Older Workers, Job Skills and Demands

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According to a 2014 Pew survey, 56% of adults ages 65 and older now say they use a computer, compared with 89% of 18-29 year olds, 86% of 30-49 year olds and 84% of those aged 50-64.

According to a 2014 Pew survey, 56% of adults ages 65 and older now say they use a computer, compared with 89% of 18-29 year olds, 86% of 30-49 year olds and 84% of those aged 50-64.

Fox, S., & Rainee, L. (2014). The web at 25 in the U.S. part 1: How the internet has woven itself into American life. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/02/27/part-1-how-the-internet-has-woven-itself-into-american-life/

This survey is based on telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,006 adults living in the continental United States. Telephone interviews were conducted by landline (502) and cell phone (504, including 288 without a landline phone). The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International (PSRAI). Interviews were done in English and Spanish by Princeton Data Source from January 9 to 12, 2014.

According to a 2014 Transamerica retirement readiness survey, when workers were asked "what steps they are taking to help ensure they can continue working, "a majority says they are staying healthy (60 percent), while 50 percent are performing well at their current job and 41 percent are keeping job...

According to a 2014 Transamerica retirement readiness survey, when workers were asked "what steps they are taking to help ensure they can continue working, "a majority says they are staying healthy (60 percent), while 50 percent are performing well at their current job and 41 percent are keeping job skills up-to-date. However, responses were much lower for networking (19 percent), scoping out the employment market (15 percent), and going back to school (11 percent). Baby Boomers, the generation nearing retirement, are only somewhat more proactive than other generations." (p. 35)

Collinson, C. (2014). The retirement readiness of three unique generations: Baby boomers, generation X, and millennials. US: Transamerican Center for Retirement Studies. Retrieved from http://www.transamericacenter.org/docs/default-source/resources/center-research/tcrs2014_sr_three_unique_generations.pdf

A 22-minute, online survey was conducted between February 21 - March 17, 2014 among a nationally representative sample of 4,143 workers age 18 or older by Harris Poll for Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies. Respondents were full-time or part-time workers in a for-profit company employing 10 or more people. The base included 1,021 Millennials, 1,120 Generation X, 1,805 Baby Boomers, and 197 who were born prior to 1946.

According to a 2014 Transamerica retirement readiness survey, "to better understand the extent to which Baby Boomers are proactively preparing themselves to help ensure continued employment, an analysis of the survey responses found that 92 percent of Baby Boomers have taken at least one of the six...

According to a 2014 Transamerica retirement readiness survey, "to better understand the extent to which Baby Boomers are proactively preparing themselves to help ensure continued employment, an analysis of the survey responses found that 92 percent of Baby Boomers have taken at least one of the six steps identified [trying to stay healthy, performing well in their current job, keeping job skills up-to-date, networking, scoping out the employment market, going back to school]. Slightly more than half (52 percent) had taken two steps, 32 percent had taken three steps, 12 percent four steps, and five percent five steps. Only one percent of Baby Boomers have taken all six steps." (p. 36)

Collinson, C. (2014). The retirement readiness of three unique generations: Baby boomers, generation X, and millennials. US: Transamerican Center for Retirement Studies. Retrieved from http://www.transamericacenter.org/docs/default-source/resources/center-research/tcrs2014_sr_three_unique_generations.pdf

A 22-minute, online survey was conducted between February 21 - March 17, 2014 among a nationally representative sample of 4,143 workers age 18 or older by Harris Poll for Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies. Respondents were full-time or part-time workers in a for-profit company employing 10 or more people. The base included 1,021 Millennials, 1,120 Generation X, 1,805 Baby Boomers, and 197 who were born prior to 1946.

According to a 2013 analysis of NHANES data, among respondants aged 46-64 at the time surveyed, 13.2% of baby boomers had limitations in their ability to work compared to 10.1% of the previous generation. (p. 385)

According to a 2013 analysis of NHANES data, among respondants aged 46-64 at the time surveyed, 13.2% of baby boomers had limitations in their ability to work compared to 10.1% of the previous generation. (p. 385)

King, D. E., Matheson, E., Chirina, S., Shankar, A., & Broman-Fulks, J. (2013). The status of baby boomers' health in the United States: The healthiest generation? JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(5), 385-386.

This report is based on analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examinaton Survey (NHANES), including NHANES III (for previous generation) and NHANES for 2007-2012 (for baby boomers).

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "40% of adults age 50 years and older who have searched for a job in the last five years say they have not had the right skills for the available jobs, and 35% say they lacked the right degree or education."...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "40% of adults age 50 years and older who have searched for a job in the last five years say they have not had the right skills for the available jobs, and 35% say they lacked the right degree or education." (p.6)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "69% of adults age 50 years and older who have searched for a job in the last five years say they have experienced a lack of available jobs, 63% had trouble finding jobs offering an adequate salary, and 53% said...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "69% of adults age 50 years and older who have searched for a job in the last five years say they have experienced a lack of available jobs, 63% had trouble finding jobs offering an adequate salary, and 53% said there were not enough jobs offering adequate benefits. Forty-five percent have experienced feeling too old for the available jobs, 43% have encountered employers being concerned about their age, and 32% were told they were overqualified." (p.6)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, among employed older adults, since turning 50, 60% of those surveyed say "they have had colleagues come to them for advice more often and 42% say they have felt as though they were receiving more respect within...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, among employed older adults, since turning 50, 60% of those surveyed say "they have had colleagues come to them for advice more often and 42% say they have felt as though they were receiving more respect within the company." (p.5)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "22% of workers age 50 years and older say they have cut back on their hours at work, 20% say they have tried to take on fewer physically demanding tasks at work, and 15% say they have tried to take on fewer...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "22% of workers age 50 years and older say they have cut back on their hours at work, 20% say they have tried to take on fewer physically demanding tasks at work, and 15% say they have tried to take on fewer mentally demanding tasks at work". (p.4)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "44% of adults age 50 years and older have a job that they say requires physical effort almost all or most of the time, and another 25% say their job requires physical effort some of the time. Three in ten say...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "44% of adults age 50 years and older have a job that they say requires physical effort almost all or most of the time, and another 25% say their job requires physical effort some of the time. Three in ten say their job requires little to no physical effort. Adults age 50-54 (52%) and adults age 55-59 (55%) are more likely than adults age 60-64 (38%) and adults age 65 and older (39%) to have a job that requires or to have had a job that required physical effort almost all or most of the time". (p.4)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, among "adults ages 50-64, only 17% don't go online." In comparison, "adults ages 65 and older are significantly more likely than any other age group to be offline, with 44% saying they don't use the internet or email." (p. 9)

According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, among "adults ages 50-64, only 17% don't go online." In comparison, "adults ages 65 and older are significantly more likely than any other age group to be offline, with 44% saying they don't use the internet or email." (p. 9)

Pew Research Center. (2013). Who's not online and why. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2013/PIP_Offline%20adults_092513_PDF.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from April 17 to May 19, 2013, among a sample of 2,252 adults ages 18 and older.

