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According to a 2013 analysis of American Community Survey data, among U.S. workers aged 50-64, 75.2% are Caucasian/White, 9.5% are African American/Black, 4.6% are Asian/Pacific Islander, 92% are Hispanic. (p. 5)

According to a 2013 analysis of American Community Survey data, among U.S. workers aged 50-64, 75.2% are Caucasian/White, 9.5% are African American/Black, 4.6% are Asian/Pacific Islander, 92% are Hispanic. (p. 5)

AARP. (2013). Workforce profiles: Selected characteristics of U.S. workers and non-workers age 40+. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/general/2013/workforceprofiles/AARP%20Workforce%20Profile%20-%20National.pdf

Data were gathered from the 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Micro Sample (PUMS), which is taken from the U.S. Census Bureau data.

According to a 2013 analysis of data from a national longituindal survey, for men experiencing a spell of long-term unemployment [that is, unemployed for 27 weeks or more] during their careers, "slightly more than 22 percent of men have had a long-term unemployment spell...About 41 percent of Black...

According to a 2013 analysis of data from a national longituindal survey, for men experiencing a spell of long-term unemployment [that is, unemployed for 27 weeks or more] during their careers, "slightly more than 22 percent of men have had a long-term unemployment spell...About 41 percent of Black men have had a long-term unemployment spell, compared with 19 percent of non-Black, non-Hispanic men and 26 percent of Hispanic men." (p. 2)

Rothstein, D. S. (2013). Long-term unemployment over men's careers. (Beyond the Numbers, Vol. 2 No. 21). Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-2/pdf/long-term-unemployment-over-mens-careers.pdf

The data used in this article are from the NLSY79, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women born from 1957 to 1964 (the latter years of the baby boom) and living in the United States at the time of the initial survey in 1979. Respondents were interviewed annually from 1979 through 1994; after 1994, they were interviewed every other year. By the 2010 survey, NLSY79 respondents were ages 45 to 53.7

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "43% of Hispanic adults age 50 years and older have searched for a job in the last five years, compared with 19% of white adults age 50 years and older, a difference of 24% points." (p.5)

According to a 2013 survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, "43% of Hispanic adults age 50 years and older have searched for a job in the last five years, compared with 19% of white adults age 50 years and older, a difference of 24% points." (p.5)

Benz, J., Sedensky, M., Tompson, T., & Agiesta, J. (2013). Working longer: Older Americans' attitudes on work and retirement. The Associated Press and NORC. Retrieved from http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/working-longer-older-americans-attitudes-on-work-and-retirement.aspx

With funding from the Sloan Foundation, the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research conducted a national survey of 1,024 adults ages 50 and over. This survey illuminates a slow-moving shift in the American idea of retirement.

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, among persons identifying as Hispanic or Latino, labor force participation of those aged 55-64 is 60.8%, compared to 64.3% of all workers.  For those aged 65+, the labor force participation rate in 17.6%, compared to 17.9%...

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, among persons identifying as Hispanic or Latino, labor force participation of those aged 55-64 is 60.8%, compared to 64.3% of all workers.  For those aged 65+, the labor force participation rate in 17.6%, compared to 17.9% overall. (Chart Data)

Bureau of Labor Statiscis. (2012). National Hispanic heritage month: BLS spotlight on statistics. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2012/hispanic_heritage/

This report is based on analysis of labor force participation data collected in the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "during the 2010-2020 period, the number of individuals aged 45 to 54 identifying as Hispanic or Latino is projected to increase by 1.9 million, the largest growth in terms of number of people of any age group."

According to a 2012 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "during the 2010-2020 period, the number of individuals aged 45 to 54 identifying as Hispanic or Latino is projected to increase by 1.9 million, the largest growth in terms of number of people of any age group."

Bureau of Labor Statiscis. (2012). National Hispanic heritage month: BLS spotlight on statistics. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2012/hispanic_heritage/

This report is based on analysis of labor force participation data collected in the Current Population Survey.

According to a 2012 analysis of US Census data, "Only about a third of African Americans (36 percent) and Asians (29 percent) and one-fifth of Hispanics (22 percent) live in families that receive income from pensions or retirement accounts. Roughly a third of older African Americans and Hispanics (30...

According to a 2012 analysis of US Census data, "Only about a third of African Americans (36 percent) and Asians (29 percent) and one-fifth of Hispanics (22 percent) live in families that receive income from pensions or retirement accounts. Roughly a third of older African Americans and Hispanics (30 percent) and half of older Asians (53 percent) live in families that receive asset income (interest, dividends, or rental income)."

Waid, M., & Koening, G. (2012). Social security: A key retirement income source for older minorities. (Fact Sheet No. 262). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/econ_sec/2012/ss-key-retirement-income-source-older-minorities-AARP-ppi-econ-sec.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2012 analysis of US Census data, "about a third of older African Americans (34 percent) and Hispanics (35 percent) in beneficiary families rely on Social Security for more than 90 percent of their family income." (p. 3)

According to a 2012 analysis of US Census data, "about a third of older African Americans (34 percent) and Hispanics (35 percent) in beneficiary families rely on Social Security for more than 90 percent of their family income." (p. 3)

Waid, M., & Koening, G. (2012). Social security: A key retirement income source for older minorities. (Fact Sheet No. 262). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/econ_sec/2012/ss-key-retirement-income-source-older-minorities-AARP-ppi-econ-sec.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2012 analysis of US Census data, "the median annual amount of family income from Social Security for older African Americans and Hispanics in beneficiary families ($14,400) is roughly 27 percent lower than that of older whites ($19,757). The gap is about 9 percent for Asians ($17,957)."...

According to a 2012 analysis of US Census data, "the median annual amount of family income from Social Security for older African Americans and Hispanics in beneficiary families ($14,400) is roughly 27 percent lower than that of older whites ($19,757). The gap is about 9 percent for Asians ($17,957)." (Table 1, p. 4)

Waid, M., & Koening, G. (2012). Social security: A key retirement income source for older minorities. (Fact Sheet No. 262). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/econ_sec/2012/ss-key-retirement-income-source-older-minorities-AARP-ppi-econ-sec.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2012 analysis of US Census data, "about 52 percent of older Hispanics and 80 percent of older Asians are either naturalized citizens or immigrants. In contrast, only 6 percent of older whites and 8 percent of older African Americans are foreign-born." (p. 6)

According to a 2012 analysis of US Census data, "about 52 percent of older Hispanics and 80 percent of older Asians are either naturalized citizens or immigrants. In contrast, only 6 percent of older whites and 8 percent of older African Americans are foreign-born." (p. 6)

Waid, M., & Koening, G. (2012). Social security: A key retirement income source for older minorities. (Fact Sheet No. 262). Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/econ_sec/2012/ss-key-retirement-income-source-older-minorities-AARP-ppi-econ-sec.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2011 analysis of CPS data, "there were 23.2 million people of color age 50 or older in the United States in 2010, including 9.6 million African Americans, 8.5 million Hispanics, 3.8 million Asian Americans, and 1.3 million other nonwhites." The number of Hispanics and Asian Americans...

