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According to a 2014 Gallup report, "Americans' average self-reported age of retirement has slowly moved upward...the average retirement age was 57 in both 1991 and 1993. From 2002 through 2012, the average hovered around 60. Over the past two years, the average age at which Americans report retiring...

According to a 2014 Gallup report, "Americans' average self-reported age of retirement has slowly moved upward...the average retirement age was 57 in both 1991 and 1993. From 2002 through 2012, the average hovered around 60. Over the past two years, the average age at which Americans report retiring has increased to 62."

Riffkin, R. (2014). Average U.S. retirement age rises to 62. US: Gallup. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/168707/average-retirement-age-rises.aspx

Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted April 3-6, 2014, with a random sample of 1,026 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. These trends in Americans' actual vs. expected age of retirement are from Gallup's annual Economy and Personal Finance survey, conducted April 3-6, 2014.

According to a 2014 Gallup report, "the average age at which non-retired Americans expect to retire has increased over time, from 60 in 1995 to 66 this year [2014]. Furthermore, in 1995, more non-retired Americans expected to retire younger -- 15% expected to retire before age 55, compared with 4% in...

According to a 2014 Gallup report, "the average age at which non-retired Americans expect to retire has increased over time, from 60 in 1995 to 66 this year [2014]. Furthermore, in 1995, more non-retired Americans expected to retire younger -- 15% expected to retire before age 55, compared with 4% in 2014."

Riffkin, R. (2014). Average U.S. retirement age rises to 62. US: Gallup. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/168707/average-retirement-age-rises.aspx

Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted April 3-6, 2014, with a random sample of 1,026 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. These trends in Americans' actual vs. expected age of retirement are from Gallup's annual Economy and Personal Finance survey, conducted April 3-6, 2014.

According to a 2014 Gallup report, "the majority of all age groups expect to retire at age 65 or older. This includes 62% of 18- to 29-year-olds, 62% of 30- to 49-year-olds, and 58% of 50- to 64-year-olds."

According to a 2014 Gallup report, "the majority of all age groups expect to retire at age 65 or older. This includes 62% of 18- to 29-year-olds, 62% of 30- to 49-year-olds, and 58% of 50- to 64-year-olds."

Riffkin, R. (2014). Average U.S. retirement age rises to 62. US: Gallup. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/168707/average-retirement-age-rises.aspx

Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted April 3-6, 2014, with a random sample of 1,026 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. These trends in Americans' actual vs. expected age of retirement are from Gallup's annual Economy and Personal Finance survey, conducted April 3-6, 2014.

According to a 2014 Gallup report, "the average age at which U.S. retirees report retiring is 62...while the average age at which non-retired Americans expect to retire [is] 66."

According to a 2014 Gallup report, "the average age at which U.S. retirees report retiring is 62...while the average age at which non-retired Americans expect to retire [is] 66."

Riffkin, R. (2014). Average U.S. retirement age rises to 62. US: Gallup. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/168707/average-retirement-age-rises.aspx

Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted April 3-6, 2014, with a random sample of 1,026 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. These trends in Americans' actual vs. expected age of retirement are from Gallup's annual Economy and Personal Finance survey, conducted April 3-6, 2014.

According to a 2013 MetLife survey of the oldest baby boomers (those born in 1946), "nearly a quarter of retired oldest Boomers left the workforce between the ages of 56 and 60. Nearly 20% retired at age 65. The average age of retirement is 59.5." (p. 8)

According to a 2013 MetLife survey of the oldest baby boomers (those born in 1946), "nearly a quarter of retired oldest Boomers left the workforce between the ages of 56 and 60. Nearly 20% retired at age 65. The average age of retirement is 59.5." (p. 8)

Goyer, A. (2013). The MetLife report on the oldest boomers: Healthy, retiring rapidly and collecting social security. New York: MetLife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2013/mmi-oldest-boomers.pdf

This survey was conducted for MetLife by GfK Custom Research between November-December 2012. A total of 1003 respondants were interviewed by phone -- all respondents were born in 1946.

According to a 2013 MetLife survey of the oldest baby boomers (those born in 1946), among the oldest boomers, 52% are fully retired... 21% are working fulltime and just 12% are retired but working part-time or seasonally. Very few (2%) of the oldest Boomers are employed part-time. (p. 7)

According to a 2013 MetLife survey of the oldest baby boomers (those born in 1946), among the oldest boomers, 52% are fully retired... 21% are working fulltime and just 12% are retired but working part-time or seasonally. Very few (2%) of the oldest Boomers are employed part-time. (p. 7)

Goyer, A. (2013). The MetLife report on the oldest boomers: Healthy, retiring rapidly and collecting social security. New York: MetLife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2013/mmi-oldest-boomers.pdf

This survey was conducted for MetLife by GfK Custom Research between November-December 2012. A total of 1003 respondants were interviewed by phone -- all respondents were born in 1946.