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, nearly two-thirds say that in searching for a job "they do or would use friends, family, or acquantainces or that they would contact employers directly (65%) followed by newspaper ads (54%), and job websites (52%)". (p. 3)

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, nearly two-thirds say that in searching for a job "they do or would use friends, family, or acquantainces or that they would contact employers directly (65%) followed by newspaper ads (54%), and job websites (52%)". (p. 3)

AARP. (2013). Staying ahead of the curve 2013: AARP multicultural work and career study. Snapshot of the wants and needs of older workers -- ages 45-74 (revised). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/econ/2013/Staying-Ahead-of-the-Curve-2013-Snapshot-of-the-Wants-and-Needs-of-Older-Workers-AARP-rsa-econ.pdf

The facts provided in this publication by the AARP were acquired through a telephone survey fielded in November 2012 and December 2012 with a national sample of 1,502 adults ages 45-74 who were working full-time or part-time, self-employed, or looking for work.

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, "nine in ten older employed workers say that their current job allows them to use their skills and talents either somewhat (22%) or a lot (69%)". (p. 2)

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, "nine in ten older employed workers say that their current job allows them to use their skills and talents either somewhat (22%) or a lot (69%)". (p. 2)

AARP. (2013). Staying ahead of the curve 2013: AARP multicultural work and career study. Snapshot of the wants and needs of older workers -- ages 45-74 (revised). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/econ/2013/Staying-Ahead-of-the-Curve-2013-Snapshot-of-the-Wants-and-Needs-of-Older-Workers-AARP-rsa-econ.pdf

The facts provided in this publication by the AARP were acquired through a telephone survey fielded in November 2012 and December 2012 with a national sample of 1,502 adults ages 45-74 who were working full-time or part-time, self-employed, or looking for work.

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, among the top factors determining an ideal job, 9 out of 10 older workers said respect in the workplace, a friendly work environment and the opportunity to use their skills. "A majority of older workers also indicated that adequate paid time off (76%),...

According to a 2013 AARP survey of older workers, among the top factors determining an ideal job, 9 out of 10 older workers said respect in the workplace, a friendly work environment and the opportunity to use their skills. "A majority of older workers also indicated that adequate paid time off (76%), a flexible schedule (72%), good pension benefits (64%), on-the-job training (58%), a 401k plan (56%), and the opportunity to gradually phase into retirement (53%) are essential elements of their ideal job". (p. 2)

AARP. (2013). Staying ahead of the curve 2013: AARP multicultural work and career study. Snapshot of the wants and needs of older workers -- ages 45-74 (revised). Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/econ/2013/Staying-Ahead-of-the-Curve-2013-Snapshot-of-the-Wants-and-Needs-of-Older-Workers-AARP-rsa-econ.pdf

The facts provided in this publication by the AARP were acquired through a telephone survey fielded in November 2012 and December 2012 with a national sample of 1,502 adults ages 45-74 who were working full-time or part-time, self-employed, or looking for work.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, people with bosses who are older than they are are less likely to report that they have cut back on their hours than are people who have younger bosses (9% vs. 23%). People who have an older boss are more likely...

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, people with bosses who are older than they are are less likely to report that they have cut back on their hours than are people who have younger bosses (9% vs. 23%). People who have an older boss are more likely than those with a younger boss to consider their age to be an asset to their career (39% vs. 20%). (p.4)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2012 Pew survey, "as of April 2012, 53% of American adults age 65 and older use the internet or email. Though these adults are still less likely than all other age groups to use the internet, the latest data represent the first time that half of seniors are going online....86% of internet...

According to a 2012 Pew survey, "as of April 2012, 53% of American adults age 65 and older use the internet or email. Though these adults are still less likely than all other age groups to use the internet, the latest data represent the first time that half of seniors are going online....86% of internet users age 65 and older use email, with 48% doing so on a typical day," and "one third (34%) of internet users age 65 and older use social networking sites such as Facebook, and 18% do so on a typical day."

Zickuhr, K., & Madden, M. (2012). Older adults and internet use. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2012/PIP_Older_adults_and_internet_use.pdf

This report is based on the findings of a survey on Americans' use of the internet. The results in this report are based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from March 15 to April 3, 2012, among a sample of 2,254 adults, age 18 and older.

According to a 2012 survey of hiring managers at 500 U.S. companies, "when it comes to skills that need strengthening, hiring managers feel mature workers need more technological know-how (72 percent), while that is the skill that Millennials need to develop least (5 percent)." Millennials, on the other...

According to a 2012 survey of hiring managers at 500 U.S. companies, "when it comes to skills that need strengthening, hiring managers feel mature workers need more technological know-how (72 percent), while that is the skill that Millennials need to develop least (5 percent)." Millennials, on the other hand, need to improve their writing skills (46 percent), while far fewer mature workers need to do so (9 percent)."

Telephone survey of 501 hiring managers (those responsible for making hiring decisions at their company, division, group or job), fielded by Braun Research from August 23-30, 2012. Differences between various demographics groups were also explored: Gender and Geographic Region. Survey results have a margin of error +/- 4.4% for this sample size.

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the American Community Survey, "across all occupations, the intensity of work measured by mean weekly hours of employment for workers of all ages (16+) was not very different from the work intensity of mature workers. In 2010, the mean weekly hours of employment...