According to a 2011 analysis of CPS data, "there were 23.2 million people of color age 50 or older in the United States in 2010, including 9.6 million African Americans, 8.5 million Hispanics, 3.8 million Asian Americans, and 1.3 million other nonwhites." The number of Hispanics and Asian Americans age 50 and older is projected to more than double between 2010 and 2030. By contrast, the non-Hispanic white population will increase only 16 percent. Hispanics will account for 15.3 percent of the 50+ U.S. population in 2030, up from 8.6 percent in 2010. The share of Asian Americans will increase from 3.9 to 6.3 percent." (p. 4)

Johnson, R. W., & Park, J. (2011). Employment and earnings among 50+ people of color. (Working Paper No. 4). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/412376-employment-and-earnings.pdf

This analysis is based on data from the 1980, 1995, and 2010 Current Population survey.

According to a 2011 analysis of CPS data, "at age 62 to 64, 64.3 percent of Asian men participated in the labor force, compared with 56.4 percent of non-Hispanic whites, 50.0 percent of Hispanics, and 40.5 percent of African Americans." (fig 2, p. 2)

According to a 2011 analysis of CPS data, "at age 62 to 64, 64.3 percent of Asian men participated in the labor force, compared with 56.4 percent of non-Hispanic whites, 50.0 percent of Hispanics, and 40.5 percent of African Americans." (fig 2, p. 2)

Johnson, R. W., & Park, J. (2011). Employment and earnings among 50+ people of color. (Working Paper No. 4). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/412376-employment-and-earnings.pdf

This analysis is based on data from the 1980, 1995, and 2010 Current Population survey.

According to a 2011 analysis of CPS data, "unemployment rates for men age 50 to 61 were highest among African Americans (13.4 percent), followed by Hispanics (10.7 percent), Asians (8.3 percent), and non-Hispanic whites (7.3 percent). For women age 50 to 61, Hispanics exhibited the highest unemployment...

According to a 2011 analysis of CPS data, "unemployment rates for men age 50 to 61 were highest among African Americans (13.4 percent), followed by Hispanics (10.7 percent), Asians (8.3 percent), and non-Hispanic whites (7.3 percent). For women age 50 to 61, Hispanics exhibited the highest unemployment rates (10.7), followed by African Americans (8.7 percent), Asians (6.6 percent), and non-Hispanic whites (5.6 percent). (p. 8)

Johnson, R. W., & Park, J. (2011). Employment and earnings among 50+ people of color. (Working Paper No. 4). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/412376-employment-and-earnings.pdf

This analysis is based on data from the 1980, 1995, and 2010 Current Population survey.

According to the 2011 Profile of Older Americans, "the educational level of the older population is increasing. Between 1970 and 2009, the percentage of older persons who had completed high school rose from 28% to 78.3%. About 21.7% in 2009 had a bachelor's degree or higher. The percentage who had completed...

According to the 2011 Profile of Older Americans, "the educational level of the older population is increasing. Between 1970 and 2009, the percentage of older persons who had completed high school rose from 28% to 78.3%. About 21.7% in 2009 had a bachelor's degree or higher. The percentage who had completed high school varied considerably by race and ethnic origin in 2009: 83.1% of Whites**, 71.9% of Asians and Pacific Islanders, 63.8% of African-Americans, and 45.9% of Hispanics. The increase in educational levels is also evident within these groups. In 1970, only 30% of older Whites and 9% of older African-Americans were high school graduates."

Administration on Aging. (2011). A profile of older Americans- 2010. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/Profile/index.aspx

Principal sources of data for the Profile are the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the National Center on Health Statistics, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Profile incorporates the latest data available but not all items are updated on an annual basis.

According to a 2010 survey, "African Americans (95%) and Hispanics (85%)...are more likely than whites (80%) to assert that Social Security is or will be an important part of their retirement income." (p. 1)

According to a 2010 survey, "African Americans (95%) and Hispanics (85%)...are more likely than whites (80%) to assert that Social Security is or will be an important part of their retirement income." (p. 1)

Rockeymoore, M., & Maitin-Shepard, M. (2010). Tough times require strong social security benefits: Views on social security among African Americans, Hispanic americans, and white americans (Social Security Brief No. 32). Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Social Insurance. Retrieved from http://www.nasi.org/sites/default/files/research/SS_Brief_032.pdf

The poll, conducted on July 7-14, 2009, interviewed 1,488 Americans, including an oversample of 250 African Americans and 245 Hispanics. Responses were weighted to match the demographics of the overall U.S. population.

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "the percentage of workers age 55 or older working full time, full year increased from 1987 to 2008...Black workers had the largest percentage point increase, from 52.7 percent in 1987 to 66.7 percent in 2008. White workers this age had the lowest percentage...

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "the percentage of workers age 55 or older working full time, full year increased from 1987 to 2008...Black workers had the largest percentage point increase, from 52.7 percent in 1987 to 66.7 percent in 2008. White workers this age had the lowest percentage working full time, full year" [62.8%], an increase from 55.8% in 1987. Among Hispanic workers aged 55+, 67.2% were employed full-time, full-year, compared to 61.6% in 1987. (p. 5 + fig. 6)

Copeland, C. (2010). Employment status of workers ages 55 or older, 1987-2008 (EBRI Notes No. 31). Washington, D.C.: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_03-Mar10.EmptStat.pdf

This article examines the employment status (full time, part time, or part year) of these older (age 55 or older) workers, using the latest March Current Population Survey data.

According to a 2010 Pew Research Center survey, "only about six-in-ten Millennials (61%) are non-Hispanic whites. This is similar to the share among Generation X (62%), but less than that of Baby Boomers (73%) or the Silent generation (80%). The flip side of this measure is that racial and ethnic minorities...