According to a 2013 Gallup survey, "the average age that current U.S. retirees said they retired is now 61, compared with 59 in 2003 and 57 in 1993. "

According to a 2013 Gallup survey, "the average age that current U.S. retirees said they retired is now 61, compared with 59 in 2003 and 57 in 1993. "

These results are from Gallup's annual Economy and Personal Finance survey. Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted April 4-14, 2013, with a random sample of 2,017 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

According to a 2013 Gallup survey, "37% of nonretired Americans say they expect to retire after age 65, 26% at age 65, and 26% before age 65. The most notable change over time is the increase in those expecting to work past age 65 -- the 37% this year is up from 22% a decade ago and 14% in 1995. Meanwhile,...

According to a 2013 Gallup survey, "37% of nonretired Americans say they expect to retire after age 65, 26% at age 65, and 26% before age 65. The most notable change over time is the increase in those expecting to work past age 65 -- the 37% this year is up from 22% a decade ago and 14% in 1995. Meanwhile, the percentage of nonretirees who say they expect to retire before age 65 has declined to 26% from 49% in 1995."

These results are from Gallup's annual Economy and Personal Finance survey. Results for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted April 4-14, 2013, with a random sample of 2,017 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "half of Americans ages 50 and older are working in some capacity or looking for work. Even among those 65 or over, 13% are working and not yet retired, 8% are working in retirement, and 3% are looking for work"....

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "half of Americans ages 50 and older are working in some capacity or looking for work. Even among those 65 or over, 13% are working and not yet retired, 8% are working in retirement, and 3% are looking for work". (p.2)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2012 report on the Transamerica Retirement Survey, "the majority of workers in their Fifties and Sixties plan to work after they retire, with 52% reporting that they plan to work part-time and about 9% reporting that they plan to work full-time. Fewer than one in five workers (19 percent)...

According to a 2012 report on the Transamerica Retirement Survey, "the majority of workers in their Fifties and Sixties plan to work after they retire, with 52% reporting that they plan to work part-time and about 9% reporting that they plan to work full-time. Fewer than one in five workers (19 percent) do not plan to work after they retire." (p. 21)

Collinson, C. (2012). Redefining retirement: The new 'retirement readiness'. The 13th annual Transamerica Retirement Survey. San Francisco, CA: Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies. Retrieved from https://www.ta-retirement.com/resources/TCRS%2013th%20Annual%20Thematic%20Report%20Final%205-14-12.pdf

A 22-minute, online survey was conducted between January 13 - 31, 2012 among a nationally representative sample of 3,609 workers using the Harris online panel. The sample is of U.S. residents, age 18 or older who are full-time or part-time workers in a for-profit company employing 10 or more people

According to a 2012 report from the Center for Retirement Research, "at Social Security's earliest retirement age of 62, only about 30 percent of households are prepared for retirement...By age 66, Social Security's current Full Retirement Age, about 55 percent of house-holds are projected to be prepared...

According to a 2012 report from the Center for Retirement Research, "at Social Security's earliest retirement age of 62, only about 30 percent of households are prepared for retirement...By age 66, Social Security's current Full Retirement Age, about 55 percent of house-holds are projected to be prepared for retirement (this figure includes the 30 percent already prepared by age 62)....At a retirement age of 70, about 86 percent of households are prepared for retirement."

Munnell, A. H. (2012). National Retirement Risk Index: How much longer do we need to work? (Issue in Brief No. 12-12). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research, Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/IB_12-12-508.pdf

This analysis is based on data from a variety of sources including wealth-to-income patterns by age group from the 1983-2007 Federal Reserve Surveys of Consumer Finances (SCF). For defined benefit pension income, the projections are based on amounts reported by survey respondents. For Social Security, benefits are calculated based on current and most recent earnings reported in the SCF and a fitted earnings profile constructed from Health and Retirement Study data.

According to a 2012 analysis from the Center for Retirement Research, "almost half [48%] of households are prepared for retirement at age 65... About a quarter [23%] of households have to work just one to three years beyond 65," while 17% need to work an additional 4-6 years and 9 percent have to work...

According to a 2012 analysis from the Center for Retirement Research, "almost half [48%] of households are prepared for retirement at age 65... About a quarter [23%] of households have to work just one to three years beyond 65," while 17% need to work an additional 4-6 years and 9 percent have to work an additional seven or more years. (fig. 5, p. 4)

Munnell, A. H. (2012). National Retirement Risk Index: How much longer do we need to work? (Issue in Brief No. 12-12). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research, Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/IB_12-12-508.pdf

This analysis is based on data from a variety of sources including wealth-to-income patterns by age group from the 1983-2007 Federal Reserve Surveys of Consumer Finances (SCF). For defined ben-efit pension income, the projections are based on amounts reported by survey respondents. For Social Security, benefits are calculated based on current and most recent earnings reported in the SCF and a fitted earnings profile constructed from Health and Retirement Study data.