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the American Community Survey, "across all occupations, the intensity of work measured by mean weekly hours of employment for workers of all ages (16+) was not very different from the work intensity of mature workers. In 2010, the mean weekly hours of employment among workers of all ages was 38 hours; only one hour more than the mean weekly hours of employment among mature workers." (p. 13)

Fogg, N. P., & Harrington, P. E. (2012). Occupational profiles for the mature worker: Finding and using detailed information about occupations with the largest share of mature workers. Chicago: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL). Retrieved from http://www.cael.org/pdfs/TMT_Occupational_Profiles

We identified those occupations with the highest concentration of workers aged 55 and above through an analysis of the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) public use data files. we also used the ACS data in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupation Information Network, known as the O*NET information system, to develop the specific occupational profiles in this study.

According to a 2012 survey of small business owners in Canada, "eighty-five per cent say that workers 65 years and older are just as productive as younger workers and 79 per cent concur that senior workers have the required level of energy and ambition for their jobs."

According to a 2012 survey of small business owners in Canada, "eighty-five per cent say that workers 65 years and older are just as productive as younger workers and 79 per cent concur that senior workers have the required level of energy and ambition for their jobs."

Investors Group. (2012). A little bit older, A little bit wiser: Canada's small business owners admire older workers. Winnepeg, Canada: Investors Group. Retrieved from http://www.investorsgroup.com/en/client-resources/investors-group-news/a-little-bit-older-a-little-bit-wiser

This survey was conducted by Harris/Decima online from September 21-October 14, 2012, with 743 owners or senior financial decision makers of businesses of less than 500 employees. The data was weighted by business size within region to match the profile of businesses of this size in Canada.

According to a 2012 survey of small business owners in Canada, "only 24 per cent of business owners suggest that seniors looking for employment should focus on casual employment opportunities in the retail or service industries. Instead, a majority (56 per cent) recommend they apply for whatever opportunities...

According to a 2012 survey of small business owners in Canada, "only 24 per cent of business owners suggest that seniors looking for employment should focus on casual employment opportunities in the retail or service industries. Instead, a majority (56 per cent) recommend they apply for whatever opportunities interest them...Half (51 per cent) recommend that older workers try to make an arrangement with their current employer before looking elsewhere or suggested reaching out to other employers in their current area of expertise (51 per cent)."

Investors Group. (2012). A little bit older, A little bit wiser: Canada's small business owners admire older workers. Winnepeg, Canada: Investors Group. Retrieved from http://www.investorsgroup.com/en/client-resources/investors-group-news/a-little-bit-older-a-little-bit-wiser

This survey was conducted by Harris/Decima online from September 21-October 14, 2012, with 743 owners or senior financial decision makers of businesses of less than 500 employees. The data was weighted by business size within region to match the profile of businesses of this size in Canada.

According to a 2012 survey of small business owners in Canada, "while 31 per cent of small business owners currently have employment opportunities within their organizations, most (79 per cent) believe it's not likely that the position will be filled by someone older than 65 now, or in the future (64...

According to a 2012 survey of small business owners in Canada, "while 31 per cent of small business owners currently have employment opportunities within their organizations, most (79 per cent) believe it's not likely that the position will be filled by someone older than 65 now, or in the future (64 per cent)...Half (51 per cent) the survey respondents also concede health issues are more likely to affect the attendance or job performance of workers who are seniors. Fifty-five per cent believe they are not as technologically adept as younger workers."

Investors Group. (2012). A little bit older, A little bit wiser: Canada's small business owners admire older workers. Winnepeg, Canada: Investors Group. Retrieved from http://www.investorsgroup.com/en/client-resources/investors-group-news/a-little-bit-older-a-little-bit-wiser

This survey was conducted by Harris/Decima online from September 21-October 14, 2012, with 743 owners or senior financial decision makers of businesses of less than 500 employees. The data was weighted by business size within region to match the profile of businesses of this size in Canada.

According to a 2010 report from the American Society for Training and Development, among the categories of skills most lacking among the responding companies, "in first place were leadership and executive-level skills, reported lacking by 50 percent of respondents." (p. 9)

According to a 2010 report from the American Society for Training and Development, among the categories of skills most lacking among the responding companies, "in first place were leadership and executive-level skills, reported lacking by 50 percent of respondents." (p. 9)

American Society for Training & Development. (2010). Bridging the skills gap: New factors compound the growing skills shortage. Retrieved from http://www.astd.org/NR/rdonlyres/715133A3-7FC4-425D-836D-650A150581DE/0/BridgingtheSkillsGap2010.pdf

In a 2009 a Skills Gap poll was condcuted by the American Society for Training and Development. Responses were received from 1,179 organizations.

According to 2010 Civic Ventures/Metlife projections, "there could be 14.6 million new nonfarm payroll jobs created between 2008 and 2018 (and a total of 15.3 million including self-employed workers, family members working in family businesses and those in farming). Given projected population growth...

According to 2010 Civic Ventures/Metlife projections, "there could be 14.6 million new nonfarm payroll jobs created between 2008 and 2018 (and a total of 15.3 million including self-employed workers, family members working in family businesses and those in farming). Given projected population growth and current labor force participation rates, assuming no major change in immigration, there will only be about 9.1 million additional workers to fill all positions. Even taking into account multiple job holders, the total number of jobs that could be filled at current labor force participation rates is 9.6 million, leaving anywhere from 5.0 million to 5.7 million potential jobs vacant." (p. 3)

Bluestone, B., & Melnik, M. (2010). After the recovery: Help needed: The coming labor shortage and how people in encore careers can help solve it. United States: Civic Ventures and Metlife. Retrieved from http://www.encore.org/files/research/JobsBluestonePaper3-5-10.pdf

The 2008 employment level and 10-year projected growth for each of the occupations in each of these private and governmental industries has been estimated using U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics occupation projections, which are included in the Labor Market Assessment.

According to 2010 Civic Ventures/Metlife projections, "between now and 2018 there will be more than 5.2 million new jobs available across a range of private social sector industries with another 1.7 million jobs available in local, state and federal government agencies, a total of 6.9 million new social...

