ac Susceptometry of 2D van der Waals Magnets

Precision magnetometry is fundamental to the development of novel magnetic materials and devices. Recently, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has emerged as a promising probe for static magnetism in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals materials, capable of quantitative imaging with nanoscale spatial resolution. However, the dynamic character of magnetism, crucial for understanding the magnetic phase transition and achieving technological applications, has rarely been experimentally accessible in single 2D crystals. Here, we coherently control the NV center’s spin precession to achieve ultrasensitive, quantitative ac susceptometry of a 2D ferromagnet. Combining dc hysteresis with ac susceptibility measurements varying temperature, field, and frequency, we illuminate the formation, mobility, and consolidation of magnetic domain walls in few-layer CrBr3. We show that domain wall mobility is enhanced in ultrathin CrBr3, with minimal decrease for excitation frequencies exceeding hundreds of kilohertz, and is influenced by the domain morphology and local pinning of the flake. Our technique extends NV magnetometry to the multifunctional ac and dc magnetic characterization of wide-ranging spintronic materials at the nanoscale.

Physical Review X Quantum 2, 030352 (2021)