." (p. 22)

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "nearly seven-in-ten older workers (68%) say the desire "to feel like a useful and productive person" is a big reason they work. A similar proportion of younger workers (70%) share this view." (p. 22)

Pew Research Center. (2009). Recession turns a graying office grayer. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/americas-changing-workforce.pdf

This report is based on a Pew Research Center analysis of long-term trends in survey data from the U.S. Census Bureau as well as on Pew Research's own survey of a representative national sample of 1,815 people ages 16 and older conducted from July 20 to Aug. 2, 2009.

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, 86% of women and 84% of men report that having a range of new experiences is an important aspect of work. "Seventy-five percent of Boomer men and 89 percent of Boomer women say recognition from a boss is important. Similarly, 74 percent...

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, 86% of women and 84% of men report that having a range of new experiences is an important aspect of work. "Seventy-five percent of Boomer men and 89 percent of Boomer women say recognition from a boss is important. Similarly, 74 percent of Boomer men and 87 percent of women say that a good performance evaluation will inspire them to try harder and engage more fully in their jobs. Although 73 percent of Boomers prize a steady rate of advancement and promotion, only 34 percent say having a powerful position with a prestigious title is an important aspect of their careers". (fig. 11. 1, p. 38)

Hewlett, S. A., Jackson, M., Sherbin, L., Shiller, P., Sosnovich, E., & Sumberg, K. (2009). Bookend generations: Leveraging talent and finding common ground. New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.

The first U.S. survey was conducted online in June and July 2008 among 3,782 U.S. women and men between the ages of 21 and 62 and currently employed in certain white collar occupations, with at least a bachelor's degree; The second U.S. survey was conducted online in January and February 2009 and re-interviewed a total of 1,046 of the respondents from the first survey.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "a plurality of self-employed workers (38%) but a significantly larger share of wage and salaried workers (50%) say they mainly work to collect a paycheck -- a gap that exists regardless of family income or age. At the same time, nearly a third of self-employed adults...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "a plurality of self-employed workers (38%) but a significantly larger share of wage and salaried workers (50%) say they mainly work to collect a paycheck -- a gap that exists regardless of family income or age. At the same time, nearly a third of self-employed adults (32%) say they work mainly because they want to work compared with 19% of other workers."

Morin, R. (2009). Take this job and love it: Job satisfaction highest among the self-employed. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/743/job-satisfaction-highest-among-self-employed#prc-jump

A total of 1,040 adults ages 16 and older who are employed full or part-time were interviewed July 20-Aug. 2, 2009 for this survey, including 254 self-employed workers and 885 who are wage and salaried workers

According to a 2009 Pew survey, self-employed workers younger than age 55 are more likely than similarly aged wage and salaried workers to say they work because they want to, not because they need the money (29% vs. 18%). Among all workers age 55 and older, 37% of the self-employed say they work for...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, self-employed workers younger than age 55 are more likely than similarly aged wage and salaried workers to say they work because they want to, not because they need the money (29% vs. 18%). Among all workers age 55 and older, 37% of the self-employed say they work for reasons other than a paycheck," compared to 29% of wage and salaried workers.

Morin, R. (2009). Take this job and love it: Job satisfaction highest among the self-employed. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/743/job-satisfaction-highest-among-self-employed#prc-jump

A total of 1,040 adults ages 16 and older who are employed full or part-time were interviewed July 20-Aug. 2, 2009 for this survey, including 254 self-employed workers and 885 who are wage and salaried workers

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "among workers younger than 55, nearly six-in-ten (58%) of the self-employed say they work to help society compared with 49% of younger wage and salary workers who say the same thing. An even greater share of self-employed workers 55 and older also says they work for...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "among workers younger than 55, nearly six-in-ten (58%) of the self-employed say they work to help society compared with 49% of younger wage and salary workers who say the same thing. An even greater share of self-employed workers 55 and older also says they work for to better the world (48% vs. 34%)."

Morin, R. (2009). Take this job and love it: Job satisfaction highest among the self-employed. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/743/job-satisfaction-highest-among-self-employed#prc-jump

A total of 1,040 adults ages 16 and older who are employed full or part-time were interviewed July 20-Aug. 2, 2009 for this survey, including 254 self-employed workers and 885 who are wage and salaried workers

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "self-employed workers younger than 55 are the group most likely to value the social aspects of their job. For example, 47% of the self employed younger than 55 say they work because they want to be with other people compared with 34% of younger wage and salaried employees." 

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "self-employed workers younger than 55 are the group most likely to value the social aspects of their job. For example, 47% of the self employed younger than 55 say they work because they want to be with other people compared with 34% of younger wage and salaried employees." 

Morin, R. (2009). Take this job and love it: Job satisfaction highest among the self-employed. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/743/job-satisfaction-highest-among-self-employed#prc-jump

A total of 1,040 adults ages 16 and older who are employed full or part-time were interviewed July 20-Aug. 2, 2009 for this survey, including 254 self-employed workers and 885 who are wage and salaried workers

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "the self-employed are more likely than other workers to value a high income over job security, other factors being equal. More than four-in-ten self-employed adults (45%) say they would favor a job that promised a larger paycheck over one with more job security, a view...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "the self-employed are more likely than other workers to value a high income over job security, other factors being equal. More than four-in-ten self-employed adults (45%) say they would favor a job that promised a larger paycheck over one with more job security, a view shared by only a third of other workers.... About six-in-ten wage and salary employees say they would prefer a job that offers better job security over a higher-paying position. Fewer than half (45%) of all self-employed workers opt for security."