According to 2010 Civic Ventures/Metlife projections, "between now and 2018 there will be more than 5.2 million new jobs available across a range of private social sector industries with another 1.7 million jobs available in local, state and federal government agencies, a total of 6.9 million new social sector jobs overall. These new private and public social sector jobs represent 47 percent of total projected nonfarm payroll employment growth....the number of jobs that could be filled at current labor force participation rates is 4.5 million, leaving anywhere from 2.4 to 2.6 million potential new jobs vacant in these social sector industries." (p. 3)

Bluestone, B., & Melnik, M. (2010). After the recovery: Help needed: The coming labor shortage and how people in encore careers can help solve it. United States: Civic Ventures and Metlife. Retrieved from http://www.encore.org/files/research/JobsBluestonePaper3-5-10.pdf

The 2008 employment level and 10-year projected growth for each of the occupations in each of these private and governmental industries has been estimated using U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics occupation projections, which are included in the Labor Market Assessment.

According to a 2010 AARP survey, "two out of five (40%) adults age 50 and over consider themselves extremely (17%) or very (23%) comfortable using the Internet. One out of five (21%) Hispanic adults age 50 and over consider themselves extremely (6%) or very (15%) comfortable using the Internet." (p....

According to a 2010 AARP survey, "two out of five (40%) adults age 50 and over consider themselves extremely (17%) or very (23%) comfortable using the Internet. One out of five (21%) Hispanic adults age 50 and over consider themselves extremely (6%) or very (15%) comfortable using the Internet." (p. 1)

Koppen, J. (2010). Social media and technology use among adults 50+. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/general/socmedia.pdf

The survey was conducted via telephone by GfK Custom Research. Questions were included on GfK's OmniTel and Hispanic OmniTel surveys during May 12-17, 2010. A nationally representative sample of 1,360 adults age 50 and older, as well as 503 Hispanic adults age 50 and older, completed the interviews.

According to the Older Americans 2010 report, "between 1992 and 2007, the age-adjusted proportion of people age 65 and over with a functional limitation declined from 49 percent to 42 percent. " (p. xv)

According to the Older Americans 2010 report, "between 1992 and 2007, the age-adjusted proportion of people age 65 and over with a functional limitation declined from 49 percent to 42 percent. " (p. xv)

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2010). Older Americans 2010: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2010_Documents/Docs/OA_2010.pdf

This report uses data from over a dozen national data sources, including the Current Population Survey, the Health and Retirement Survey, the American Time Use Survey, etc.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "63.3 percent of older workers in the bottom wage quintile had difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions] compared to only about 25 percent of those in the top quintile." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "63.3 percent of older workers in the bottom wage quintile had difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions] compared to only about 25 percent of those in the top quintile." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "56.4 percent of older workers in the bottom wage quintile had physically demanding jobs compared to only about 17 percent of those in the top quintile." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "56.4 percent of older workers in the bottom wage quintile had physically demanding jobs compared to only about 17 percent of those in the top quintile." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "immigrant workers age 58 and older were more likely (47.5 percent) than non-immigrant workers (33 percent) to have physically demanding jobs. Nearly 56 percent of immigrant workers had difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs...

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "immigrant workers age 58 and older were more likely (47.5 percent) than non-immigrant workers (33 percent) to have physically demanding jobs. Nearly 56 percent of immigrant workers had difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions]. (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "older workers with less than a high school diploma had the highest share of workers (77.2 percent) in difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions]. Those with an advanced degree had the...

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "older workers with less than a high school diploma had the highest share of workers (77.2 percent) in difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions]. Those with an advanced degree had the lowest share of workers (22 percent) in difficult jobs."

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "among those age 58 and older, difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions], were held by 62.4 percent of Latino workers, 53.2 percent of black workers, 50.5 percent of Asian Pacific American...

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "among those age 58 and older, difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions], were held by 62.4 percent of Latino workers, 53.2 percent of black workers, 50.5 percent of Asian Pacific American workers, and 42.6 percent of white workers." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "out of 1.4 million Latino workers age 58 and older, about 54 percent had physically demanding jobs. Latino men had the largest share (62.4 percent) of older workers in physically demanding jobs." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "out of 1.4 million Latino workers age 58 and older, about 54 percent had physically demanding jobs. Latino men had the largest share (62.4 percent) of older workers in physically demanding jobs." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "37 percent of male workers age 58 and older had jobs that involved any general physical demand, compared to 32.2 percent of female workers age 58 and older." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "37 percent of male workers age 58 and older had jobs that involved any general physical demand, compared to 32.2 percent of female workers age 58 and older." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "social networking use among internet users ages 50 and older has nearly doubled  -- from 22% to 42% over the past year [2009-2010]. Half (47%) of internet users ages 50-64 and one in four (26%) users age 65 and older now use social networking sites." (p. 2)

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "social networking use among internet users ages 50 and older has nearly doubled  -- from 22% to 42% over the past year [2009-2010]. Half (47%) of internet users ages 50-64 and one in four (26%) users age 65 and older now use social networking sites." (p. 2)

Madden, M. (2010). Older adults and social media. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Older-Adults-and-Social-Media.aspx

This report is based on the findings of a daily tracking survey on Americans' use of the internet. The results in this report are primarily based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International between April 29 and May 30, 2010, among a sample of 2,252 adults, age 18 and older.

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "one in five (20%) adults ages 50-64 say they use social networking sites on a typical day, up from 10% one year ago. Likewise, 13% of online adults ages 65 and older log on to social networking sites, compared with just 4% who did so in 2009." (p. 3)

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "one in five (20%) adults ages 50-64 say they use social networking sites on a typical day, up from 10% one year ago. Likewise, 13% of online adults ages 65 and older log on to social networking sites, compared with just 4% who did so in 2009." (p. 3)

Madden, M. (2010). Older adults and social media. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Older-Adults-and-Social-Media.aspx

This report is based on the findings of a daily tracking survey on Americans' use of the internet. The results in this report are primarily based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International between April 29 and May 30, 2010, among a sample of 2,252 adults, age 18 and older.

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "92% of those ages 50-64 and 89% of those ages 65 and older send or read email and more than half of each group exchanges email messages on a typical day. Online news gathering also ranks highly in the daily media habits of older adults; 76% of internet users ages 50-64...