According to a 2010 Pew Research Center survey, "only about six-in-ten Millennials (61%) are non-Hispanic whites. This is similar to the share among Generation X (62%), but less than that of Baby Boomers (73%) or the Silent generation (80%). The flip side of this measure is that racial and ethnic minorities make up 39% of Millennials and 38% of Gen Xers, compared with just 27% of Baby Boomers and 20% of the Silent generation...In the Baby Boom generation, the black (11%) and Hispanic (10%) shares of the population are similar; among Millennials, there are more Hispanics (19%) than blacks (13%)." (p. 10)

Pew Research Center. (2010). Millennials: A portrait of generation next: Confident. connected. open to change. Washington, DC: The Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/millennials-confident-connected-open-to-change.pdf

Findings in this study are mainly based on the results of a telephone survey conducted Jan. 14 to 27, 2010, on landlines and cell phones with a nationally representative sample of 2,020 adults. To allow for a detailed analysis of attitudes of the Millennial generation, the survey includes an oversample of respondents ages 18 to 29, for a total of 830 respondents in this age group.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "among men age 55 to 64, about 11 percent of Hispanic workers and 10 percent of African American workers were unemployed, compared with 6 percent of non-Hispanic white workers." (p. 9)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "among men age 55 to 64, about 11 percent of Hispanic workers and 10 percent of African American workers were unemployed, compared with 6 percent of non-Hispanic white workers." (p. 9)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "at age 65 and older, 2009 male unemployment rates reached about 11 percent for African Americans, 8 percent for Hispanics, and 6 percent for non-Hispanic whites. (p. 9)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "at age 65 and older, 2009 male unemployment rates reached about 11 percent for African Americans, 8 percent for Hispanics, and 6 percent for non-Hispanic whites. (p. 9)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "the unemployment rate for Hispanic women age 55 to 64 reached about 9 percent in 2009, 2 percentage points less than the corresponding rate for men." (p. 9-10)

According to a 2010 Urban Institute report, "the unemployment rate for Hispanic women age 55 to 64 reached about 9 percent in 2009, 2 percentage points less than the corresponding rate for men." (p. 9-10)

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2010). How did older workers fare in 2009?. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412039_older_workers.pdf

This report is based on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for BLS. The analysis compares 2009 outcomes with those in 2007, when unemployment fell to its lowest level after the 2001 recession.

According to a 2010 AARP study, "Job loss in the last year for Hispanics ages 45+ was double that of the general population (21% versus 10%). Further, 10 percent of Hispanics ages 45+ returned to work from retirement (versus 5%)." (p. 2)

According to a 2010 AARP study, "Job loss in the last year for Hispanics ages 45+ was double that of the general population (21% versus 10%). Further, 10 percent of Hispanics ages 45+ returned to work from retirement (versus 5%)." (p. 2)

Perron, R. (2010). Recession takes toll on hispanics 45+: Boomers particularly hard hit. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispeconomy.pdf

This survey was conducted by telephone from January 15th to January 27th, 2010 among a nationally representative general sample of 1002 adults ages 45+ and a targeted sample of 400 Hispanics ages 45+, with bilingual interviewers.

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, "approximately 70 percent of the employment-based retirement plan assets were held by families headed by individuals ages 45-64. The largest concentration of IRA and Keogh assets is held by families with heads in the next oldest...

According to a 2010 analysis of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, "approximately 70 percent of the employment-based retirement plan assets were held by families headed by individuals ages 45-64. The largest concentration of IRA and Keogh assets is held by families with heads in the next oldest age group (ages 55-74), who own just over 60 percent of these assets....just less than 90 percent of individual account retirement plan assets were held by families headed by white, non-Hispanic individuals." (p. 2)

Copeland, C. (2010). Total individual account retirement plan assets, by demographics, 2007, with market adjustments to March 2010 (EBRI Notes, Vol. 31 No. 5). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/notespdf/EBRI_Notes_05-May10.IAs.pdf

This article examines the distribution of total assets held in individual account retirement plans (401(k)-type plans, IRAs, and Keogh plans) across various demographic characteristics of American families, based on the latest data from the Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances.

According to a 2010 AARP survey, "two out of five (40%) adults age 50 and over consider themselves extremely (17%) or very (23%) comfortable using the Internet. One out of five (21%) Hispanic adults age 50 and over consider themselves extremely (6%) or very (15%) comfortable using the Internet." (p....

According to a 2010 AARP survey, "two out of five (40%) adults age 50 and over consider themselves extremely (17%) or very (23%) comfortable using the Internet. One out of five (21%) Hispanic adults age 50 and over consider themselves extremely (6%) or very (15%) comfortable using the Internet." (p. 1)

Koppen, J. (2010). Social media and technology use among adults 50+. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/general/socmedia.pdf

The survey was conducted via telephone by GfK Custom Research. Questions were included on GfK's OmniTel and Hispanic OmniTel surveys during May 12-17, 2010. A nationally representative sample of 1,360 adults age 50 and older, as well as 503 Hispanic adults age 50 and older, completed the interviews.

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "in January 2010, the reemployment rates for long-tenured displaced whites (50 percent), Hispanics (49 percent), blacks (43 percent), and Asians (38 percent) declined from the rates recorded in the January 2008 survey." (p. 2)

According to a 2010 analysis of CPS data, "in January 2010, the reemployment rates for long-tenured displaced whites (50 percent), Hispanics (49 percent), blacks (43 percent), and Asians (38 percent) declined from the rates recorded in the January 2008 survey." (p. 2)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Worker displacement: 2007-2009. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/disp.pdf

Since 1984, the Employment and Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor has sponsored surveys that collect information on workers who were displaced from their jobs. These surveys have been conducted biennially as supplements to the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of households that is the primary source of information on the nation's labor force.

According to a 2010 analysis from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among persons born in the latter years of the baby boom [1957 to 1964], "blacks with less than a high school diploma (as of the 2008-09 survey) spent 47 percent of weeks employed from age 18 to age 44. By comparison, black high school...

According to a 2010 analysis from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among persons born in the latter years of the baby boom [1957 to 1964], "blacks with less than a high school diploma (as of the 2008-09 survey) spent 47 percent of weeks employed from age 18 to age 44. By comparison, black high school graduates spent 68 percent of weeks employed. Hispanic or Latino high school dropouts spent 59 percent of weeks employed, compared with 74 percent of weeks for Hispanic or Latino high school graduates. White high school dropouts spent 64 percent of weeks employed, and white high school graduates spent 80 percent of weeks employed. Among those with a bachelor's degree, there was little difference between racial and ethnic groups in labor market attachment; each group spent 80 to 82 percent of weeks employed."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010). Number of jobs held, labor market activity, and earnings growth among the youngest baby boomers: Results from a longitudinal survey summary. Retrieved September 13, 2010, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/nlsoy.nr0.htm

These findings are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a survey of 9,964 men and women who were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979 and ages 43 to 52 when interviewed most recently during the 2008-09 period. These respondents were born in the years 1957 to 1964, the latter years of the baby boom that occurred in the United States from 1946 to 1964.