According to a 2012 survey of a national sample of 2250 US adults aged 60+, "among respondents, 14% report that they are employed full-time, 10% partime, and 2% unemployed but looking for work. 63% report that they are retired." (p. 6)

According to a 2012 survey of a national sample of 2250 US adults aged 60+, "among respondents, 14% report that they are employed full-time, 10% partime, and 2% unemployed but looking for work. 63% report that they are retired." (p. 6)

National Council on Aging. (2012). United States of aging.  New York: Penn Schoen Berland. Retrieved from http://www.ncoa.org/assets/files/pdf/united-states-of-aging/2012-survey/USA-Topline-Results.pdf

UnitedHealthcare, USA TODAY, and NCOA surveyed 2,250 U.S. adults aged 60 or older for the inaugural United States of Aging Survey to examine seniors' outlook and preparedness for aging, and their community's ability to meet their needs as they age. Between May 10, 2012, and June 6, 2012, Penn Schoen Berland conducted 2,250 phone interviews with a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults age 60 or older, including adults age 60 or older in five designated markets: Upstate New York, Milwaukee, WI, Miami, FL, Dallas, TX, Orange County, CA

According to a 2012 Metlife report on a survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "almost twice as many...stated that they were fully retired as were working full-time at age 65 (45% versus 24% respectively)." (p. 2)

According to a 2012 Metlife report on a survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "almost twice as many...stated that they were fully retired as were working full-time at age 65 (45% versus 24% respectively)." (p. 2)

MetLife. (2012). Transitioning into retirement: TheMetLife study of baby boomers at 65. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2012/studies/mmi-transitioning-retirement.pdf

Transitioning into Retirement was conducted by GfK Custom Research North America on behalf of the MetLife Mature Market Institute from November 3, 2011 through November 30, 2011. A total of 1,012 respondents born in 1946 were surveyed by random digit-dial telephone contact. The recontacted sample was among 942 respondents from the previous wave of Boomer Bookends: Insights Into the Oldest and Youngest Boomers (2009) who agreed to be recontacted. A total of 450 respondents from this group completed the follow-up survey. The sample was supplemented by an additional sample of 562 respondents from Dunhill.

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, among those "who stated that they were fully retired, the average age at retirement for these Boomers was 59.7 for men and 57.2 for women." (p. 2)

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, among those "who stated that they were fully retired, the average age at retirement for these Boomers was 59.7 for men and 57.2 for women." (p. 2)

MetLife. (2012). Transitioning into retirement: TheMetLife study of baby boomers at 65. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2012/studies/mmi-transitioning-retirement.pdf

Transitioning into Retirement was conducted by GfK Custom Research North America on behalf of the MetLife Mature Market Institute from November 3, 2011 through November 30, 2011. A total of 1,012 respondents born in 1946 were surveyed by random digit-dial telephone contact. The recontacted sample was among 942 respondents from the previous wave of Boomer Bookends: Insights Into the Oldest and Youngest Boomers (2009) who agreed to be recontacted. A total of 450 respondents from this group completed the follow-up survey. The sample was supplemented by an additional sample of 562 respondents from Dunhill.

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "of those still working, over one-third anticipated that they will retire within the coming year, when they turn 66 and are eligible for full Social Security retirement benefits." (p. 2)

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "of those still working, over one-third anticipated that they will retire within the coming year, when they turn 66 and are eligible for full Social Security retirement benefits." (p. 2)

MetLife. (2012). Transitioning into retirement: TheMetLife study of baby boomers at 65. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2012/studies/mmi-transitioning-retirement.pdf

Transitioning into Retirement was conducted by GfK Custom Research North America on behalf of the MetLife Mature Market Institute from November 3, 2011 through November 30, 2011. A total of 1,012 respondents born in 1946 were surveyed by random digit-dial telephone contact. The recontacted sample was among 942 respondents from the previous wave of Boomer Bookends: Insights Into the Oldest and Youngest Boomers (2009) who agreed to be recontacted. A total of 450 respondents from this group completed the follow-up survey. The sample was supplemented by an additional sample of 562 respondents from Dunhill.

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "almost one-half (45%) of 65-year-old Boomers are now fully retired (up from 19% in 2008), with another 14% reporting that they are retired but working part-time or seasonally." (p. 3)

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "almost one-half (45%) of 65-year-old Boomers are now fully retired (up from 19% in 2008), with another 14% reporting that they are retired but working part-time or seasonally." (p. 3)

MetLife. (2012). Transitioning into retirement: TheMetLife study of baby boomers at 65. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2012/studies/mmi-transitioning-retirement.pdf

Transitioning into Retirement was conducted by GfK Custom Research North America on behalf of the MetLife Mature Market Institute from November 3, 2011 through November 30, 2011. A total of 1,012 respondents born in 1946 were surveyed by random digit-dial telephone contact. The recontacted sample was among 942 respondents from the previous wave of Boomer Bookends: Insights Into the Oldest and Youngest Boomers (2009) who agreed to be recontacted. A total of 450 respondents from this group completed the follow-up survey. The sample was supplemented by an additional sample of 562 respondents from Dunhill.