According to a 2010 Pew survey, "92% of those ages 50-64 and 89% of those ages 65 and older send or read email and more than half of each group exchanges email messages on a typical day. Online news gathering also ranks highly in the daily media habits of older adults; 76% of internet users ages 50-64 get news online, and 42% do so on a typical day.  Among internet users ages 65 and older, 62% look for news online and 34% do so on a typical day." (p. 4)

Madden, M. (2010). Older adults and social media. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Older-Adults-and-Social-Media.aspx

This report is based on the findings of a daily tracking survey on Americans' use of the internet. The results in this report are primarily based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International between April 29 and May 30, 2010, among a sample of 2,252 adults, age 18 and older.

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "in 2009 6.5 million workers age 58 and older (about 35 percent) had physically demanding jobs, while 5.0 million workers age 58 and older (about 27 percent) had jobs with difficult working conditions. More than 8.5 million workers age 58 and...

According to a 2010 analysis of job characteristics data, "in 2009 6.5 million workers age 58 and older (about 35 percent) had physically demanding jobs, while 5.0 million workers age 58 and older (about 27 percent) had jobs with difficult working conditions. More than 8.5 million workers age 58 and older (about 45 percent) were employed in difficult jobs [that is, either physically demanding jobs or jobs with difficult working conditions]." (p. 1)

Rho, H. J. (2010). Hard work? patterns in physically demanding labor among older workers. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved from http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/older-workers-2010-08.pdf

This report is based on analysis of job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network [O*NET] in conjunction with the data from the 2009 Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) of the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2010 Pew survey, among workers who were unemployed for some period during the recession but are now re-employed, "nearly eight-in-ten re-employed workers say they are satisfied with their current job. But the job satisfaction share is even higher--89%--among workers who did not suffer...

According to a 2010 Pew survey, among workers who were unemployed for some period during the recession but are now re-employed, "nearly eight-in-ten re-employed workers say they are satisfied with their current job. But the job satisfaction share is even higher--89%--among workers who did not suffer a spell of unemployment during the recession. Moreover, the reemployed are more likely to feel overqualified for their current position than those who did not lose a job (54% vs. 36%)."

Morin, R. (2010). Back at work but...most ‘re-employed’ workers say they’re overqualified for their new job. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/763-re-employed-workers.pdf

This report is based on data from telephone interviews conducted May 11-31, 2010. 2,967 interviews, including 376 with adults working full- or part-time at the time of the survey who were unemployed at some point since the recession began in December, 2007.

According to a 2009 study conducted by the Sloan Center on Aging and Work, "half (50%) of the employers surveyed indicated that they had not assessed the competency sets of their employees ("not at all" or "to a limited extent"). (fig. 3 and p. 10)

According to a 2009 study conducted by the Sloan Center on Aging and Work, "half (50%) of the employers surveyed indicated that they had not assessed the competency sets of their employees ("not at all" or "to a limited extent"). (fig. 3 and p. 10)

Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Sweet, S., Lynch, K., & Whalley, E. (2009). Talent management study: The pressures of talent management (Issue Brief No. 23). Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB23_TalentMangmntStudy_2009-10-23.pdf

The 2009 Strategic Talent Management Study examined talent management practices at 696 organizations representing the 10 leading sectors of the economy that account for 83% of employment and 85% of payrolls in the United States. The data were collected in April-August 2009 from leading officers in these companies, most commonly human resource directors or chief executive officers. The study included smaller enterprises (employing < 100 employees), medium-sized enterprises (100-249 employees), and large enterprises (250+ employees).

According to the 2009 Kelly Global Workforce Survey, among respondents in North America, "65 percent of Gen Y have worked closely with colleagues from a different country or culture in the last two years, higher than for Gen X (64 percent) and baby boomers (62 percent)... Among baby boomers, 78 percent...

According to the 2009 Kelly Global Workforce Survey, among respondents in North America, "65 percent of Gen Y have worked closely with colleagues from a different country or culture in the last two years, higher than for Gen X (64 percent) and baby boomers (62 percent)... Among baby boomers, 78 percent feel they currently have the skills to work in a more globally." For all generations combined, "41 percent say they receive no formal cross-cultural or language training from their employer." (p. 1)

Kelly Services. (2009). International survey reveals how globalization is defining workplace skills. Troy, MI: Kelly Services. Retrieved from http://media.marketwire.com/attachments/EZIR/562/558150_KWGI_Globalization_DEC9.pdf

The findings are part of the 2009 Kelly Global Workforce Index, which obtained the views of approximately 90,000 people in 33 countries across North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "approximately one-quarter (26%) of older workers report that they have difficulty keeping up with the new technology required to do their job, and a similar proportion (29%) express resistance to learning new skills at this stage of their careers)."...

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "approximately one-quarter (26%) of older workers report that they have difficulty keeping up with the new technology required to do their job, and a similar proportion (29%) express resistance to learning new skills at this stage of their careers)." (p. 41)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "nearly half (46%) of older Hispanic workers say they have difficulty keeping up with technology compared to just one in four (25%) whites and about three in ten (31%) African American workers." (p. 101)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "nearly half (46%) of older Hispanic workers say they have difficulty keeping up with technology compared to just one in four (25%) whites and about three in ten (31%) African American workers." (p. 101)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

A 2008 analysis of BLS data shows that workers in the 100 fastest-growing occupations are much better educated than workers in other occupations, with 43 percent of their workers college graduates, compared with 26 percent of workers in other occupations. (p. 30)

A 2008 analysis of BLS data shows that workers in the 100 fastest-growing occupations are much better educated than workers in other occupations, with 43 percent of their workers college graduates, compared with 26 percent of workers in other occupations. (p. 30)

Mermin, Gordon B. T., Richard W. Johnson, and Eric J. Toder. (2008). Will Employers Want Aging Boomers? Retirement Project Discussion Paper 08-04. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411705_aging_boomers.pdf

This report examines the current employer demand for older workers and explores how demand may be changing over time, based on analysis of a variety of national employment and earnings statistics, including Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006), the Employment and Training Administration's Occupational Information Network, and Current Population Survey

A 2008 analysis of BLS data shows that "the fast growing occupations appear to offer more job flexibility, as 17 percent of workers in these occupations work part-time, compared with only 13 percent of workers in other occupations. Only 18 percent of fast-growing jobs require any physical demands, compared...