According to a 2009 Pew survey, among respondents aged 65 and older, "nearly half of all older whites (49%) say the have lost money on investments, roughly three times the proportion of blacks (14%) and Hispanics (18%)." (p. 8)

According to a 2009 Pew survey, among respondents aged 65 and older, "nearly half of all older whites (49%) say the have lost money on investments, roughly three times the proportion of blacks (14%) and Hispanics (18%)." (p. 8)

Morin, R., & Taylor, P. (2009). Oldest are most sheltered: Different age groups, different recessions. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/recession-and-older-americans.pdf

This report presents the results of a telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults conducted by the Pew Research Center's Social & Demographic Trends project from Feb. 23 to March 23, 2009.

According to a 2009 (June) analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics employment data, "workers with less job experience are particularly hard hit -- those age 16-24 face an unemployment rate of 17.8%; 25-54 year olds are seeing 8.5%; and those over 54 are at 7% (up 6.2, 4.5, and 3.9 percentage points,...

According to a 2009 (June) analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics employment data, "workers with less job experience are particularly hard hit -- those age 16-24 face an unemployment rate of 17.8%; 25-54 year olds are seeing 8.5%; and those over 54 are at 7% (up 6.2, 4.5, and 3.9 percentage points, respectively, since the start of the recession)."

In comparison, "unemployment was 14.7% among black workers, 12.2% among Hispanic workers, and 8.7% among white workers (increases of 5.8, 6.0, and 4.3 percentage points, respectively, since the start of the recession).  Male unemployment increased to 10.6% in June, compared to 8.3% for women (increases of 5.6 and 3.5 percentage points).  For workers with a college degree, the unemployment rate is 4.7%, and unemployment among those with only a high school diploma, at 9.8%, is more than double that of college-educated workers." 

Shierholz, H. (2009). Jobs picture for July 2, 2009. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/jobs_picture_20090702/

This report presents an analysis of the June 2, 2009 employment report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

According to a 2009 analysis of National Health Interview Survey data, "rates of physical limitations vary by race as well as age. Non-Hispanic black adults are more likely to have one or more physical limitations than non-Hispanic white adults. For example, at aged 50-59, fewer than one in five non-Hispanic...

According to a 2009 analysis of National Health Interview Survey data, "rates of physical limitations vary by race as well as age. Non-Hispanic black adults are more likely to have one or more physical limitations than non-Hispanic white adults. For example, at aged 50-59, fewer than one in five non-Hispanic white adults have physical limitations, whereas almost one in four non-Hispanic black adults have physical limitations." (p. 2)

Holmes, J., Powell-Griner, E., Lethbridge-Cejku, M., & Heyman, K. (2009). Aging differently: Physical limitations among adults aged 50 years and over: United States, 2001-2007 (NCHS Data Brief No. 20). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.globalaging.org/health/us/2009/physicallimitations.pdf

Data from the 2001-2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis. In 2001-2007, 238,018 persons aged 50 and over from the Sample Adult component of the NHIS, were included in this analysis.

According to a 2009 analysis of National Health Interview Survey data, "for each age and race group, women are more likely than men of the same age to have one or more physical limitations. For example, 20% of non-Hispanic white men aged 60-69 have a physical limitation compared with 28% of non-Hispanic...

According to a 2009 analysis of National Health Interview Survey data, "for each age and race group, women are more likely than men of the same age to have one or more physical limitations. For example, 20% of non-Hispanic white men aged 60-69 have a physical limitation compared with 28% of non-Hispanic white females of the same age. Similarly, 27% of non-Hispanic black males experience physical limitations at aged 60-69 in contrast to 40% of non-Hispanic black females aged 60-69." (p. 3)

Holmes, J., Powell-Griner, E., Lethbridge-Cejku, M., & Heyman, K. (2009). Aging differently: Physical limitations among adults aged 50 years and over: United states, 2001-2007 (NCHS Data Brief No. 20). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.globalaging.org/health/us/2009/physicallimitations.pdf

Data from the 2001-2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis. In 2001-2007, 238,018 persons aged 50 and over from the Sample Adult component of the NHIS, were included in this analysis.

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, "57 percent of African-American Boomers surveyed had mothers who worked compared with 31 percent, 35 percent and 35 percent for Asian, Hispanic and Caucasian Boomers, respectively (full-time plus part-time)....The figures are reversed for...

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, "57 percent of African-American Boomers surveyed had mothers who worked compared with 31 percent, 35 percent and 35 percent for Asian, Hispanic and Caucasian Boomers, respectively (full-time plus part-time)....The figures are reversed for full time homemakers: only 25 percent of African-American Boomers had stay-at-home moms compared with 48 percent of Caucasians. 9 percent had mothers who were homemakers compared with 27 percent of Caucasians (figs 4.2 & 4.3, p. 10)

Hewlett, S. A., Jackson, M., Sherbin, L., Shiller, P., Sosnovich, E., & Sumberg, K. (2009). Bookend generations: Leveraging talent and finding common ground. New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.

The first U.S. survey was conducted online in June and July 2008 among 3,782 U.S. women and men between the ages of 21 and 62 and currently employed in certain white collar occupations, with at least a bachelor's degree; The second U.S. survey was conducted online in January and February 2009 and re-interviewed a total of 1,046 of the respondents from the first survey.

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, "Forty-seven percent of Ys and 34 percent of Boomers say that it is important that the company they work for offer "mini odysseys" by establishing sabbatical leaves....Asian Boomers value the sabbatical leaves more than Caucasians (79% versus...

According to a 2009 study comparing GenY and Boomer employees, "Forty-seven percent of Ys and 34 percent of Boomers say that it is important that the company they work for offer "mini odysseys" by establishing sabbatical leaves....Asian Boomers value the sabbatical leaves more than Caucasians (79% versus 35%). In the Y population, more Hispanics (89%) and Asians (78%) than Caucasians (45%) say that sabbaticals are important. (p. 42)

Hewlett, S. A., Jackson, M., Sherbin, L., Shiller, P., Sosnovich, E., & Sumberg, K. (2009). Bookend generations: Leveraging talent and finding common ground. New York: Center for Work-Life Policy.

The first U.S. survey was conducted online in June and July 2008 among 3,782 U.S. women and men between the ages of 21 and 62 and currently employed in certain white collar occupations, with at least a bachelor's degree; The second U.S. survey was conducted online in January and February 2009 and re-interviewed a total of 1,046 of the respondents from the first survey.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "In 2007, about 57 percent of Hispanics ages 50 to 69 were foreign-born, compared with only 9 percent of their non-Hispanic counterparts." (p. 6)

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "In 2007, about 57 percent of Hispanics ages 50 to 69 were foreign-born, compared with only 9 percent of their non-Hispanic counterparts." (p. 6)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "In 2007, 41 percent of Hispanics ages 50 to 69 lacked a high school diploma, compared with only 18 percent of non-Hispanic blacks and 8 percent of non-Hispanic whites in the same age group. Only 12 percent of Latinos ages 50 to 69 earned at least a...