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "almost half (46%) retired within the past few years, when they were age 62 or older. Just over a quarter (27%) retired between the ages of 56 and 61. Twenty percent retired at age 62. Just over a third (36%) of retirees...

According to a 2012 survey of Baby Boomers born in 1946 who turned 65 in 2011, "almost half (46%) retired within the past few years, when they were age 62 or older. Just over a quarter (27%) retired between the ages of 56 and 61. Twenty percent retired at age 62. Just over a third (36%) of retirees say the reason they retired was because they reached retirement age and wanted to. Another 18% cited health reasons." (p. 7)

MetLife. (2012). Transitioning into retirement: TheMetLife study of baby boomers at 65. Westport, CT: Metlife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/2012/studies/mmi-transitioning-retirement.pdf

Transitioning into Retirement was conducted by GfK Custom Research North America on behalf of the MetLife Mature Market Institute from November 3, 2011 through November 30, 2011. A total of 1,012 respondents born in 1946 were surveyed by random digit-dial telephone contact. The recontacted sample was among 942 respondents from the previous wave of Boomer Bookends: Insights Into the Oldest and Youngest Boomers (2009) who agreed to be recontacted. A total of 450 respondents from this group completed the follow-up survey. The sample was supplemented by an additional sample of 562 respondents from Dunhill.

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, "the average age of retired workers has changed little over time, rising from 72.4 in 1960 to 73.7 in 2010." (p. 17)

According to a 2011 report from the Social Security Administration, "the average age of retired workers has changed little over time, rising from 72.4 in 1960 to 73.7 in 2010." (p. 17)

Social Security Administration. (2011). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2011. (SSA Publication No. 13-11785). Washington, DC: Social Security Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2011/fast_facts11.pdf

Most of the data come from the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, which contains more than 240 detailed tables. The information on the income of the aged is from the data series Income of the Population 55 or Older.

According to a 2011 analysis of CPS data, "the average retirement age for men is 64 and for women 62." [Retirement age is defined as the age (in years and months) at which the labor force participa-tion rate drops below 50 percent.](p. 5)

According to a 2011 analysis of CPS data, "the average retirement age for men is 64 and for women 62." [Retirement age is defined as the age (in years and months) at which the labor force participa-tion rate drops below 50 percent.](p. 5)

Munnell, A. H. (2011). What is the average retirement age? (Issue Brief No. 11-11). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/images/stories/Briefs/IB_11-11_508.pdf

This report includes analysis based on the author's calculations from U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS) (1962-2010), and data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Health and Retirement Survey.

According to a 2011 AARP survey of over 1000 working and retired boomers, "most retired boomers (69%) went directly from full time work to full time retirement. " (p. 7) while 6% worked part-time mainly for the needed income and 11% worked part-time for interest or enjoyment, and 4% started their own...

According to a 2011 AARP survey of over 1000 working and retired boomers, "most retired boomers (69%) went directly from full time work to full time retirement. " (p. 7) while 6% worked part-time mainly for the needed income and 11% worked part-time for interest or enjoyment, and 4% started their own business. (p. 47)

AARP. (2011). Boomers envision what's next. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/general/boomers-envision-retirement-2011.pdf

These results are based on a telephone survey of 1200 boomers (Americans age 46-65), both retired (n=249) and non-retired (n=954) conducted between February 1-March 15, 2011 .

According to a 2011 AARP survey of over 1000 working and retired boomers, "working boomers are split between those who can't wait to retire (43%) and those who won't want to stop working (41%); these percentages have been stable for the last 13 years" [since 1998]. (p. 4)

According to a 2011 AARP survey of over 1000 working and retired boomers, "working boomers are split between those who can't wait to retire (43%) and those who won't want to stop working (41%); these percentages have been stable for the last 13 years" [since 1998]. (p. 4)

AARP. (2011). Boomers envision what's next. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/general/boomers-envision-retirement-2011.pdf

These results are based on a telephone survey of 1200 boomers (Americans age 46-65), both retired (n=249) and non-retired (n=954) conducted between February 1-March 15, 2011 .

According to a 2011 report on retirement trends, "continued employment in something other than the career job...rises to a maximum of 32 percent of the men and 37 percent of the women when the HRS respondents are aged 59 to 69, but still remains significant (more than 20 percent of the sample) even...