A 2008 analysis of BLS data shows that "the fast growing occupations appear to offer more job flexibility, as 17 percent of workers in these occupations work part-time, compared with only 13 percent of workers in other occupations. Only 18 percent of fast-growing jobs require any physical demands, compared with 52 percent of other occupations." (p. 31)

Mermin, G.B. T.,  Johnson, R. W., and Toder, E. J. (2008). Will Employers Want Aging Boomers? Retirement Project Discussion Paper 08-04. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411705_aging_boomers.pdf

This report examines the current employer demand for older workers and explores how demand may be changing over time, based on analysis of a variety of national employment and earnings statistics, including Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006), the Employment and Training Administration's Occupational Information Network, and Current Population Survey

A 2008 analysis of BLS data shows that "high cognitive ability is very or extremely important for 57 percent of workers in fast-growing occupations, compared with 30 percent for workers in other occupations." (p. 32)

A 2008 analysis of BLS data shows that "high cognitive ability is very or extremely important for 57 percent of workers in fast-growing occupations, compared with 30 percent for workers in other occupations." (p. 32)

Mermin, G. B. T.,  Johnson, R. W., and Toder, E. J.(2008). Will Employers Want Aging Boomers? Retirement Project Discussion Paper 08-04. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411705_aging_boomers.pdf

This report examines the current employer demand for older workers and explores how demand may be changing over time, based on analysis of a variety of national employment and earnings statistics, including Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006), the Employment and Training Administration's Occupational Information Network, and Current Population Survey

According to a 2008 analysis of 2006 BLS data, among the 98 occupations with above average projected growth and above average share of workers aged 55 and older, 21.6% of workers are over 55, 45.4% are college graduates, and 17.6% work part-time. Only 7.0 % of these occupations have high physical...

According to a 2008 analysis of 2006 BLS data, among the 98 occupations with above average projected growth and above average share of workers aged 55 and older, 21.6% of workers are over 55, 45.4% are college graduates, and 17.6% work part-time. Only 7.0 % of these occupations have high physical demands, while 72.7% require some cognitive ability. Other job demands include interpersonal skills (47.5%) and computer use (52.2%). (table 13, p. 39)

Mermin, G. B. T.,  Johnson, R. W., and Toder, E. J. (2008). Will Employers Want Aging Boomers? Retirement Project Discussion Paper 08-04. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411705_aging_boomers.pdf

This report examines the current employer demand for older workers and explores how demand may be changing over time, based on analysis of a variety of national employment and earnings statistics, including Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006), the Employment and Training Administration's Occupational Information Network, and Current Population Survey

A 2008 analysis of data by the Sloan Center for Aging and Work shows that "older employees are less likely to report the following situations: they have to work fast, they have a high chance of injury on the job, and the work is physically demanding and tiring." (fig. 3, p. 6)

A 2008 analysis of data by the Sloan Center for Aging and Work shows that "older employees are less likely to report the following situations: they have to work fast, they have a high chance of injury on the job, and the work is physically demanding and tiring." (fig. 3, p. 6)

McNamara, T. K., Ollier-Malaterre, A., & Pitt-Catsouphes, M. (2008). Mind the gap: United states - employee perspective. Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/MTG_US%20Employee_2008-11-20.pdf

This paper examines the preferences and perceptions of young adult employees, employees at midlife, and older employees in the U.S. about the quality of their employment experiences, based on analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, the World Values Survey, and other sources.

According to a 2007 AARP report, 41.8% of workers 62 and older worked at a job with "general physical demands," compared with 39.2% of workers ages 50-61, 43.5% of workers 26-49, and 64% of workers 25 and younger (Table 3, p. 21). High general physical demands were experienced by between 6.8% - 7.7%...

According to a 2007 AARP report, 41.8% of workers 62 and older worked at a job with "general physical demands," compared with 39.2% of workers ages 50-61, 43.5% of workers 26-49, and 64% of workers 25 and younger (Table 3, p. 21). High general physical demands were experienced by between 6.8% - 7.7% of workers in each age group. (Table 3, p. 21).
 
*(general physical demands include "included strength, stamina, quick reaction time, balance, bending or twisting, kneeling or crouching, handling objects, standing, walking, running, and making repetitive motions.)

Johnson, R. W., Mermin, G., & Resseger, M. (2007). Employment at older ages and the changing nature of work. Washington D.C.: AARP. Retrieved February 18, 2008 from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/employment/2007_20_work.html

This paper examines employment trends and the challenges older adults face in the workplace.The study used detailed occupational characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to examine job demands. It linked this information to individual workers in the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys.

According to a 2007 AARP report, 43.6% of workers 62 and older worked at a job that required computer use, compared with 49.3% of workers ages 50-61, 44.9%% of workers ages 26-49, and 25.9% of workers 25 and younger. (Table 3, p. 21)

According to a 2007 AARP report, 43.6% of workers 62 and older worked at a job that required computer use, compared with 49.3% of workers ages 50-61, 44.9%% of workers ages 26-49, and 25.9% of workers 25 and younger. (Table 3, p. 21)

Johnson, R. W., Mermin, G., & Resseger, M. (2007). Employment at older ages and the changing nature of work. Washington D.C.: AARP. Retrieved February 18, 2008 from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/employment/2007_20_work.html

This paper examines employment trends and the challenges older adults face in the workplace.The study used detailed occupational characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to examine job demands. It linked this information to individual workers in the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys.

According to a 2007 AARP report, "updating and using knowledge" was required in jobs held by 20.4% of workers aged 50-61, and 17.3% of those aged 62 or older.  Among younger workers, 9.4% of those aged 25 and younger and 19.9% of those aged 26-49 had jobs with this demand. (Table 3, p. 21)

According to a 2007 AARP report, "updating and using knowledge" was required in jobs held by 20.4% of workers aged 50-61, and 17.3% of those aged 62 or older.  Among younger workers, 9.4% of those aged 25 and younger and 19.9% of those aged 26-49 had jobs with this demand. (Table 3, p. 21)

Johnson, R. W., Mermin, G., & Resseger, M. (2007). Employment at older ages and the changing nature of work. Washington D.C.: AARP. Retrieved February 18, 2008 from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/employment/2007_20_work.html 

This paper examines employment trends and the challenges older adults face in the workplace.The study used detailed occupational characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to examine job demands. It linked this information to individual workers in the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys. 