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "In 2007, 41 percent of Hispanics ages 50 to 69 lacked a high school diploma, compared with only 18 percent of non-Hispanic blacks and 8 percent of non-Hispanic whites in the same age group. Only 12 percent of Latinos ages 50 to 69 earned at least a Bachelor's degree. By contrast, [in the same age group] 17 percent of non-Hispanic blacks and 31 percent of non-Hispanic whites completed college." (p. 8)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "About 3.2 million Hispanics ages 50 to 69 were employed in 2007, accounting for 8 percent of all employed workers in that age group." (p. 15)

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "About 3.2 million Hispanics ages 50 to 69 were employed in 2007, accounting for 8 percent of all employed workers in that age group." (p. 15)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "In 2007, seven in ten Hispanic men ages 50-69 participated in the labor force (by working or looking for work), nearly identical to the rate for non-Hispanic whites and substantially higher than the rate for non-Hispanic blacks. In 2007, only...

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "In 2007, seven in ten Hispanic men ages 50-69 participated in the labor force (by working or looking for work), nearly identical to the rate for non-Hispanic whites and substantially higher than the rate for non-Hispanic blacks. In 2007, only about one-half of Hispanic women ages 50 to 69 participated in the labor force." (p. 15-16)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "older Hispanics are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites (23 percent vs. 10 percent) to point to the 'need to support other family members'" as a reason for working. (p. 17)

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Census data, "older Hispanics are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites (23 percent vs. 10 percent) to point to the 'need to support other family members'" as a reason for working. (p. 17)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "The share of older Hispanic wage and salary workers with health benefits from their current employer stands at only about 49 percent, compared with about 65 percent for non-Hispanic whites and 62 percent for non-Hispanic blacks. (p. 19)

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "The share of older Hispanic wage and salary workers with health benefits from their current employer stands at only about 49 percent, compared with about 65 percent for non-Hispanic whites and 62 percent for non-Hispanic blacks. (p. 19)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "Employer-sponsored retirement plans are available to only about 38 percent of older Hispanic wage and salary workers, compared with about 64 percent of non-Hispanic whites and 55 percent of non-Hispanic blacks." (p. 19)

According to a 2009 analysis of U.S. Labor Department data, "Employer-sponsored retirement plans are available to only about 38 percent of older Hispanic wage and salary workers, compared with about 64 percent of non-Hispanic whites and 55 percent of non-Hispanic blacks." (p. 19)

Johnson, R. W., & Soto, M. (2009). 50+ Hispanic workers: A growing segment of the U.S. workforce. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/hispanic_workers_09.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, as well as from the U.S. Department of Labor, University of Michigan and the Urban Institute.

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, one-fifth of elderly African- Americans and elderly Hispanics were in poverty. About 80% of all older Americans identify their ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic. Thus, although only 7.6% of older white Americans were poor,...

According to a 2009 analysis of data from the Current Population Survey, "in 2008, one-fifth of elderly African- Americans and elderly Hispanics were in poverty. About 80% of all older Americans identify their ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic. Thus, although only 7.6% of older white Americans were poor, poor white persons comprised 60% of all poor elderly persons in the United States in 2008." (p. 23)

Purcell, P. (2009). Income and poverty among older Americans in 2008. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32697_20091002.pdf

The findings in this report are based on data collected in the March 2009 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The March 2009 CPS consisted of interviews with members of approximately 76,200 households, comprising a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States.

A 2009 report on Bureau of Labor Statistics projections indicates that "the growth rate of 33 percent for the Hispanic labor force is about 8 times that of non-Hispanic workers over the projections decade [2008-2018], increasing the Hispanic share of the labor force from 14 percent in 2008 to 18 percent...

A 2009 report on Bureau of Labor Statistics projections indicates that "the growth rate of 33 percent for the Hispanic labor force is about 8 times that of non-Hispanic workers over the projections decade [2008-2018], increasing the Hispanic share of the labor force from 14 percent in 2008 to 18 percent in 2018." (p. 36)

Labor force. (2009). Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 53(4), 30-36. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2009/winter/art03.pdf

These Bureau of Labor Statistics projections are based on demographic data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

According to a 2008 analysis of U.S. population projections from the Pew Research Center, in "the working-age population [aged 18-64], the share of foreign-born residents ... will rise to 23% in 2050, compared with 15% in 2005. The Hispanic share of working-age adults, 14% in 2005, will more than double,...

According to a 2008 analysis of U.S. population projections from the Pew Research Center, in "the working-age population [aged 18-64], the share of foreign-born residents ... will rise to 23% in 2050, compared with 15% in 2005. The Hispanic share of working-age adults, 14% in 2005, will more than double, to 31% in 2050. The non-Hispanic white share, 68% in 2005, will decline to 45% in 2050." (p. 18)

Passel, J., & Cohn, D. (2008). U.S. population projections: 2005-2050. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 14, 2008 from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/85.pdf

The Pew Research Center's projections for the period from 2005 to 2050 are derived from U.S. Census and Social Security data and are based on detailed assumptions about patterns in births, deaths and immigration developed by researchers at the Center.

According to a 2008 analysis of U.S. population projections from the Pew Research Center, non-Hispanic whites will remain a majority of the elderly [over age 65], but their share will drop markedly to 63% in 2050, compared with 82% in 2005...The share of blacks [over age 65] will grow from 8% in 2005...

According to a 2008 analysis of U.S. population projections from the Pew Research Center, non-Hispanic whites will remain a majority of the elderly [over age 65], but their share will drop markedly to 63% in 2050, compared with 82% in 2005...The share of blacks [over age 65] will grow from 8% in 2005 to 12% in 2050; the share of Asians will grow from 3% to 8%." (p. 21)

Passel, J., & Cohn, D. (2008). U.S. population projections: 2005-2050. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 14, 2008 from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/85.pdf

The Pew Research Center's projections for the period from 2005 to 2050 are derived from U.S. Census and Social Security data and are based on detailed assumptions about patterns in births, deaths and immigration developed by researchers at the Center.

Analysis of data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that "among older workers, the odds of being very satisfied with life are 63.6% higher for females than for males; 45.3% lower for white non-Hispanics than for people of other ethnic/racial backgrounds, and 8.5% higher with...

Analysis of data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce shows that "among older workers, the odds of being very satisfied with life are 63.6% higher for females than for males; 45.3% lower for white non-Hispanics than for people of other ethnic/racial backgrounds, and 8.5% higher with every additional year in age." (p. 6)

Johnson, J. K. M., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Besen, E., Smyer, M., & Matz-Costa, C. (2008). Quality of employment and life-satisfaction: A relationship that matters for older workers (Issue Brief No. 13). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility. Retrieved from http://agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/IB13_LifeSatisfaction.pdf

Drawing on data from various sources, this issue brief offers insights about how employment experiences affect the life satisfaction of older workers.