Morin, R. (2009). Take this job and love it: Job satisfaction highest among the self-employed. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/743/job-satisfaction-highest-among-self-employed#prc-jump

A total of 1,040 adults ages 16 and older who are employed full or part-time were interviewed July 20-Aug. 2, 2009 for this survey, including 254 self-employed workers and 885 who are wage and salaried workers

In a 2009 survey of 2000 job seekers over age 55, "68 percent said their retirement income is not enough to live on. Nearly half (46 percent) said they need to work now so they don't lose their homes/apartments and almost one-quarter (24 percent) said they need to work to cover their personal medical...

In a 2009 survey of 2000 job seekers over age 55, "68 percent said their retirement income is not enough to live on. Nearly half (46 percent) said they need to work now so they don't lose their homes/apartments and almost one-quarter (24 percent) said they need to work to cover their personal medical expenses or those of their spouse." (p. 4)

ExperienceWorks. (2009). Overlooked and underserved: The crisis facing America's older worker. Executive summary. Arlington, VA: ExperienceWorks. Retrieved from http://www.experienceworks.org/site/DocServer/EW-ExecSummary_09-Final.pdf?docID=10381

Experience Works surveyed 2,072 job seekers age 55 and over randomly selected from among Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP) participants in 30 states and 787 employers randomly selected from among SCSEP host agencies in 30 states. These agencies/ employers provide community service opportunities, training assignments and employment for older workers participating in the SCSEP.

In a 2009 survey of 2000 job seekers over age 55, it was reported that "22 percent provide monetary assistance to children or other relatives; 16 percent currently care for their spouses; and 11 percent care for their grandchildren." (p. 4)

In a 2009 survey of 2000 job seekers over age 55, it was reported that "22 percent provide monetary assistance to children or other relatives; 16 percent currently care for their spouses; and 11 percent care for their grandchildren." (p. 4)

ExperienceWorks. (2009). Overlooked and underserved: The crisis facing America's older worker. Executive summary. Arlington, VA: ExperienceWorks. Retrieved from http://www.experienceworks.org/site/DocServer/EW-ExecSummary_09-Final.pdf?docID=10381

Experience Works surveyed 2,072 job seekers age 55 and over randomly selected from among Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP) participants in 30 states and 787 employers randomly selected from among SCSEP host agencies in 30 states. These agencies/ employers provide community service opportunities, training assignments and employment for older workers participating in the SCSEP.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "older Hispanics are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites (23 percent vs. 10 percent) to point to the 'need to support other family members'" as a reason for working. (p. 17)

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "older Hispanics are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites (23 percent vs. 10 percent) to point to the 'need to support other family members'" as a reason for working. (p. 17)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 Metlife survey of workers and job seekers aged 55-70, "more than half (55%) of the respondents who are working or seeking work say their primary motivation is needing income for basic expenses. (p. 5)

According to a 2009 Metlife survey of workers and job seekers aged 55-70, "more than half (55%) of the respondents who are working or seeking work say their primary motivation is needing income for basic expenses. (p. 5)

MetLife. (2009). Buddy, can you spare a job? the new realities of the job market for aging baby boomers. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from http://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/mmi-buddy-can-you-spare-job.pdf

Quantitative information was obtained from a survey of 1,242 U.S. residents, ages 55 to 70, who were working or seeking work, or who reported being retired because they could not find work. An oversample was surveyed to achieve a significant amount of job seekers. The survey was conducted online by Harris Interactive in May 2009.

According to the 2009 Sun-Life Unretirement Index, the most popular reason for continuing to work past the age of 67 is "to earn enough money to live well," cited by 84 percent of respondents. Subsequent reasons remain "staying mentally engaged" (81%), "I love my career" (65%), and "for health care...

According to the 2009 Sun-Life Unretirement Index, the most popular reason for continuing to work past the age of 67 is "to earn enough money to live well," cited by 84 percent of respondents. Subsequent reasons remain "staying mentally engaged" (81%), "I love my career" (65%), and "for health care benefits" (63%). In addition, 58 percent of respondents are planning to work past age 67 because they don't believe social security will be available - an 11 percent increase in the last year. (p. 2)

Sun Life Financial Unretirement Index reveals 65 percent of US workers now expect to delay retirement. (2009). Wellesley, MA: Sun Life Financial. Retrieved from http://forms.sunlife-usa.com/individual/get_file.cfm?form_id=21619

This edition of the Sun-Life Unretirement Survey was conducted from August 14 - Sept. 14, 2009. Telephone interviews were conducted by Interviewing Service of America using a random-digit dial (RDD) sampling method. Quotas and weights were applied to gather a sample of 1,451 people working either full- or part-time, which was representative of the U.S. working population between the ages of 18 and 66.

According to a 2009 MetLife survey of 240 large employers, "87% of employers who are concerned about the impact of delayed retirement say employees are primarily working longer to rebuild their retirement nest eggs in light of the recent economic downturn. Other reasons employers cited for why their...