According to a 2011 report on retirement trends, "continued employment in something other than the career job...rises to a maximum of 32 percent of the men and 37 percent of the women when the HRS respondents are aged 59 to 69, but still remains significant (more than 20 percent of the sample) even among those aged 67 to 77." (p. 8)

Quinn, J. F., Cahill, K. E., & Giandrea, M. D. (2011). Early retirement: The dawn of a new era? New York, NY: TIAA-CREF Institute. Retrieved from http://www.tiaa-cref.org/ucm/groups/content/@ap_ucm_p_inst/documents/document/tiaa02030420.pdf

This report includes analysis based on the authors' calculations from U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS) (1962-2010), and data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Health and Retirement Survey.

According to a 2011 analysis of BLS and ACS data, "retirement rates are substantially lower for highly educated older adults than for those with less education. Moreover, retirement rates, which increase notably from 1970-1980 and remained near those levels for several decades, have recently declined....

According to a 2011 analysis of BLS and ACS data, "retirement rates are substantially lower for highly educated older adults than for those with less education. Moreover, retirement rates, which increase notably from 1970-1980 and remained near those levels for several decades, have recently declined. For older age groups, retirement rates are now lower than they were even in 1970." (p. 35, fig. 5.5)  [Retirement defined as not actively participating in the labor force.]

Public Policy Institute of California. (2011). An assessment of labor force projections through 2018: Will workers have the education needed for the available jobs? Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/labor-force-projections-workers-education--gates-foundation.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the 2008 American Community Survey.

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data by EBRI, 35% of persons aged 65-69 were working in 2008, while 53% were retired. Among those aged 70-74, 21% were working and 70% were retired. By age 75-79, 13% were working and 80% were retired. (Fig. 6, p. 17)

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data by EBRI, 35% of persons aged 65-69 were working in 2008, while 53% were retired. Among those aged 70-74, 21% were working and 70% were retired. By age 75-79, 13% were working and 80% were retired. (Fig. 6, p. 17)

Fronstin, P. (2010). Retiree health benefit trends among the medicare-eligible population. EBRI Notes, 31(1), 12-19. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_Jan-10.Tenure.pdf

The latest data on employee tenure from the January 2008 Supplement to the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS) are examined and compared with the trends from previous CPS publications on employee tenure.

According to a 2010 report from the Economic Policy Institute, "the official U.S. retirement age, which was 65.8 years [in 2007], was significantly higher than the OECD averages of 63.5 years for men and 62.3 years for women. ... Twenty-six of the 30 OECD countries have official retirement ages of 65...

According to a 2010 report from the Economic Policy Institute, "the official U.S. retirement age, which was 65.8 years [in 2007], was significantly higher than the OECD averages of 63.5 years for men and 62.3 years for women. ... Twenty-six of the 30 OECD countries have official retirement ages of 65 or younger. Only Ireland, with an official retirement age of 66, and Iceland and Norway, at 67, ranked slightly above the U.S. at the time these data were collected."

Orr, A. (2010). Americans work longer (Economic Snapshot No. 04-27). Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.epi.org/economic_snapshots/entry/americans_work_longer/

This analysis is based on data on avaerage effectige age of retirement collected by the OECD from European and national Labor Force Surveys as of 2007.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "one fifth (20%) of those 50+ are working in retirement. The remaining four fifths (80%) of workers aged 50 and older have never retired."

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce, "one fifth (20%) of those 50+ are working in retirement. The remaining four fifths (80%) of workers aged 50 and older have never retired."

Brown, M., Aumann, K., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Galinsky, E., & Bond, J. T. (2010). Working in retirement: A 21st century phenomenon. New York: Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/workinginretirement.pdf

This study is based on analysis of data from Families and Work Institute's 2008 nationally representative study of the U.S. workforce, the National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW). Of the participants in that study, 1,382 participants were aged 50 and older.

According to a 2010 analysis of BLS data, "most older persons [aged 55+] who are out of the labor force say that they do not want a job (97 percent), a figure that has remained stable since the start of the recession." (p. 4)

According to a 2010 analysis of BLS data, "most older persons [aged 55+] who are out of the labor force say that they do not want a job (97 percent), a figure that has remained stable since the start of the recession." (p. 4)

Rix, S. E. (2010). The employment situation, September 2010: Older workers have little to cheer about once again. (Fact Sheet No. 204). Washington, D.C.: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.globalaging.org/pension/us/2010/Employ_Situation.pdf

Statistics in this Fact Sheet are from U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), The Employment Situation--September 2010, USDL-10-1393 (Washington, DC: BLS, October 8, 2010);

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the International Social Security Project, "in the United States, "time in retirement increased from about 13 years in 1965 to more than 18 years in 2003. During the same period, the labor force participation rate of men aged 60-64 decreased by 30%. "

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the International Social Security Project, "in the United States, "time in retirement increased from about 13 years in 1965 to more than 18 years in 2003. During the same period, the labor force participation rate of men aged 60-64 decreased by 30%. "

Wise, D. A. (2010). Facilitating longer working lives: International evidence on why and how. Demography, 47, S131-S149. doi:DOI: 10.1353/dem.2010.0001

This analysis is based on data from the the International Social Security Project.