According to a 2006 report on sources of income for older persons, "about 89 percent of whites, 80.9 percent of blacks, and 72.4 percent of Hispanics had income from Social Security in 2006...33.2 percent of whites had income from pension and retirement savings, compared with 25.2 percent of blacks...

According to a 2006 report on sources of income for older persons, "about 89 percent of whites, 80.9 percent of blacks, and 72.4 percent of Hispanics had income from Social Security in 2006...33.2 percent of whites had income from pension and retirement savings, compared with 25.2 percent of blacks and 13.9 percent Hispanics."(p. 4)

Wu, K. B. (2008). Sources of income for older persons, 2006. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs143_income.pdf

This report includes information about income sources for individuals age 65 and older in 2006 obtained from the March 2007 Current Population Survey (CPS)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "working to pay for health care costs for self or other family member" is identified as a major reason for working by 81% of Hispanics, 67% of African-Americans, and 55% of whites...Two-thirds of Hispanics also cite the need to support other family members...

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "working to pay for health care costs for self or other family member" is identified as a major reason for working by 81% of Hispanics, 67% of African-Americans, and 55% of whites...Two-thirds of Hispanics also cite the need to support other family members as a major reason for working, compared to only 54 percent of African Americans and 44 percent of whites."  (p. 96)


Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, 76% of African Americans and 72% of Hispanics agreed with the statement 'the only reason I continue to work is because I need the money', compared to 57 percent of whites." (p. 96)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, 76% of African Americans and 72% of Hispanics agreed with the statement 'the only reason I continue to work is because I need the money', compared to 57 percent of whites." (p. 96)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007.  Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "Enjoy the job,enjoy working" was named as the major reason for working by 85% of Hispanics, 71% of African Americans, and 69% of whites. (p.96)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "Enjoy the job,enjoy working" was named as the major reason for working by 85% of Hispanics, 71% of African Americans, and 69% of whites. (p.96)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007.   Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "nearly half (46%) of older Hispanic workers say they have difficulty keeping up with technology compared to just one in four (25%) whites and about three in ten (31%) African American workers." (p. 101)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "nearly half (46%) of older Hispanic workers say they have difficulty keeping up with technology compared to just one in four (25%) whites and about three in ten (31%) African American workers." (p. 101)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "members of the two minority groups are more likely than whites to have children living with them (43% of Hispanics and 37% of African Americans vs. 25% of whites).  More Hispanics (31%) and African Americans (23%) than whites (11%) have assumed...

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "members of the two minority groups are more likely than whites to have children living with them (43% of Hispanics and 37% of African Americans vs. 25% of whites).  More Hispanics (31%) and African Americans (23%) than whites (11%) have assumed responsibility for the care of a spouse or partner on a regular basis." (p. 102)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, more Hispanics (29%) and African Americans (23%) than whites (9%) have started providing regular child care or daycare for a grandchild. (p. 102)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, more Hispanics (29%) and African Americans (23%) than whites (9%) have started providing regular child care or daycare for a grandchild. (p. 102)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "older Hispanic workers are more likely than others to have taken on care of a parent or other adult relative (38% for Hispanics vs. 30% from African Americans and 28% for whites)." (p. 102)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "older Hispanic workers are more likely than others to have taken on care of a parent or other adult relative (38% for Hispanics vs. 30% from African Americans and 28% for whites)." (p. 102)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "more older African American workers (79%) than white workers (68%) intend to work for pay during retirement. Among older Hispanic workers, 75% have such expectations." (p. 107)

According to a 2008 AARP survey of older workers, "more older African American workers (79%) than white workers (68%) intend to work for pay during retirement. Among older Hispanic workers, 75% have such expectations." (p. 107)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, reasons for working related to future financial needs were somewhat more likely to be mentioned by Hispanics and African Americans, compared to whites. For example, 77% of Hispanics and 73% of African-Americans mentioned "saving more for retirement" as a reason...

In a 2008 AARP survey of older adults, reasons for working related to future financial needs were somewhat more likely to be mentioned by Hispanics and African Americans, compared to whites. For example, 77% of Hispanics and 73% of African-Americans mentioned "saving more for retirement" as a reason for working, compared to 64% of whites.  Qualifying for social security and fulfilling pension requirements were mentioned by between 59-68% Hispanics and African-Americans, compared to 40-41% of whites. (Table 3, p. 29)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics. 

In a 2008 survey of older adults, Hispanic workers were somewhat more likely than African-Americans or whites to report social and psychological reasons for working.  For example, 85% of Hispanics mentioned "enjoy the job/enjoy working" as a reason for working, compared to 71% of African Americans...

In a 2008 survey of older adults, Hispanic workers were somewhat more likely than African-Americans or whites to report social and psychological reasons for working.  For example, 85% of Hispanics mentioned "enjoy the job/enjoy working" as a reason for working, compared to 71% of African Americans and 69% of whites.  (Table 2, p. 26)

Groeneman, S. (2008). Staying ahead of the curve 2007: The AARP work and career study. Washington, D.C.: AARP. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/work_career_08.pdf 

Interviews were completed for a nationally representative sample of workers ages 45 to 74, including those who are currently employed and those who are unemployed but looking for work. 1500 telephone interviews were conducted from April 13 through May 21, 2007. Additional interviews were completed with African Americans and Hispanics.

According to a 2008 BLS report, "the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 years and over who worked at some time during 2007 was 67.7 percent, essentially unchanged from 2006. The percent of men who worked during 2007 was 74.1 percent, down slightly from 74.4 percent in 2006....

According to a 2008 BLS report, "the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 years and over who worked at some time during 2007 was 67.7 percent, essentially unchanged from 2006. The percent of men who worked during 2007 was 74.1 percent, down slightly from 74.4 percent in 2006. The proportion of women who worked at some point during 2007 held at 61.6 percent. The proportions of whites (68.3 percent), blacks (63.5 percent), and Asians (67.8 percent) who worked at some time during the year were essentially unchanged in 2007. The proportion of Hispanics who worked at some point during 2007 (68.5 percent) was down from 2006 (69.1 percent)."

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Working in 2007, the editor's desk. Retrieved December 24, 2008, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2008/dec/wk4/art03.htm

These data are from the 2007 Current Population Survey.

According to a 2008 BLS report, the proportion of workers who worked full time, year round in 2007 was 68.4 percent of those who worked at some point during the year. Among those with work experience in 2007, the proportion of men who worked full time, year round during 2007 was 74.6 percent, and the...