According to a 2009 MetLife survey of 240 large employers, "87% of employers who are concerned about the impact of delayed retirement say employees are primarily working longer to rebuild their retirement nest eggs in light of the recent economic downturn. Other reasons employers cited for why their workers are working beyond traditional retirement include: wanting to work long enough to qualify for Social Security benefits (67%), needing income to meet their day-to-day expenses/pay their bills (63%) and wanting to maintain medical coverage until they qualify for Medicare (41%). Only 41% of employers believe their employees stay in the workforce for social reasons -- i.e., 24% of employers believe their employees enjoy the mental stimulation of work, 12% believe they want to maintain social contact and only 5% say their workers appreciate feeling needed for an assignment." (p. 22)

Metlife. (2009). MetLife emerging retirement model study: A survey of plan sponsors. New York: Metlife. Retrieved from http://www.metlife.com/assets/institutional/services/cbf/retirement/EmergRetireModel-Study.pdf

MetLife commissioned Asset International to conduct online surveys with 240 employers from companies with at least 1,000 employees. Each respondent is from an organization that offers either a DB or DC plan or both, as well as other employer supported benefits. respondents came from companies that offer at least two of the following employee benefits where the organization pays some or the entire premium: medical insurance, dental insurance, disability insurance or life insurance.

In a 2008 telephone interview survey, the most frequent reason given for planning to work at age 67 is the need 'to stay mentally engaged.' The next most frequent reason (77%) for planning to work at 67 is the need to 'earn enough money to live well.' (p. 5)

In a 2008 telephone interview survey, the most frequent reason given for planning to work at age 67 is the need 'to stay mentally engaged.' The next most frequent reason (77%) for planning to work at 67 is the need to 'earn enough money to live well.' (p. 5)

Sun-life financial unretirement index: Initial results (2008). Wellesley, MA: Sun Life Financial. Retrieved from http://www.sunlife-usa.com/unretirementindex/results.cfm

This study was conducted between August 9-19, 2008. Telephone interviews were conducted by Interviewing Service of America using a random-digit-dial sampling method. Quotas and weights were applied to gather a sample of 1,515 people working either full- or part-time which was representative of the working population between the age of 30 and 66. The sample was also representative in terms of gender and four-region census break.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "between 80 and 87 percent of workers in each income group below $100,000 per year cite the need for money as a major reason for working." Among those with incomes of $100,000+, only 59% cite the need for money as a major factor in the decision to work....

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "between 80 and 87 percent of workers in each income group below $100,000 per year cite the need for money as a major reason for working." Among those with incomes of $100,000+, only 59% cite the need for money as a major factor in the decision to work. (p. 23)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. Additional intereviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "need for money as a major factor in the decision to work declines with age, as workers ages 45 to 54 (84%) are significantly more likely to cite it than workers age 62 to 74 (56%)." (p. 23)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "need for money as a major factor in the decision to work declines with age, as workers ages 45 to 54 (84%) are significantly more likely to cite it than workers age 62 to 74 (56%)." (p. 23)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "66 percent of those ages 45 to 54 mention the need for health insurance as a major reason for working, compared to only 59 percent of those ages 55 to 61 and only 47 percent of those ages 62 to 74." (p. 23)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "66 percent of those ages 45 to 54 mention the need for health insurance as a major reason for working, compared to only 59 percent of those ages 55 to 61 and only 47 percent of those ages 62 to 74." (p. 23)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "seven out of every ten workers cite enjoyment as a major factor explaining why they work.  When asked to name the single most important reason for working, enjoyment of work was one of the top three single most important reasons." (p. 24)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "seven out of every ten workers cite enjoyment as a major factor explaining why they work.  When asked to name the single most important reason for working, enjoyment of work was one of the top three single most important reasons." (p. 24)


Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "more than seven in ten (71%) 45- to 74-year-old workers have been in their current job (or have been self-employed) for more than five years. Over half (52%) attribute their tenure in their current job to the fact that they simply like their jobs."...

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "more than seven in ten (71%) 45- to 74-year-old workers have been in their current job (or have been self-employed) for more than five years. Over half (52%) attribute their tenure in their current job to the fact that they simply like their jobs." (p. 41)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "having a chance to use your skills and talents" was selected by more workers (91%) than any of the other 19 characteristics of an ideal job. This is somewhat more important to boomers (92%) than to workers ages 62 or older (83%). (p. 52)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "having a chance to use your skills and talents" was selected by more workers (91%) than any of the other 19 characteristics of an ideal job. This is somewhat more important to boomers (92%) than to workers ages 62 or older (83%). (p. 52)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "working to pay for health care costs for self or other family member" is identified as a major reason for working by 81% of Hispanics, 67% of African-Americans, and 55% of whites...Two-thirds of Hispanics also cite the need to support other family members...

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "working to pay for health care costs for self or other family member" is identified as a major reason for working by 81% of Hispanics, 67% of African-Americans, and 55% of whites...Two-thirds of Hispanics also cite the need to support other family members as a major reason for working, compared to only 54 percent of African Americans and 44 percent of whites."  (p. 96)


Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, 76% of African Americans and 72% of Hispanics agreed with the statement 'the only reason I continue to work is because I need the money', compared to 57 percent of whites." (p. 96)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, 76% of African Americans and 72% of Hispanics agreed with the statement 'the only reason I continue to work is because I need the money', compared to 57 percent of whites." (p. 96)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007.  Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "Enjoy the job,enjoy working" was named as the major reason for working by 85% of Hispanics, 71% of African Americans, and 69% of whites. (p.96)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "Enjoy the job,enjoy working" was named as the major reason for working by 85% of Hispanics, 71% of African Americans, and 69% of whites. (p.96)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007.   Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

In a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, enjoyment of working or enjoyment of the job was reported as a major reason for working by 69% of the male and 71% of female respondents (Table 2, p. 26)

In a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, enjoyment of working or enjoyment of the job was reported as a major reason for working by 69% of the male and 71% of female respondents (Table 2, p. 26)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, 75% of women and 78% of men considered "need the money" as a major reason for working.  The need to maintain health insurance coverage was cited by 63% of men and 58% of women.   The need to support family members was a major reason for working for...