According to a 2007 AARP report, 41.8% of workers 62 and older worked at a job with "any general physical demands*," compared with 39.2% of workers ages 50-61, 43.5% of workers 26-49, and 64% of workers 25 and younger. (Table 3, p. 21). *including strength, stamina, quick reaction time, balance,...

According to a 2007 AARP report, 41.8% of workers 62 and older worked at a job with "any general physical demands*," compared with 39.2% of workers ages 50-61, 43.5% of workers 26-49, and 64% of workers 25 and younger. (Table 3, p. 21).
 *including strength, stamina, quick reaction time, balance, bending or twisting, kneeling, crouching, handling objects, standing, walking, running and making repetitive motions

Johnson, R. W., Mermin, G., & Resseger, M. (2007). Employment at older ages and the changing nature of work. Washington D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/employment/2007_20_work.html

This paper "examines employment trends and the challenges older adults face in the workplace.The study used detailed occupational characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to examine job demands. It linked this information to individual workers in the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys."

According to a 2007 AARP report, 34.4% of workers ages 62 and older had had a job that demanded "high cognitive ability," compared with 40.5% of workers ages 50-61, 37.6% of workers ages 26-49, and 18.8% of workers 25 and younger (Table 3, p. 21)

According to a 2007 AARP report, 34.4% of workers ages 62 and older had had a job that demanded "high cognitive ability," compared with 40.5% of workers ages 50-61, 37.6% of workers ages 26-49, and 18.8% of workers 25 and younger (Table 3, p. 21)

Johnson, R. W., Mermin, G., & Resseger, M. (2007). Employment at older ages and the changing nature of work. Washington D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/employment/2007_20_work.html

This paper "examines employment trends and the challenges older adults face in the workplace.The study used detailed occupational characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to examine job demands. It linked this information to individual workers in the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys."

According to a 2007 AARP report, 43.6% of workers 62 and older worked at a job that required computer use, compared with 49.3% of workers ages 50-61, 44.9%% of workers ages 26-49, and 25.9% of workers 25 and younger. (Table 3, p. 21)

According to a 2007 AARP report, 43.6% of workers 62 and older worked at a job that required computer use, compared with 49.3% of workers ages 50-61, 44.9%% of workers ages 26-49, and 25.9% of workers 25 and younger. (Table 3, p. 21)

Johnson, R. W., Mermin, G., & Resseger, M. (2007). Employment at older ages and the changing nature of work. Washington D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/employment/2007_20_work.html

This paper "examines employment trends and the challenges older adults face in the workplace.The study used detailed occupational characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to examine job demands. It linked this information to individual workers in the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys."

According to a 2007 AARP report, 36.5% of workers 62 and older work in a setting that requires interpersonal skills, compared with 39.6% of workers ages 50-61, 36% of workers 26-49, and 20.6% of workers 25 and younger. (Table 3, p. 21)

According to a 2007 AARP report, 36.5% of workers 62 and older work in a setting that requires interpersonal skills, compared with 39.6% of workers ages 50-61, 36% of workers 26-49, and 20.6% of workers 25 and younger. (Table 3, p. 21)

Johnson, R. W., Mermin, G., & Resseger, M. (2007). Employment at older ages and the changing nature of work. Washington D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/research/work/employment/2007_20_work.html

This paper "examines employment trends and the challenges older adults face in the workplace.The study used detailed occupational characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to examine job demands. It linked this information to individual workers in the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys."

Data from the 2007 National Study of Business Strategy and Workforce Development shows that 47% of employers report that older employees/late career employees have higher levels of skills than needed for their jobs, while 36% reported that older/late career employees are more likely to want to lead...

Data from the 2007 National Study of Business Strategy and Workforce Development shows that 47% of employers report that older employees/late career employees have higher levels of skills than needed for their jobs, while 36% reported that older/late career employees are more likely to want to lead or supervise others when compared to employers' assessments of young employees. Also, 15.8% of employers reported that their older workers are more reluctant to try new technologies than younger workers. (fig. 2, p. 2)


Shen, C., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Smyer, M. A. (2007). Today's multi-generational workforce: A proposition of value (Issue Brief No. 10). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB10_MultiGenValue.pdf

This Issue Brief uses a lens of “human capital costs and benefits” to examine the work experiences of young employees (aged 18-30 years), employees at mid-life (31-49 years), and older employees (50 years and older). Many of the findings discussed in this Issue Brief are the result of new analyses completed using information gathered from the wage and salaried workers (N = 2,785) who responded to the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). 25% of the respondents who provided their ages were between the ages of 18-30, 48% were between the ages of 31-49, and 27% were 50 years or older. The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) is conducted every five years. It surveys large samples of the U.S. workforce to collect information about both the work and personal lives of U.S. workers. (p. 1)

A 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data for Americans 45-75 found "about 43 percent of employed retirees who left long-term jobs and 29 percent of workers who had been laid-off from long-term jobs said their old jobs were stressful but their new jobs were not." (p. 27)

A 2007 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data for Americans 45-75 found "about 43 percent of employed retirees who left long-term jobs and 29 percent of workers who had been laid-off from long-term jobs said their old jobs were stressful but their new jobs were not." (p. 27)

Johnson, R. W., & Kawachi, J. (2007). Job changes at older ages: Effects on wages, benefits, and other job attributes. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311435_Job_Changes.pdf

This report uses data from the Health and Retirement Study of Americans over age 50. It compares wages, benefits, and other job attributes on new and former jobs for adults ages 45 to 75 who changed employers between 1986 and 2004. The sample consisted of 8,362 job changes by 5,541 different respondents.

According to a 2007 study by the American Psychiatric Association, "half of employees (52 percent) report that they have considered or made a decision about their career such as looking for a new job, declining a promotion or leaving a job based on workplace stress." (p. 11)

According to a 2007 study by the American Psychiatric Association, "half of employees (52 percent) report that they have considered or made a decision about their career such as looking for a new job, declining a promotion or leaving a job based on workplace stress." (p. 11)

American Psychological Association. (2007). Stress in America. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/releases/stressproblem.html

This survey was conducted online within the United States by Harris Interactive on behalf of the American Psychological Association between August 30 and September 11, 2007, among 1,848 adults (aged 18 and over). Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. Figures for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, region and household income were weighted where necessary to bring them in line with their actual proportions in the population.