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "62 is now the most common retirement age by far. More than one-fifth of men born 1943 to 47 working at age 61 retired at age 62.While average retirement ages have been creeping up recently and labor force participation rates have surged...

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "62 is now the most common retirement age by far. More than one-fifth of men born 1943 to 47 working at age 61 retired at age 62.While average retirement ages have been creeping up recently and labor force participation rates have surged after age 62, the share of adults retired by age 62 had not fallen much, especially among men.

Johnson, R. W., Butrica, B. A., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). Work and retirement patterns for the G.I. generation, silent generation, and early boomers: Thirty years of change. (Working Paper No. 2010-8). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/wp_2010-81.pdf

This study compares labor force exits by older workers in three different five-year cohorts—those born from 1913 to 1917 (part of the G.I. Generation), 1933 to 1937 (part of the Silent Generation), and 1943 to 1947 (the early years of the Baby Boom Generation). These cohorts reached age 65 around 1980, 2000, and 2010. Using 16-year longitudinal panels from the Health and Retirement Study and decades-long administrative earnings records linked to respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "workers have become much more likely to partially retire before retiring completely. For example, 45.4 percent of working men and 41.3 percent of working women born between 1933 and 1937 partially retired after age 50, compared with...

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "workers have become much more likely to partially retire before retiring completely. For example, 45.4 percent of working men and 41.3 percent of working women born between 1933 and 1937 partially retired after age 50, compared with only 32.8 percent of men and 25.3 percent of women born 20 years earlier.

Johnson, R. W., Butrica, B. A., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). Work and retirement patterns for the G.I. generation, silent generation, and early boomers: Thirty years of change. (Working Paper No. 2010-8). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/wp_2010-81.pdf

This study compares labor force exits by older workers in three different five-year cohorts—those born from 1913 to 1917 (part of the G.I. Generation), 1933 to 1937 (part of the Silent Generation), and 1943 to 1947 (the early years of the Baby Boom Generation). These cohorts reached age 65 around 1980, 2000, and 2010. Using 16-year longitudinal panels from the Health and Retirement Study and decades-long administrative earnings records linked to respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "among workers born 1913 to 1917 and not yet retired (fully or partially) at age 49, about one-half of men (51.1 percent) and two-fifths of women (60.1 percent) followed the'traditional' route into retirement, moving from full-time or...

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "among workers born 1913 to 1917 and not yet retired (fully or partially) at age 49, about one-half of men (51.1 percent) and two-fifths of women (60.1 percent) followed the'traditional' route into retirement, moving from full-time or nearly full-time work directly out of the labor force and never returning to work.This share fell to about one-third (34.3 percent of men and 37.4 percent of women) for workers born 20 years later (between 1933 and 1937).

Johnson, R. W., Butrica, B. A., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). Work and retirement patterns for the G.I. generation, silent generation, and early boomers: Thirty years of change. (Working Paper No. 2010-8). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/wp_2010-81.pdf

It compares labor force exits by older workers in three different five-year cohorts—those born from 1913 to 1917 (part of the G.I. Generation), 1933 to 1937 (part of the Silent Generation), and 1943 to 1947 (the early years of the Baby Boom Generation). These cohorts reached age 65 around 1980, 2000, and 2010. Using 16-year longitudinal panels from the Health and Retirement Study and decades-long administrative earnings records linked to respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "age-65 retirements have become much less common over the past 30 years, especially for men. The probability of retiring at age 65 among men working at age 64 fell from 56 percent for the 1913-17 birth cohort, to 26 percent for the 1933-37...

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "age-65 retirements have become much less common over the past 30 years, especially for men. The probability of retiring at age 65 among men working at age 64 fell from 56 percent for the 1913-17 birth cohort, to 26 percent for the 1933-37 cohort, to 7 percent for the 1943-47 cohort.

Johnson, R. W., Butrica, B. A., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). Work and retirement patterns for the G.I. generation, silent generation, and early boomers: Thirty years of change. (Working Paper No. 2010-8). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/wp_2010-81.pdf

This study compares labor force exits by older workers in three different five-year cohorts—those born from 1913 to 1917 (part of the G.I. Generation), 1933 to 1937 (part of the Silent Generation), and 1943 to 1947 (the early years of the Baby Boom Generation). These cohorts reached age 65 around 1980, 2000, and 2010. Using 16-year longitudinal panels from the Health and Retirement Study and decades-long administrative earnings records linked to respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "men born 1933 to 1937 retired much earlier, on average, than those born 20 years earlier. The trend reversed 10 years later. The median retirement age for men was about one-half year higher in the 1943-47 birth cohort than in the 1933-37...