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, 75% of women and 78% of men considered "need the money" as a major reason for working.  The need to maintain health insurance coverage was cited by 63% of men and 58% of women.   The need to support family members was a major reason for working for 53% of men and 38% of women. (Table 1, p. 22)


Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work.  1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007.  Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, among reasons for working relating to future financial needs, 65% of men and 63% of women mentioned saving more for retirement as a reason for working.  Qualifying for social security and fulfilling pension requirements were mentioned by around 40% of both...

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, among reasons for working relating to future financial needs, 65% of men and 63% of women mentioned saving more for retirement as a reason for working.  Qualifying for social security and fulfilling pension requirements were mentioned by around 40% of both men and women. (Table 3, p. 29)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics. 

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, reasons for working related to future financial needs were somewhat more likely to be mentioned by Hispanics and African Americans, compared to whites. For example, 77% of Hispanics and 73% of African-Americans mentioned "saving more for retirement" as a reason...

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, reasons for working related to future financial needs were somewhat more likely to be mentioned by Hispanics and African Americans, compared to whites. For example, 77% of Hispanics and 73% of African-Americans mentioned "saving more for retirement" as a reason for working, compared to 64% of whites.  Qualifying for social security and fulfilling pension requirements were mentioned by between 59-68% Hispanics and African-Americans, compared to 40-41% of whites. (Table 3, p. 29)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics. 

In a 2008 survey of older adults, women were slightly more likely than men to report social and psychological reasons for working.  For example, 71% of women and 69% of men mentioned "enjoy the job/enjoy working" as a reason for working.  Over half of women mentioned feeling useful (55%) and...

In a 2008 survey of older adults, women were slightly more likely than men to report social and psychological reasons for working.  For example, 71% of women and 69% of men mentioned "enjoy the job/enjoy working" as a reason for working.  Over half of women mentioned feeling useful (55%) and being able to interact with people (51%), compared to 49% and 41% of men, respectively. (Table 2, p. 26)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics. 

In a 2008 survey of older adults, Hispanic workers were somewhat more likely than African-Americans or whites to report social and psychological reasons for working.  For example, 85% of Hispanics mentioned "enjoy the job/enjoy working" as a reason for working, compared to 71% of African Americans...

In a 2008 survey of older adults, Hispanic workers were somewhat more likely than African-Americans or whites to report social and psychological reasons for working.  For example, 85% of Hispanics mentioned "enjoy the job/enjoy working" as a reason for working, compared to 71% of African Americans and 69% of whites.  (Table 2, p. 26)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

In a 2008 survey of older adults, "when asked what their major reasons for working are, over three out of four (76%) mention the need for money."  About seven in ten (70%) say that the enjoy the job or enjoy working, while about six in ten (61%) cite their need for health insurance as a major reason....

In a 2008 survey of older adults, "when asked what their major reasons for working are, over three out of four (76%) mention the need for money."  About seven in ten (70%) say that the enjoy the job or enjoy working, while about six in ten (61%) cite their need for health insurance as a major reason. (Multiple responses were allowed).  (Fig. 1, p. 21)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to the results of a 2007 survey on retirement, "those who went back to work after retirement cited the following reasons for doing so: something to do/bored (33%), money (27%), or doing something I enjoy (13%)." (p. 7)

According to the results of a 2007 survey on retirement, "those who went back to work after retirement cited the following reasons for doing so: something to do/bored (33%), money (27%), or doing something I enjoy (13%)." (p. 7)

Koppen, J., & Anderson, G. (2008). Retired spouses: A national survey of adults 55-75. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/general/retired_spouses.pdf

The sample consisted of 1064 adults ages 55-75, married or living as married and who are retired themselves and/or have a spouse who is retired. Questions were included on a survey administrated by telephone on November 1-26, 2007.

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, among persons aged 55-64 who were not working in 2004, 32.4% reported chronic illness or disability as the reason for not working, while 42.8% reported that they were retired. Among those 65 and over who were not working, 85.9% reported that they were retired,...

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, among persons aged 55-64 who were not working in 2004, 32.4% reported chronic illness or disability as the reason for not working, while 42.8% reported that they were retired. Among those 65 and over who were not working, 85.9% reported that they were retired, compared to 7.4% who said the chronic illness or disability was the reason. (table 2, p. 5)

Dalirazar, N. (2007). Reasons people do not work: 2004 (Current Population Reports No. P70-111). Washington, DC: U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p70-111.pdf

The population represented (population universe) in the 2004 SIPP is the civilian noninstitutionalized population living in the United States. The SIPP is a longitudinal survey conducted at 4-month intervals. The data in this report were collected from February through May 2004 in the first wave (interview) of the 2004 SIPP.

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, for nonworkers 45 years and older, health and retirement were the dominant reasons for not working. The proportion of nonworkers listing either of these reasons ranged from 51 percent for 45- to 54-yearolds, to 94 percent for people 65 years and over. Retirement...