In a 2006 survey of employers, respondents indicated that "the greatest potential risk identified with the exodus of mature workers is the corresponding departure of senior leadership (52 percent), followed by middle management (41 percent) and technical talent and knowledge workers (39 percent)." (p....

In a 2006 survey of employers, respondents indicated that "the greatest potential risk identified with the exodus of mature workers is the corresponding departure of senior leadership (52 percent), followed by middle management (41 percent) and technical talent and knowledge workers (39 percent)." (p. 2)

Corporate Voices for Working Families, WorldatWork, & Buck Consultants. (2006). The real talent debate: Will aging boomers deplete the workforce?. Washington, DC: Corporate Voices for Working Families. Retrieved from http://www.cvworkingfamilies.org/downloads/TalentDebate.pdf?CFID=22487671&CFTOKEN=60403015

In October, 2006, an Internet-based survey was used to evaluate the impact of an aging workforce on the American marketplace. Four hundred eighty-seven organizations contributed to the survey database. Approximately 64 percent of the responses came from companies having 1,000 employees or more, with 20 percent of the companies surveyed reporting at least 20,000 employees. The primary objective of this survey was to assess the overall degree to which respondents considered the pending retirement of "baby boomer" employees, and reduced employee availability in succeeding generations, to be a significant issue.

According to analysis of 2002 Health and Retirement Survey data,"18 percent of older workers reported that their jobs require lots of physical effort all or almost all of the time, while about twice as many older workers (38 percent) reported that their jobs never or almost never require much physical...

According to analysis of 2002 Health and Retirement Survey data,"18 percent of older workers reported that their jobs require lots of physical effort all or almost all of the time, while about twice as many older workers (38 percent) reported that their jobs never or almost never require much physical effort." (p. 50)

Johnson, R. W. (2004). Trends in job demands among older workers, 1992-2002. Monthly Labor Review, 127(7), 48-56.

This study measures recent trends in job demands at older ages by comparing self-reported job characteristics among older workers in 1992 and 2002. The data come from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative survey of older Americans conducted by the University of Michigan for the National Istitute on Aging. This study uses the HRS to compute the share of workers ages 55 to 60 in 1992 and 2002 who report particular job demands.

According to analysis of 2002 Health and Retirement Survey data, "About 6 out of 10 workers [ages 55-60] said they never lift heavy loads on the job, and about 4 out of 10 said their jobs never require them to stoop, kneel, or crouch. Only 9 percent reported that their jobs always require them to lift...

According to analysis of 2002 Health and Retirement Survey data, "About 6 out of 10 workers [ages 55-60] said they never lift heavy loads on the job, and about 4 out of 10 said their jobs never require them to stoop, kneel, or crouch. Only 9 percent reported that their jobs always require them to lift heavy loads, and 16 percent said their jobs always involve stooping, kneeling, or crouching." (p. 51)

Johnson, R. W. (2004). Trends in job demands among older workers, 1992-2002. Monthly Labor Review, 127(7), 48-56.

This study measures recent trends in job demands at older ages by comparing self-reported job characteristics among older workers in 1992 and 2002. The data come from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative survey of older Americans conducted by the University of Michigan for the National Istitute on Aging. This study uses the HRS to compute the share of workers ages 55 to 60 in 1992 and 2002 who report particular job demands.

According to analysis of 2002 Health and Retirement Survey data, "most older workers face intense non-physical demands on the job. About 55 percent reported in 2002 that their jobs always require intense concentration; 72 percent reported that their jobs always require skill in dealing with other people;...

According to analysis of 2002 Health and Retirement Survey data, "most older workers face intense non-physical demands on the job. About 55 percent reported in 2002 that their jobs always require intense concentration; 72 percent reported that their jobs always require skill in dealing with other people; 41 percent reported that they always work with computers; and 67 percent reported that their jobs always require good eyesight." (p. 52)

Johnson, R. W. (2004). Trends in job demands among older workers, 1992-2002. Monthly Labor Review, 127(7), 48-56.

This study measures recent trends in job demands at older ages by comparing self-reported job characteristics among older workers in 1992 and 2002. The data come from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative survey of older Americans conducted by the University of Michigan for the National Istitute on Aging. This study uses the HRS to compute the share of workers ages 55 to 60 in 1992 and 2002 who report particular job demands.

According to analysis of 2002 Health and Retirement Survey data, "about 1 out of 5 older workers strongly agreed that their jobs involve a lot of stress, and about 1 out of 6 strongly agreed that their jobs have become more difficult than they were in the past." (p. 52)

According to analysis of 2002 Health and Retirement Survey data, "about 1 out of 5 older workers strongly agreed that their jobs involve a lot of stress, and about 1 out of 6 strongly agreed that their jobs have become more difficult than they were in the past." (p. 52)

Johnson, R. W. (2004). Trends in job demands among older workers, 1992-2002. Monthly Labor Review, 127(7), 48-56.

This study measures recent trends in job demands at older ages by comparing self-reported job characteristics among older workers in 1992 and 2002. The data come from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative survey of older Americans conducted by the University of Michigan for the National Istitute on Aging. This study uses the HRS to compute the share of workers ages 55 to 60 in 1992 and 2002 who report particular job demands.

Results from a 2004 Pew survey on Internet use show that "older Baby Boomer Internet users (between 50-58 years old) are more like Generation X Internet users (between 28 and 39 years old) than like their older “Mature” generational neighbors (those between 59 and 68 years old). "59% of Generation...

Results from a 2004 Pew survey on Internet use show that "older Baby Boomer Internet users (between 50-58 years old) are more like Generation X Internet users (between 28 and 39 years old) than like their older “Mature” generational neighbors (those between 59 and 68 years old). "59% of Generation X Internet users and 55% of Baby Boomer Internet users do research online for their job, compared to 30% of Internet users between 59 and 68 years old." (p. iii)

Fox, S. (2004). Older Americans and the Internet. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/117/report_display.asp

This Pew Internet & American Life Project report is based on the findings of daily tracking surveys on Americans' use of the Internet in 2003 and 2004. The most recent survey data was gathered through telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates between February 3 and March 1, 2004, among a sample of 2,204 adults, aged 18 and older.

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