According to a 2008 BLS report, the proportion of workers who worked full time, year round in 2007 was 68.4 percent of those who worked at some point during the year. Among those with work experience in 2007, the proportion of men who worked full time, year round during 2007 was 74.6 percent, and the proportion of women who did so was 61.5 percent. The proportion of white workers who worked full time, year round was 68.1 percent; the proportion of black workers, 69.9 percent; and Asian workers, 74.3 percent. The proportion of Hispanics workers who worked full time, year round during 2007 was 69.4 percent.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Working full time, year round in 2007, the editor's desk. Retrieved December 24, 2008, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2008/dec/wk3/art05.htm

These data are from the 2007 Current Population Survey.

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Survey data, "nearly 8 in 10 households headed by individuals age 55 and older owned a home in 2006, but only about 40 percent owned their homes free of debt. Homeownership increases with income, but the top income quartile carries mortgage debt...

According to a 2008 analysis of Health and Retirement Survey data, "nearly 8 in 10 households headed by individuals age 55 and older owned a home in 2006, but only about 40 percent owned their homes free of debt. Homeownership increases with income, but the top income quartile carries mortgage debt more often than those with lower incomes. Debt-free homeownership increases with age. Whites more often own homes than either blacks or Hispanics, and their homes are more likely to be mortgage free." (fig. 1, p. 2)

Zedlewski, S., Cushing-Daniels, B., & Lewis, E. (2008). How much could reverse mortgages contribute to retirement incomes? (Brief Series No. 23). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411763_reverse_mortgages.pdf

The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) surveys more than 22,000 Americans over the age of 50 every two years.

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "women aged 55-64 became somewhat more diverse with respect to race and Hispanic origin over the past two decades. The percentage of non-Hispanic white women decreased from about 84 percent in 1984 to about 77 percent in 2004,...

According to a 2008 analysis of retirement resources of women aged 55-64, "women aged 55-64 became somewhat more diverse with respect to race and Hispanic origin over the past two decades. The percentage of non-Hispanic white women decreased from about 84 percent in 1984 to about 77 percent in 2004, and the percentage of Hispanics increased from 4 percent in 1984 to 8 percent in 2004 (Chart 3). The percentage of non-Hispanic black women remained relatively stable from 9 percent to 10 percent." (p. 3)

Iams, H. M., Phillips, J. R. W., Robinson, K., Deang, L., & Dushi, I. (2008). Cohort changes in the retirement resources of older women. Social Security Bulletin, 68(4), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v68n4/v68n4p1.pdf

The method of analysis is a cross-cohort comparison of well-being measures of three cohorts of women aged 55-64 in 1984, 1994, and 2004, just before they become eligible for Medicare and full Social Security benefits. Sources include the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), Social Security benefit data from published statistical tables, and data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

According to a 2008 AARP survey, "Hispanic respondents are more likely than non-Hispanic White respondents to think they are not saving enough for retirement (73% vs. 56%). Hispanic respondents are more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to cite the following reasons for not saving more for retirement:...

According to a 2008 AARP survey, "Hispanic respondents are more likely than non-Hispanic White respondents to think they are not saving enough for retirement (73% vs. 56%). Hispanic respondents are more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to cite the following reasons for not saving more for retirement: helping to support an elderly relation (31% vs. 12%); too confusing to get started (34% versus 9%); saving for a house (10% versus 5%). (p. ii)

Thayer, C. (2008). Retirement security or insecurity? the experience of workers aged 45 and older. Washington, DC: AARP Knowledge Management. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/retirement_survey_08.pdf

This study was conducted for AARP via telephone by International Communications Research. Interviews were conducted from September 3-21, 2008 among a nationally representative sample of 1628 people ages 45 and older, with an over-sampling of Hispanic respondents.

A 2007 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that "Hispanics were more likely than white, black, and other races to report that they were not covered by their employer's health plan because the employer did not offer a plan. Nearly 70 percent of Hispanics reported that their employer did not offer...

A 2007 analysis of Census Bureau data shows that "Hispanics were more likely than white, black, and other races to report that they were not covered by their employer's health plan because the employer did not offer a plan. Nearly 70 percent of Hispanics reported that their employer did not offer a plan, compared with 44.8 percent of whites and 46.3 percent of blacks. Both blacks and whites were more likely than Hispanics to report that they were not eligible for health benefits and more likely to report that they chose not to be covered." (p. 20) 

Fronstin, P. (2007). Employment-based health benefits: Access and coverage, 1988-2005 (Issue Brief No. 303). Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved February 28, 2008 from http://www.ebri.org/publications/ib/index.cfm?fa=ibDisp&content_id=3789

Data for this study come from a series of supplements to the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Census Bureau. The CPS is a nationally representative survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. It is the primary source of data on labor force characteristics of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population. The data in this report are limited to wage and salary workers ages 18-64. Self-employed workers are not included in the analysis.

A 2007 analysis of Census Bureau Data shows that "while the labor-force participation rates of black and Hispanic Americans age 55 and older lagged below those of white and other Americans, their rates still increased from 1987-2005." (fig. 8, p. 8)  

A 2007 analysis of Census Bureau Data shows that "while the labor-force participation rates of black and Hispanic Americans age 55 and older lagged below those of white and other Americans, their rates still increased from 1987-2005." (fig. 8, p. 8)

 

Copeland, C. (2007). Labor-force participation: The population age 55 and older. Washington, DC: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ebri.org/pdf/EBRI_Notes_06a-2007.pdf

This article examines recent U.S. Census Bureau data on labor-force participation among Americans age 55 and older. The first section uses annualized data on labor-force participation from the Current Population Survey (1975-2006) and data from the March 2007 Current Population Survey.

According to a 2007 analysis of CPS data, "in 2005, Hispanics represented 14.9 percent of the U.S. population, making them the largest minority group. Hispanics age 65 and older represented 6.6 percent of the total 65 and older population. This portion is projected to increase to 17 percent in 2050."...

According to a 2007 analysis of CPS data, "in 2005, Hispanics represented 14.9 percent of the U.S. population, making them the largest minority group. Hispanics age 65 and older represented 6.6 percent of the total 65 and older population. This portion is projected to increase to 17 percent in 2050." (p. 1)

Wu, K. B. (2007). Hispanics age 65 and older: Sources of retirement income in 2005. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs135_hisp_retire.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U. S. Bureau of the Census, March 2006 Current Population Survey.

According to a 2007 analysis of CPS data, "Social Security provides benefits to almost 75 percent of older Hispanics and represents the largest single component of retirement income for this population group. Almost 80 percent of Hispanics age 65 and older who receive Social Security depend on Social...