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, for nonworkers 45 years and older, health and retirement were the dominant reasons for not working. The proportion of nonworkers listing either of these reasons ranged from 51 percent for 45- to 54-yearolds, to 94 percent for people 65 years and over. Retirement was the reason given by 86 percent of nonworkers 65 years and over. (p. 5)

Dalirazar, N. (2007). Reasons people do not work: 2004 (Current Population Reports No. P70-111). Washington, DC: U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p70-111.pdf

The population represented (population universe) in the 2004 SIPP is the civilian noninstitutionalized population living in the United States. The SIPP is a longitudinal survey conducted at 4-month intervals. The data in this report were collected from February through May 2004 in the first wave (interview) of the 2004 SIPP.

According to a 2006 survey, " women (43%) are more likely than men (30%) to work because they need the income to live on. And single (64%) and divorced (61%) employees are almost twice as likely as those who are married (36%) to continue to work because they need the income to live on." (p.12)

According to a 2006 survey, " women (43%) are more likely than men (30%) to work because they need the income to live on. And single (64%) and divorced (61%) employees are almost twice as likely as those who are married (36%) to continue to work because they need the income to live on." (p.12)

DeLong, D. (2006). Living longer, working longer: The changing landscape of the aging workforce- a MetLife Study.  New York, NY: MetLife Mature Market Institute.   Retrieved August 10, 2006, from http://www.metlife.com/WPSAssets/93703586101144176243V1FLivingLonger.pdf

"This study consisted of an interactive online survey conducted by Zogby with a panel of 2,719 respondents. To qualify for the study, participants had to be between the ages of 55-70. Slight weights were added to region, race and gender to more accurately reflect the population of U.S. adults. A primary focus of the 50-question survey was to better understand the experiences and behaviors of the aging workforce, so the survey included many questions asked only of people who were still working or seeking work, either full- or part-time.”

According to a 2006 study, "55-59 year-old employees are more likely to want access to financial planning resources; those between the ages of 60-65 are more interested in flexible schedules and job design; and workers in the 66-70 age bracket place more value on social interaction and mental stimulation."...

According to a 2006 study, "55-59 year-old employees are more likely to want access to financial planning resources; those between the ages of 60-65 are more interested in flexible schedules and job design; and workers in the 66-70 age bracket place more value on social interaction and mental stimulation." (p.23)

DeLong, D. (2006). Living longer, working longer: The changing landscape of the aging workforce- a MetLife Study.  New York, NY: MetLife Mature Market Institute.   Retrieved August 10, 2006, from http://www.metlife.com/WPSAssets/93703586101144176243V1FLivingLonger.pdf

"This study describes the decisions that older workers are actually making about work and retirement. It reports on their experiences more than their expectations of the journey into retirement, assuming that life stage is not defined by some date, but is rather an ongoing process… It consisted of an interactive online survey conducted by Zogby with a panel of 2,719 respondents. To qualify for the study, participants had to be between the ages of 55-70. Slight weights were added to region, race and gender to more accurately reflect the population of U.S. adults. A primary focus of the 50-question survey was to better understand the experiences and behaviors of the aging workforce, so the survey included many questions asked only of people who were still working or seeking work, either full- or part-time.”

A 2005 survey conducted by Harris Interactive found that 59 percent of older workers (over 55) agreed or strongly agreed that 'A good deal of my pride comes from my work and career' in comparison to 37 percent of those 18-34 years and 48 percent of those between the ages of 35-54. (p.3)

A 2005 survey conducted by Harris Interactive found that 59 percent of older workers (over 55) agreed or strongly agreed that 'A good deal of my pride comes from my work and career' in comparison to 37 percent of those 18-34 years and 48 percent of those between the ages of 35-54. (p.3)

Harris Interactive. (2005, May 6). Many U.S. employees have negative attitudes to their jobs, employers and top managers. Rochester, NY: Harris Interactive. Retrieved June 27, 2006, from http://harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/index.asp?PID=568

"The attitudes of many workers are not what some employers would like them to be.  A new national survey conducted by Harris Interactive finds big differences in employee attitudes in large and small organizations.  People who work in small organizations have much more positive attitudes toward their jobs, their employers and their top managers than people working for large employers.  This survey also finds that younger workers have much more negative views of their jobs, their employers and their top managers than do older workers."

According to the 2005 Work-Filled Retirement survey, "13% of American workers reported that they would be working either full time or part time for the needed income following retirement, compared with 24% in spring 2005. The share of Americans who say they will work part time primarily because...

According to the 2005 Work-Filled Retirement survey, "13% of American workers reported that they would be working either full time or part time for the needed income following retirement, compared with 24% in spring 2005. The share of Americans who say they will work part time primarily because they need the money rather than for enjoyment almost doubled in the past five years, rising from 10% in 2000 to 18% in 2005." (p.5)

Reynolds, S., Ridley, N., & Van Horn, C. (2005). A work-filled retirement: Workers’ changing views on employment and leisure (Work Trends Survey No. 8.1). New Brunswick, NJ: John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/uploadedFiles/Publications/WT16.pdf

“In this report, American workers across the nation describe their expectations of retirement and their views of how older workers are treated in the workplace…A total of 1,232 adults were interviewed for this survey. Respondents who worked full or part time, or who were unemployed and looking for work, received a complete interview. A total of 432 respondents who did not meet these criteria received a short interview that included demographic questions. The results of this report are based on a total of 800 complete interviews with members of the workforce, including 82 people who have retired from their primary job but remain in the workforce. The final results were weighted to match U.S. Census Bureau estimates for age, educational attainment, gender, and race.”