According to a 2010 analysis of Health and Retirement Study data, "men born 1933 to 1937 retired much earlier, on average, than those born 20 years earlier. The trend reversed 10 years later. The median retirement age for men was about one-half year higher in the 1943-47 birth cohort than in the 1933-37 cohort (62 vs. 61.5), but differences were more pronounced at older ages. By age 65, for example, 40 percent of early boomer men had not yet retired, compared with only 20 percent of Silent Generation men."

Johnson, R. W., Butrica, B. A., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). Work and retirement patterns for the G.I. generation, silent generation, and early boomers: Thirty years of change. (Working Paper No. 2010-8). Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Retrieved from http://crr.bc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/wp_2010-81.pdf

This study compares labor force exits by older workers in three different five-year cohorts--those born from 1913 to 1917 (part of the G.I. Generation), 1933 to 1937 (part of the Silent Generation), and 1943 to 1947 (the early years of the Baby Boom Generation). These cohorts reached age 65 around 1980, 2000, and 2010. Using 16-year longitudinal panels from the Health and Retirement Study and decades-long administrative earnings records linked to respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).

According to a 2009 survey comparing the oldest and youngest boomers, "fifty percent of Oldest Boomers are working full-time. Only about one-fifth (19%) are fully retired. One in ten (11%) are on Disability and 9% are currently collecting Social Security retirement benefits. Only 2% report they are...

According to a 2009 survey comparing the oldest and youngest boomers, "fifty percent of Oldest Boomers are working full-time. Only about one-fifth (19%) are fully retired. One in ten (11%) are on Disability and 9% are currently collecting Social Security retirement benefits. Only 2% report they are looking for work." (p. 7-8)

MetLife. (2009). Boomer bookends: Insights into the oldest and youngest boomers. Westport, CT: MetLife Mature Market Institute. Retrieved from http://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/mmi-studies-boomer-bookends.pdf

This study compares a nationally representative survey of the Oldest Boomers, those turning age 63 in 2009 to a comparable nationally representative survey of the trailing edge Boomers, those turning age 45 in 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "full-time retirees and working older adults are about as likely to say they are very or pretty happy with their lives (75% vs. 70%)."(p. 88)

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "full-time retirees and working older adults are about as likely to say they are very or pretty happy with their lives (75% vs. 70%)."(p. 88)

Taylor, P., Morin, R., Parker, K., & Wang, W. (2009). Growing old in America: Expectations vs. reality. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/getting-old-in-america.pdf

The Pew Social Trends Aging Survey obtained telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults living in the continental United States. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from February 23 to March 23, 2009.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "83% of all adults 65 and older say they are retired--a group that includes some who work at least part time--while 5% describe themselves as semi-retired. The typical retiree is 75 years old and retired at the age of 62. Among those who say they have retired, more than...

According to a 2009 Pew survey, "83% of all adults 65 and older say they are retired--a group that includes some who work at least part time--while 5% describe themselves as semi-retired. The typical retiree is 75 years old and retired at the age of 62. Among those who say they have retired, more than six-in-ten (62%) retired by age 65. Older adults who have not yet retired but expect to do so someday are, on average, 70 years old and plan to retire in three years." (p. 89)

Taylor, P., Morin, R., Parker, K., & Wang, W. (2009). Growing old in America: Expectations vs. reality. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/getting-old-in-america.pdf

The Pew Social Trends Aging Survey obtained telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults living in the continental United States. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from February 23 to March 23, 2009.

According to a 2009 analysis by the Social Security Administration, "the average age of retired workers has changed little over time, rising from 72.4 in 1960 to 73.9 in 2008."

According to a 2009 analysis by the Social Security Administration, "the average age of retired workers has changed little over time, rising from 72.4 in 1960 to 73.9 in 2008."

Social Security Administration. (2009). Fast facts & figures about Social Security, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/chartbooks/fast_facts/2009/fast_facts09.html#generalinfo

Data are from the Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 10 percent sample for 1988 and 1990-2005 and 100 percent data for all other years.

According to 2008 analysis of Social Security data, in the 2000-05 period, the median age at exit [retirement] was 61.6 for men and 60.5 for women, a decline from the medians in the 1995-2000 period of 0.4 and 0.9 for men and women, respectively. The median age at exit estimated for the 2005-10 period,...

According to 2008 analysis of Social Security data, in the 2000-05 period, the median age at exit [retirement] was 61.6 for men and 60.5 for women, a decline from the medians in the 1995-2000 period of 0.4 and 0.9 for men and women, respectively. The median age at exit estimated for the 2005-10 period, based on the labor force data for 2010 projected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in 2007, indicates no change for men, but a large reversal for women (from age 60.5 to age 62.0). (p. 43)

Gendell, M. (2008). Older workers: Increasing their labor force participation and hours of work. Monthly Labor Review, 131(1), 41-54. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/01/art3full.pdf

This report is based on the author's analysis of data collected annually by the Social Security Administration and on data from the Current Population Survey and Bureau of Labor Statistics.