According to a 2007 analysis of CPS data, "Social Security provides benefits to almost 75 percent of older Hispanics and represents the largest single component of retirement income for this population group. Almost 80 percent of Hispanics age 65 and older who receive Social Security depend on Social Security for 50 percent or more of their income." (p. 1)

Wu, K. B. (2007). Hispanics age 65 and older: Sources of retirement income in 2005. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs135_hisp_retire.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U. S. Bureau of the Census, March 2006 Current Population Survey.

According to a 2007 analysis of CPS data, nearly 85 percent of Hispanic women depend on Social Security for at least half or more of their income; more than 50 percent depend on it for 100 percent of their income. (p. 1)

According to a 2007 analysis of CPS data, nearly 85 percent of Hispanic women depend on Social Security for at least half or more of their income; more than 50 percent depend on it for 100 percent of their income. (p. 1)

Wu, K. B. (2007). Hispanics age 65 and older: Sources of retirement income in 2005. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs135_hisp_retire.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U. S. Bureau of the Census, March 2006 Current Population Survey.

According to a 2007 analysis of CPS data, "the poverty rate for older Hispanics is twice that for all persons age 65 and older (20.4 percent and 10.1 percent, respectively). Without Social Security benefits, more than one half (52.5 percent) of older Hispanics would live below the poverty threshold."...

According to a 2007 analysis of CPS data, "the poverty rate for older Hispanics is twice that for all persons age 65 and older (20.4 percent and 10.1 percent, respectively). Without Social Security benefits, more than one half (52.5 percent) of older Hispanics would live below the poverty threshold." (p. 2)

Wu, K. B. (2007). Hispanics age 65 and older: Sources of retirement income in 2005. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs135_hisp_retire.pdf

This report is based on analysis of data from the U. S. Bureau of the Census, March 2006 Current Population Survey.

A 2007 analysis of data from the Work Schedules and Work at Home Survey shows that "the proportion of white and Asian workers in occupations in which they can vary their schedules continued to exceed that of other groups. In May 2004, about 30 percent of employed whites and Asians could vary their work...

A 2007 analysis of data from the Work Schedules and Work at Home Survey shows that "the proportion of white and Asian workers in occupations in which they can vary their schedules continued to exceed that of other groups. In May 2004, about 30 percent of employed whites and Asians could vary their work hours. The proportion was closer to 21 percent among black workers and those of Hispanic ethnicity." (p. 4)

McMenamin, T. M. (2007). A time to work: Recent trends in shift work and flexible schedules. Monthly Labor Review, 130(12), 3-15. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2007/12/art1full.pdf

This report is an examination of data from the Work Schedules and Work at Home survey, a special supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted in May 2004, which obtained information on individuals' work schedules or shifts and on whether they did any job-related work at home.

In 2000, 32% of non-Hispanic / non-Latino whites, 20% of blacks, 21% of Asian Americans and 14% of Hispanics / Latinos were age 50 and above. By 2010, 37% of non-Hispanic / non-Latino whites, 25% of blacks, 28% of Asian Americans and 18% of Hispanics / Latinos will be age 50 or above.

In 2000, 32% of non-Hispanic / non-Latino whites, 20% of blacks, 21% of Asian Americans and 14% of Hispanics / Latinos were age 50 and above. By 2010, 37% of non-Hispanic / non-Latino whites, 25% of blacks, 28% of Asian Americans and 18% of Hispanics / Latinos will be age 50 or above.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Tables 11-16, pp. 12-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

In 2000, 81% of the age 50 and above population were non-Hispanic / non-Latino whites. In 2003, non-Hispanic / non-Latino whites represented 79% of the age 50 and above population. By 2010, 76% of the age 50 and above population will be non-Hispanic / non-Latino White.

In 2000, 81% of the age 50 and above population were non-Hispanic / non-Latino whites. In 2003, non-Hispanic / non-Latino whites represented 79% of the age 50 and above population. By 2010, 76% of the age 50 and above population will be non-Hispanic / non-Latino White.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 14 and 16, pp. 15 and 18). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

According to a 2005 Census Buearu reprot, in 2003, 14%, 59% and 26% of Hispanic persons age 55 and above lived alone, with a spouse and with other persons, respectively. In 2003, 31%, 42% and 27% of Black persons age 55 and above lived alone, with a spouse and with other persons, respectively. In 2003,...

According to a 2005 Census Buearu reprot, in 2003, 14%, 59% and 26% of Hispanic persons age 55 and above lived alone, with a spouse and with other persons, respectively.

In 2003, 31%, 42% and 27% of Black persons age 55 and above lived alone, with a spouse and with other persons, respectively.

In 2003, 24% of White, 31% of Black and 14% of Hispanic persons age 55 and above lived alone.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Population. (Section 1, Table 54, p. 49). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys relating to population characteristics."

In 2002, 38.3% of Hispanic male workers aged 45 to 64 had pension plan coverage, compared with 52.9% of Black male workers and 55.6% of White male workers in the same age range. For workers aged 65 and over, 17.6% of Hispanic male workers, 24.2% of Black male workers, and 24.4% of White male workers...

In 2002, 38.3% of Hispanic male workers aged 45 to 64 had pension plan coverage, compared with 52.9% of Black male workers and 55.6% of White male workers in the same age range. For workers aged 65 and over, 17.6% of Hispanic male workers, 24.2% of Black male workers, and 24.4% of White male workers had pension plan coverage.

In 2002, 35.1% of Hispanic female workers aged 45 to 64 had pension plan coverage, compared with 51.9% of Black female workers and 52.0% of White female workers in the same age range. For workers aged 65 and over, 25.2% of Hispanic female workers, 27.9% of Black female workers, and 25.6% of White female workers had pension plan coverage.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Social insurance and human services. (2004-05 Section 11, Table 535, p. 353). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents data related to governmental expenditures for social insurance and human services; governmental programs for old-age, survivors, disability, and health insurance (OASDHI); governmental employee retirement; private pension plans; government unemployment and temporary disability insurance; federal supplemental security income payments and aid to the needy; child and other welfare services; and federal food programs." "The principal source for these data is the Social Security Administration's Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin which presents current data on many of the programs."

In 1999, 8.2%, 12.3%, 19.6% and 23.5% of White, Asian American, Hispanic / Latino and Black persons age 65 and above, respectively, lived below the poverty level.

In 1999, 8.2%, 12.3%, 19.6% and 23.5% of White, Asian American, Hispanic / Latino and Black persons age 65 and above, respectively, lived below the poverty level.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau, statistical abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Income, expenditures, and wealth. (Section 13, Table 682, p. 451). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical-abstract-2001_2005.html

"This section presents data on gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), national and personal income, saving and investment, money income, poverty, and national and personal wealth." "The primary source for data on GDP, GNP, national and personal income, gross saving and investment, and fixed reproducible tangible wealth is the Survey of Current Business, published monthly by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)."

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