According to the 2005 Work-Filled Retirement survey, "the youngest and oldest worker cohorts--those under 35 and those 55 and older--are more likely than middle-aged workers to believe they will choose to work part time out of interest or for enjoyment following their retirement."

According to the 2005 Work-Filled Retirement survey, "the youngest and oldest worker cohorts--those under 35 and those 55 and older--are more likely than middle-aged workers to believe they will choose to work part time out of interest or for enjoyment following their retirement."

Reynolds, S., Ridley, N., & Van Horn, C. (2005). A work-filled retirement: Workers’ changing views on employment and leisure (Work Trends Survey No. 8.1). New Brunswick, NJ: John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/uploadedFiles/Publications/WT16.pdf

 “In this report, American workers across the nation describe their expectations of retirement and their views of how older workers are treated in the workplace…A total of 1,232 adults were interviewed for this survey. Respondents who worked full or part time, or who were unemployed and looking for work, received a complete interview. A total of 432 respondents who did not meet these criteria received a short interview that included demographic questions. The results of this report are based on a total of 800 complete interviews with members of the workforce, including 82 people who have retired from their primary job but remain in the workforce. The final results were weighted to match U.S. Census Bureau estimates for age, educational attainment, gender, and race.”  

According to a 2005 survey conducted by the AARP, "...the desire to stay mentally active (72%) and the desire to remain productive and useful (71%) were the issues most frequently identified by workers 66+ as major reasons for working in retirement." (p.7)

According to a 2005 survey conducted by the AARP, "...the desire to stay mentally active (72%) and the desire to remain productive and useful (71%) were the issues most frequently identified by workers 66+ as major reasons for working in retirement." (p.7)


AARP. (2005, March). Attitudes of individuals 50 and older toward phased retirement. Research report. Washington, DC: Brown, K.S. Retrieved June 1, 2006, from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/retirement/Articles/attitudes_of_individuals_50_and_older_toward_phase.html

"This survey of individuals ages 50 and older was designed to gauge reactions to the concept of phased retirement as outlined and to determine the extent to which phased retirement would encourage workers near traditional retirement age to remain in the workforce longer than they would have otherwise...Conducted from January 6th through January 15th 2005, the survey was fielded to panel members who were ages 50 or older...A total of 2,167 individuals participated in the survey. Of all respondents, approximately one-third were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to retire by age 65, about one-quarter were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to continue working beyond age 65, approximately one in ten were workers ages 66 or older, and the remaining one-quarter were individuals ages 50 or older who are currently retired."

According to a 2005 AARP survey, “Workers ages 50-65 who plan to continue working after age 65 (76%) were significantly more likely than other respondents to identify the need for money as a major reason to work in retirement."

According to a 2005 AARP survey, “Workers ages 50-65 who plan to continue working after age 65 (76%) were significantly more likely than other respondents to identify the need for money as a major reason to work in retirement."


Brown, S. K. (2005). Attitudes of individuals 50 and older toward phased retirement (research report). Washington, D.C.: AARP Knowledge Management. Retrieved 10/21/2007, from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/retirement/Articles/attitudes_of_individuals_50_and_older_toward_phase.html

"This survey of individuals ages 50 and older was designed to gauge reactions to the concept of phased retirement as outlined and to determine the extent to which phased retirement would encourage workers near traditional retirement age to remain in the workforce longer than they would have otherwise...Conducted from January 6th through January 15th 2005, the survey was fielded to panel members who were ages 50 or older...A total of 2,167 individuals participated in the survey. Of all respondents, approximately one-third were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to retire by age 65, about one-quarter were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to continue working beyond age 65, approximately one in ten were workers ages 66 or older, and the remaining one-quarter were individuals ages 50 or older who are currently retired."

“Respondents [in a 2005 AARP survey] were most likely to identify the need for money (61%) as a major reason. However, the desire to stay mentally active, the desire to stay physically active, and the desire to remain productive or useful were each identified as major reasons by approximately...

“Respondents [in a 2005 AARP survey] were most likely to identify the need for money (61%) as a major reason. However, the desire to stay mentally active, the desire to stay physically active, and the desire to remain productive or useful were each identified as major reasons by approximately half of respondents. Approximately half also named the need for health benefits."


Brown, S. K. (2005). Attitudes of individuals 50 and older toward phased retirement (research report). Washington, D.C.: AARP Knowledge Management. Retrieved 10/21/2007, from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/retirement/Articles/attitudes_of_individuals_50_and_older_toward_phase.html

"This survey of individuals ages 50 and older was designed to gauge reactions to the concept of phased retirement as outlined and to determine the extent to which phased retirement would encourage workers near traditional retirement age to remain in the workforce longer than they would have otherwise...Conducted from January 6th through January 15th 2005, the survey was fielded to panel members who were ages 50 or older...A total of 2,167 individuals participated in the survey. Of all respondents, approximately one-third were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to retire by age 65, about one-quarter were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to continue working beyond age 65, approximately one in ten were workers ages 66 or older, and the remaining one-quarter were individuals ages 50 or older who are currently retired."

According to a 2005 AARP survey, “workers 50-65 who plan to retire by age 65 (65%) were more likely than other respondents to identify the need for health benefits. In fact, the need for health benefits was the issue that workers 50-65 who plan to retire by age 65 named more frequently than any...