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, men 65 to 69 were about six percentage points less likely to be retired in 2004 than in 1992. A similar analysis of HRS data showed that between 1998 and 2004, the fraction of 65 to 67 year old men who were completely retired declined by 3.1 percentage points...

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, men 65 to 69 were about six percentage points less likely to be retired in 2004 than in 1992. A similar analysis of HRS data showed that between 1998 and 2004, the fraction of 65 to 67 year old men who were completely retired declined by 3.1 percentage points (p. 4)

Helman, R., Copeland, C., VanDerhei, J., & Salisbury, D. (2008). EBRI 2008 recent retirees survey: Report of findings (Issue Brief No. 319). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/briefspdf/EBRI_IB_07-2008.pdf

This paper uses Health and Retirement Study data to document the changes in retirement status among cohorts. For those 65 to 67, there is a clear trend toward later retirement. (p. 18)

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, "among both men and women aged 70 and older, rates of employment rose slightly between 1990 and 2008. In March 2008, 14% of men aged 70 and older were employed, compared with 10% in 1990. Among women aged 70 and older, 8% were employed in March 2008, compared...

According to a 2008 analysis of CPS data, "among both men and women aged 70 and older, rates of employment rose slightly between 1990 and 2008. In March 2008, 14% of men aged 70 and older were employed, compared with 10% in 1990. Among women aged 70 and older, 8% were employed in March 2008, compared with 5% in March 1990." (p. 5)

Purcell, P. (2008). Older workers: Employment and retirement trends - September 15, 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL30629

This paper presents an analysis of data from the Census Bureau's March 2008 Current Population Survey on employment and receipt of pension income among persons age 55 and older, and data from the Social Security Administration on the proportion of workers who claim retired-worker benefits before the full retirement age.

According to a 2008 AARP report on the results of a survey oof adults aged 55-75, "74% of respondents say they are happier in retirement than when they were working. There is a significant difference in agreement with this statement between respondents in households with less than $25,000 in income...

According to a 2008 AARP report on the results of a survey oof adults aged 55-75, "74% of respondents say they are happier in retirement than when they were working. There is a significant difference in agreement with this statement between respondents in households with less than $25,000 in income (61%) compared to 83% of those in households with incomes of $50,000 or more." (p. 10)

Koppen, J., & Anderson, G. (2008). Retired spouses: A national survey of adults 55-75. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/general/retired_spouses.pdf

The sample consisted of 1064 adults ages 55-75, married or living as married and who are retired themselves and/or have a spouse who is retired. Questions were included on a survey administrated by telephone on November 1-26, 2007.

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, among persons aged 55-64 who were not working in 2004, 32.4% reported chronic illness or disability as the reason for not working, while 42.8% reported that they were retired. Among those 65 and over who were not working, 85.9% reported that they were retired,...

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, among persons aged 55-64 who were not working in 2004, 32.4% reported chronic illness or disability as the reason for not working, while 42.8% reported that they were retired. Among those 65 and over who were not working, 85.9% reported that they were retired, compared to 7.4% who said the chronic illness or disability was the reason. (table 2, p. 5)

Dalirazar, N. (2007). Reasons people do not work: 2004 (Current Population Reports No. P70-111). Washington, DC: U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p70-111.pdf

The population represented (population universe) in the 2004 SIPP is the civilian noninstitutionalized population living in the United States. The SIPP is a longitudinal survey conducted at 4-month intervals. The data in this report were collected from February through May 2004 in the first wave (interview) of the 2004 SIPP.

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, for nonworkers 45 years and older, health and retirement were the dominant reasons for not working. The proportion of nonworkers listing either of these reasons ranged from 51 percent for 45- to 54-yearolds, to 94 percent for people 65 years and over. Retirement...

According to a 2007 Census Bureau report, for nonworkers 45 years and older, health and retirement were the dominant reasons for not working. The proportion of nonworkers listing either of these reasons ranged from 51 percent for 45- to 54-yearolds, to 94 percent for people 65 years and over. Retirement was the reason given by 86 percent of nonworkers 65 years and over. (p. 5)

Dalirazar, N. (2007). Reasons people do not work: 2004 (Current Population Reports No. P70-111). Washington, DC: U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p70-111.pdf

The population represented (population universe) in the 2004 SIPP is the civilian noninstitutionalized population living in the United States. The SIPP is a longitudinal survey conducted at 4-month intervals. The data in this report were collected from February through May 2004 in the first wave (interview) of the 2004 SIPP.

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