According to a 2005 AARP survey, “workers 50-65 who plan to retire by age 65 (65%) were more likely than other respondents to identify the need for health benefits. In fact, the need for health benefits was the issue that workers 50-65 who plan to retire by age 65 named more frequently than any other issue as a major reason for considering work in retirement", according to a 2005 AARP report. (p. 7)

Brown, S. K. (2005). Attitudes of individuals 50 and older toward phased retirement (research report). Washington, D.C.: AARP Knowledge Management. Retrieved 10/21/2007, from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/retirement/Articles/attitudes_of_individuals_50_and_older_toward_phase.html 

"This survey of individuals ages 50 and older was designed to gauge reactions to the concept of phased retirement as outlined and to determine the extent to which phased retirement would encourage workers near traditional retirement age to remain in the workforce longer than they would have otherwise...Conducted from January 6th through January 15th 2005, the survey was fielded to panel members who were ages 50 or older...A total of 2,167 individuals participated in the survey. Of all respondents, approximately one-third were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to retire by age 65, about one-quarter were workers between the ages of 50 and 65 who plan to continue working beyond age 65, approximately one in ten were workers ages 66 or older, and the remaining one-quarter were individuals ages 50 or older who are currently retired."

A 2004 report from the Employee Benefits Research Institute indicates that 43 percent of workers who plan to work in retirement say they will do that in order to keep health insurance or other benefits. (p.8)

A 2004 report from the Employee Benefits Research Institute indicates that 43 percent of workers who plan to work in retirement say they will do that in order to keep health insurance or other benefits. (p.8)

Helman, R., & Paladino, V. (2004). Will Americans ever become savers? the 14th retirement confidence survey, 2004 (Issue Brief No. 268). Washington, DC: Employee Benefits Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/briefspdf/0404ib.pdf

“This Issue Brief reports on the findings from the 14th annual Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), a comprehensive study of the attitudes and behaviors of American workers and retirees toward saving, retirement planning, and long-term financial security.”

The 2004 Retirement Confidence Survey from the Employee Benefit Research Institute reports that 21 percent of workers who expect to work during 'retirement' years anticipate making this decision so that they can help to support children or other family members. (p.8)

The 2004 Retirement Confidence Survey from the Employee Benefit Research Institute reports that 21 percent of workers who expect to work during 'retirement' years anticipate making this decision so that they can help to support children or other family members. (p.8)

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (2004, April). Will Americans ever become savers? The 14th retirement confidence survey, 2004. (Issue Brief No. 268). Washington, DC: Helman, R., Greenwald & Associates, & Paladino, V.

“This Issue Brief reports on the findings from the 14th annual Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), a comprehensive study of the attitudes and behaviors of American workers and retirees toward saving, retirement planning, and long-term financial security.”

According to a 2003 AARP report, a majority of today’s older workers plan to work past the normative retirement age of 62-65, giving many different reasons for doing to. Among the "major factors influencing their decision to work in retirement, working retirees-like pre-retirees-are initially more...

According to a 2003 AARP report, a majority of today’s older workers plan to work past the normative retirement age of 62-65, giving many different reasons for doing to. Among the "major factors influencing their decision to work in retirement, working retirees-like pre-retirees-are initially more likely to point to non-financial considerations such as a desire to remain productive or useful (73%), a desire to stay mentally active (68%), and a desire to stay physically active (61%) than to a need for money (51%). However, similar to pre-retirees, when forced to identify only one major reason that they are working in retirement, working retirees are more likely to point to the need for money (35 %) than to any other motive examined.” (p.45)

AARP. (2003, September). Staying Ahead of the Curve 2003: The AARP Working in Retirement Study. Washington, DC: Brown, S.K. Retrieved July 25, 2006, from http://www.aarp.org/money/careers/employerresourcecenter/researchanddata/a2004-08-02-curve2003.html

“In order to better understand the specific types of jobs that workers envision holding in retirement, explore today’s definition of retirement, and learn more about the workplace experiences and desires of current working retirees, AARP recently conducted a nationwide telephone survey of 2,001 individuals between the ages of 50 and 70 years old who are employed on a full-time or part-time basis. Of the individuals interviewed, more than eight in ten (85 %) have never retired from a job; and fifteen percent report that they have retired from a job but either remained in the workforce after retiring or have since returned to the workforce. The phone interviews, which were conducted by Roper ASW using random digit dialing, took place from April 9 through June 5, 2003.”

According to a 2003 AARP survey, when asked why they expect to work in retirement, surveyed workers overwhelmingly cited non-financial reasons, such as the desire to stay mentally active (87%), the desire to stay physically active (85%), and the desire to be productive or useful (77%). (p.21)

According to a 2003 AARP survey, when asked why they expect to work in retirement, surveyed workers overwhelmingly cited non-financial reasons, such as the desire to stay mentally active (87%), the desire to stay physically active (85%), and the desire to be productive or useful (77%). (p.21)

AARP. (2003, September). Staying Ahead of the Curve 2003: The AARP Working in Retirement Study. Washington, D.C.: Brown, S.K. Retrieved July 25, 2006 from http://www.aarp.org/money/careers/employerresourcecenter/researchanddata/a2004-08-02-curve2003.html

"In order to better understand the specific types of jobs that workers envision holding in retirement, explore today's definition of retirement, and learn more about the workplace experiences and desires of current woring retirees, AARP recently conducted a nationwide telephone survey of 2,001 individuals between the ages of 50 and 70 years old who are employed on a full-time or part-time basis."

According to a 2003 AARP survey, when asked to choose "one major factor in the decision to work in retirement," surveyed workers cited the need for money (22%), the need for health benefits (17%), and nonfinancial considerations such as the need to stay mentally active (15%) and the need to be productive...

According to a 2003 AARP survey, when asked to choose "one major factor in the decision to work in retirement," surveyed workers cited the need for money (22%), the need for health benefits (17%), and nonfinancial considerations such as the need to stay mentally active (15%) and the need to be productive and useful (14%). (p.21)

AARP. (2003, September). Staying Ahead of the Curve 2003: The AARP Working in Retirement Study. Washington, D.C.: Brown, S.K. Retrieved July 25, 2006 from http://www.aarp.org/money/careers/employerresourcecenter/researchanddata/a2004-08-02-curve2003.html

"In order to better understand the specific types of jobs that workers envision holding in retirement, explore today's definition of retirement, and learn more about the workplace experiences and desires of current working retirees, AARP recently conducted a nationwide telephone survey of 2,001 individuals between the ages of 50 and 70 years olds who are employed on a full-time or part-time basis."

According to a 2002 report on a Conference Board survey, Two-thirds (69%) of the older workers responding to the survey who said that they plan to continue to work for at least five years reported that their financial needs strongly affect their decisions about continuing to work. (p.30)

According to a 2002 report on a Conference Board survey, Two-thirds (69%) of the older workers responding to the survey who said that they plan to continue to work for at least five years reported that their financial needs strongly affect their decisions about continuing to work. (p.30)

Parkinson, D. (2002).  Voices of experience: Mature workers in the future workforce. New York, NY: The Conference Board.

"Anticipating the impact of demographic trends on businesses, The Conference Board has been engaged in research examining the aging population, health care for retired employees, and the opportunities and constraints of employing older workers.  The Board convened the Engaging Mature Workers Working Group in September 2000 to address the challenge of maintaining a productive workforce in an aging society.  HR executives representing corporate staffing, benefits administration, and diversity management functions at 15 leading companies are lending their expertise to developing business strategies that maximize the talents of mature workers."

A 2002 AARP survey found that 91 percent of workers 45 years and older say that 'working helps keep people healthy and active.' (p.38)

A 2002 AARP survey found that 91 percent of workers 45 years and older say that 'working helps keep people healthy and active.' (p.38)

AARP. (2002, September). Staying ahead of the curve. AARP work and career study. (A national survey conducted for AARP by Roper ASW). Washington, DC: AARP.

"The confluence of two important demographic shifts promises to reshape the U.S. workforce over the next decade and beyond.  First, there will be more workers over age 55.  In 2000, 13 percent of the workforce was 55 and older, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and by 2015, this figure is expected to rise to 20 percent.  During the same period, the highest growth rate in the U.S. workforce will be among workers aged 55 to 64...As the [baby] boomer population moves through the workforce and retires, there will be more jobs than workers to fill them.  This is due in large part to the smaller size of the generations following the boomer cohort.  Consequently, the U.S. will grow older and face critical shortages of qualified workers, especially in the dominant and growing service sectors of the economy."

According to a 2002 survey, "forty-five-plus workers want to continue working and to have viable work options later in life; indeed, 84 percent say they would work even if they were financially set for life and 69 percent say they plan to work into their so-called retirement years." (p.6)

According to a 2002 survey, "forty-five-plus workers want to continue working and to have viable work options later in life; indeed, 84 percent say they would work even if they were financially set for life and 69 percent say they plan to work into their so-called retirement years." (p.6)

RoperASW. (2002, September). Staying ahead of the curve: The AARP work and career study. Washington, DC: AARP

"Staying Ahead of the Curve is based on a national telephone study conducted for AARP in May and June 2002 by RoperASW. 2,518 workers ages 45 to 74, including a representative national sample of 1,500 workers, as well as over-samples of African American, Hispanic, and Asian American 45+ workers." (p.5)

In the 2000 Cornell Retirement and Well-Being study, Moen and her colleagues asked 'retired' individuals who worked for pay why they did so. They found that while the need 'to keep active' was the primary reason (89%), study respondents commented that they also 'desired...

In the 2000 Cornell Retirement and Well-Being study, Moen and her colleagues asked 'retired' individuals who worked for pay why they did so. They found that while the need 'to keep active' was the primary reason (89%), study respondents commented that they also 'desired additional income' (63%) or 'needed additional income' (41%). (p.15)

Moen, P., Erickson, A. W., Agarwal, M., Fields, V., & Todd, L. (2000). The Cornell retirement and well-being study. Final Report. Ithaca, NY: Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center at Cornell University.

"The Cornell Retirement and Well-Being Study investigates the transition to-and life in-retirement. The focus is on pathways in and out of paid work and unpaid community service, as well as their implications for well-being. Most studies of retirement have viewed it as a one-way, onetime exit, and have examined men’s experiences exclusively. By contrast, we look at men and women, interviewing a large (n=664) sample of 50-72 year olds every two years over a five-year period, from 1994-95 to 1998-99. The study consists of three waves of interviews of older workers and retirees, collected approximately two years apart: 1994-95, 1996-97, and 1998-99. We selected people to study from random lists of workers and retirees (age 50-72 in1994-95) from six major upstate New York corporations. Participating organizations include one university, two hospitals, two Fortune 500 firms, and a utility company. Our original sample, interviewed in 1994-95, consisted of 762 retirees and not-yet-retired older workers.”

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